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Download as PDF or read online from Scribd. We’d Have More Quantum Computers if It Weren’t So Hard to Find the Damn Cables. Frequency Combs and the Precise Control of Ultrafast Pulses. Time. Paradox. The New Psychology of Time. That Can Change Your Life. Philip Zimbardo, Ph.D., and John Boyd, Ph.D. FREE PRESS. NEW YORK LONDON. Philip Zimbardo is a professor of Psychology at Stanford University and has Time Paradox,' Zimbardo identifies that our perception of time can greatly effect.
Also, over-planning for the future may also give us a false sense of gratification that we are "on track" and may unconsciously not act on the plan itself e. Bookshelves bend under self-help books about time management, therapists use mindfulness techniques to help their clients overcome depression, and the cosmetic industry promises time-reversing treatments. See www. Self Help. It is important to learn from our past yet be truthful that our past hurts. Although I am primarily known as a "situationist," the time perspective research utilizes one of the best individual difference measures available, The Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory ZTPI.
Now our shyness clinic is housed in the clinic setting of the Pacific Graduate School of Psychology in Palo Alto, where it is both a treatment and research center. See www. I have been intrigued by the question of how people who are functioning normally and effectively first begin to develop the symptoms of psychopathology, that may eventually lead to psychiatric diagnosis, but in a general sense are termed as "madness. Those mental and situational searches are constrained by the operation of various biases that focus the search narrowly in specific domains and thus predispose to finding or confining what one is looking for, rather than to be the objective, global, unbiased search of the scientific mind.
This research is currently on hold. My interest in understanding the dynamics of human aggression and violence stems from early personal experiences growing up amid the violence of the South Bronx ghetto where I was born and raised. I have specifically focused however, on how "good" people are seduced or induced to engage in violent, or "evil" deeds by situational forces in which they find themselves surrounded, and psychological justifications and interpretations.
I first developed a model of deindividuation that specified a set of input and output variables that predicted the triggering and consequences of this temporary state of suspended personal identity. Experimental and field research on vandalism and graffiti have generally supported this model.
This research has broadened to include the psychology of terrorism. My graduate school training in the Yale Attitude Change Program, headed by my mentor, Carl Hovland, peaked a long sustained interest in the processes of attitude and behavior change produced by persuasion.
In addition to a series of early experiments on variables involved in the persuasion-attitude change relationship, I broadened this interest into the global category of Mind Control. I conceive of mind control as a phenomena encompassing all the ways in which personal, social and institutional forces are exerted to induce compliance, conformity, belief, attitude, and value change in others.
From the time my Yale mentors, Bob Cohen and Jack Brehm, introduced me to Leon Festinger's manuscript on the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance in , I was excited by the scope of its domain starting with such a simple set of initial assumptions and principles, and leading to many non-obvious predictions. My dissertation pitted predictions from dissonance theory against the more rational expectations from Hovland and Sherif's judgment model of latitudes of acceptance and rejection-and dissonance won.
Of all the research I have done, I am most proud of the set of studies conducted with my NYU graduate and undergraduate students that conceptualized dissonance phenomena as the cognitive control of motivation, and demonstrated the power of this approach in a series of experimentally rigorous studies that used classic research paradigms on classical and instrumental conditioning learned from another of my Yale mentors, Neal Miller.
This research is also on hold currently. My primary interest in hypnosis has not been in this curious phenomena itself, but in using it as an experimental technique in my research arsenal to induce or modify emotions, moods, motivational states, and beliefs, that are assumed central mediators to demonstrating specific predicted relationships in a variety of other research domains, such as dissonance, time perspective, and unexplained arousal discontinuity research.
I have been co-director, with Ernest Hilgard of his Stanford Hypnosis Research Laboratory and published with him a study on the remarkable stability over years of hypnotizability scores. No current research being conducted in this area. In addition to these major categories of my research interests, I have recently gotten involved in the domain of political psychology, specifically the role of personality factors that personalize politics.
Political Psychology, and recently in American Psychologist.
My love for classroom teaching spills over to wanting to understand ways to improve teaching effectiveness, for which I have turned to some field research that combined experimental designs with novel classroom practices.
As a semi-retired professor, I taught Stanford undergrads half time for half salary , but was inspired to teach more intensively than ever before in creating a fabulous new course, "Exploring Human Nature," a large undergraduate lecture course with sections, experiential exercises and extraordinary guests and topics.
I now teach a similar course to clinical graduate students at PGSP. I am involved in founding the Heroic Imagination Project, designed to do original research, curriculum development and media involvement in creative ways that together explore the nature of heroism in its many manifestations.
The first ideas of such a project can be found in Chapter 16 of The Lucifer Effect and on our web site: Note from the Network: The holder of this profile has certified having all necessary rights, licenses, and authorization to post the files listed below. Visitors are welcome to copy or use any files for noncommercial or journalistic purposes provided they credit the profile holder and cite this page as the source.
Philip G. Last edited by user: September 8, Visits since June 9, Telling Norwegian psychologists about my journey from understanding and creating evil to inspiring heroism.
Photo credit: February 9, , Long Beach, California Source: Toasting Sicilian high school students who will be attending college with a grant from my educational foundation. Clark Kent after learning how to use his heroic imagination Source: Primary Interests: Heroic Imagination Project Interactive Map. Image Gallery Outside Jordan Hall In My Office at Stanford 3.
Lecture on the Lucifer Effect This is one of those books I wish government leaders would read as a way to come up with solutions.
Jun 13, May Ling rated it liked it Shelves: Admittedly part of the reason the rating is so low is that I expected something academically more. This book is more of a self help than a treatise on time constraints and more a discussion of how different types of people think about time. It's not quite self-help and not quite enough to make you feel like you got something truly cerebral and life changing.
That said, it is an interesting framework to help a person realize there are multiple ways of looking at the same sort of thing called life Admittedly part of the reason the rating is so low is that I expected something academically more. That said, it is an interesting framework to help a person realize there are multiple ways of looking at the same sort of thing called life.
The book identifies six major ways of thinking about time, that coexist within society. While I can appreciate what the book is hoping to convey, I know of few people that do not experience only one way of thinking about time throughout their life. It seems more the case that people vary from The Future Time perspective to any one of the others depending on what is going on their lives and the energy they carry around them.
I also am not quite comfortable with the religious divisions the author comes out with. While spiritual beliefs might lead toward a tendency toward more than one perspective on a survey, the characteristics that follow as a result seem to be a bit of a fetch. Indeed, if anything,were he to be truly scientific in methodology, he would need to adjust for religious predisposition before then evaluating these attributes.
Consider, futuristic people are those that go to college, meet goals requiring large amounts of time, and are more successful. He marks Buddhists far lower in this trait. That's just silly. Religion has huge racial bias! Trading money for time, seems the focus on this book and the author spends a lot of time on this topic. However, there are so many more important relationships that people have with time that go completely unaddressed by this book Quality of time, making your actions independent of perception of time, etc.
I would have liked to see more or more novelty. For an author able to write a bestseller, the expectations are higher. Hence 3. Sep 18, Amanda rated it really liked it.
I often think about time, how it's a currency more valuable than money an idea the authors confirmed for me! But I'm off topic. This book--especially the first half--is fascinating.
I never considered how each person has a dominant time frame and how this perspective influences every decision in life. I th I often think about time, how it's a currency more valuable than money an idea the authors confirmed for me! I thought I'd definitely have a future perspective, but it turns out that I'm past positive with future right behind. I got worried until I found out past positive with future perspective in second place is the ideal mix for success and happiness in 21st century America!
But enough self-congratulation I lived in New York City when I picked this up and was about to head back to Pennsylvania in part because I wanted a saner pace of life. I always believed that life in NYC was so turbo paced that it chipped away at people's humanity, mine included. And I was right! Boston, New York, and other northeastern cities lead the list as the fastest cities in America Consistent with the findings of the Good Samaritan research, Levine found that in general, cities with the fastest pace of life were the least helpful.
New York, New York, ranked third in terms of pace of life, was rated the least helpful city in America. Reading this put into words what I had long suspected and made me see my decision to move as an attempt to have a more healthy relationship with time. There are lots of other interesting points made in the book, but they are almost exclusively in the first half. The authors take strange detours in the second half, expounding on how to save for retirement and how to age gracefully.
The first half is much more philosophical and idea-oriented and less preachy. Pay closer attention to the first half. Jan 29, Dana rated it liked it. Yet I found it worthwhile enough to keep going and I am glad I did - some of the thoughts really did "change my life" as the authors claimed. I also realize that my personality and time perspective are changing as I get older - and that is a good thing.
Here are some key points I took away: What they are, you will be. Don't fret so much - it really doesn't matter in the end Jul 29, Jennifer rated it it was amazing Shelves: Really solid theory and research on our perspectives of time and what that entails or at least implies , from its links to personality traits to explanations for suicide terrorism. This is NOT a s Really solid theory and research on our perspectives of time and what that entails or at least implies , from its links to personality traits to explanations for suicide terrorism.
This is NOT a self-help book, although it does have helpful things and may be just what some people need myself included, hopefully.
This is NOT a 'scholarly work' ie academia-only , although the arguments and research ARE impressively solid and rigorous. It is a framework through which new and classic studies have been reinterpreted in terms of the psychology of time-- a very condensed summary of decades of research. It's pretty much a very decent starter to the entire field. Oct 27, Michelle rated it it was ok Shelves: This review has been moved to: Oct 12, Belal Al Droubi rated it really liked it Shelves: This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers.
To view it, click here. Not what I was expecting but some interesting insights about how our perception of time can affect our attitudes and how we can also change.
Jan 02, Erika RS rated it it was ok. This book was full of good content that was lost in the presentation. Even when I first got the book as a promotional item , I was suspicious of it. The title and the reviews on the back work together to make it sound more self help oriented than science oriented. The content supported this instinct. The opening chapters on the different time perspectives are well written, but the rest of the book contains a bunch of loosely related ways to use time perspectives to improve your life.
They would This book was full of good content that was lost in the presentation. They would have made for great blog posts, but they only made for an okay book.
That said, unlike a lot of self-help books, this book at least has the advantage of being based on real and interesting science. Zimbardo and Boyd both have backgrounds as researchers who have studied time perspectives. Citations abound, and the authors do a good job of making the research accessible. This could have been a great book, and I was quite disappointed that it turned out to be only an okay book.
Zimbardo and Boyd have found time perspectives can explain a lot about behavior. In some ways, this is just yet another way of slicing and dicing people to understand how they behave that's a good thing; every new perspective gives insight. However, time perspectives have an advantage over many of the currently popular ways of slicing and dicing: Thus, the authors spend a fair amount of time discussing the different time perspectives and outlining the "ideal" time perspective.
Zimbardo and Boyd have found six major time perspectives. The time perspective of an individual is a mixture of these six types. The time perspectives they present are: Past positive: Family and group oriented. Fond of tradition. Past negative: May have feelings of guilt, resentment toward the past.
Feels trapped by their past. Present hedonistic: Committed to enjoying themselves. May be perceived as irresponsible. Present fatalistic: Subject to depression that is made worse by the feeling that it is inevitable. Future oriented: Sacrifices in the present for the future. Subject to stress. Future transcendental: Zimbardo and Boyd believe that the ideal time perspective is high on past positive, fairly high and balanced on present hedonistic and future, moderately high on transcendental future, and low on the negative perspectives.
They authors spend a fair amount of time going into why this is a good time perspective, but their suggestions are, largely, consistent with common sense.
Overall, I found this book a useful read, although I could have got by with skipping the second half of the book. View 1 comment. Oct 06, N. Certainly I've expected more from Zimbardo. The first section of the book was not bad at all, actually it was quiet informative and insightful.
I liked Zimbardo's classification of the different time perspectives, and sure you may discover a lot about your own time perspective, that may even surprise you. Its the second half, that the book became more of a mission of maximizing the number of pages, in which most chapters came more like self help books rather than psychology, or at least not the s Certainly I've expected more from Zimbardo.
Its the second half, that the book became more of a mission of maximizing the number of pages, in which most chapters came more like self help books rather than psychology, or at least not the stanard of psychological info you would expect from a renowned psychology professor. I also disagree with Zimbardo in several points, he was eager to jump to conclusion in a way that prevented a thorough analysis of some important points. A fact that Zimbardo considered implies eastern's forgiveness with terrorism.
In my opinion, as an Egyptian, most Egyptians just didn't buy the US excuse for that "war on terrorism", knowing that it was just a false cover. That being the case or not, it is certainly quiet different from being forgiving with terror. Another simplification I found in Zimbardo associating fatalism with passiveness.
That may be the case sometimes, but accepting fate is completely different from being passive about it in most cases. According to Z tests , I'm a complete fatalist, however, in real life I'm completely positive about grabbing my opportunities and working hard for achievements.
Oct 21, Emily rated it liked it. I read this so long ago. I remember thinking of all sorts of things I'd want to say about it when I finished it.
Now I've forgotten most of them. I wouldn't say that understanding The Time Paradox will change your life. I will say that while I was reading it, I couldn't stop thinking about it. The primary thesis is that how we think about time has an enormous influence on our lives. Being present, past or future oriented correlates with one's outlook on the world. While I was struggling with a g I read this so long ago. While I was struggling with a group of students who couldn't really commit to the project they were working on, I thought a lot about the idea that they were a highly PRESENT oriented group of kids and that the notion of working toward anything in the future was a foreign concept for them.
Mostly, I learned a lot of really fascinating tidbits about time Things like the fact that TIME is the 1 most popular noun in the English language and I got a sense of my own Time orientation. You can take the test and find out where you fall on the spectrum here. Mine was no surprise to me equally distributed between present and future orientation but it was fun to think about. Dec 02, Dorothy rated it liked it. This book was pretty good, though it didn't have the tone I was expecting, like HOW to adjust your "time zone" if you feel you are a bit off.
Personally, I think I veer too much into "future time", and would like some ideas for finding balance, and also interacting with the other types. But this was less a personality book and more some historical and factual information loosely based on these time theories. Some of the sections, like the suicide bomber part, were jarring and didn't seem to fit This book was pretty good, though it didn't have the tone I was expecting, like HOW to adjust your "time zone" if you feel you are a bit off.
Some of the sections, like the suicide bomber part, were jarring and didn't seem to fit at all. Other parts, interesting ones that delved into the personality types, were too too short shallow summaries! Also, it turned out that I'm in the "ideal" time zone just like the authors so then I got the sense that I should already feel all figured out and perfectly balanced. But I don't always feel this way! Nice idea, decent read, could have been better organized and better thought out overall.
The second time I read a book by Zimbardo and certainly not the last! His way of explaining psychology to people with little or no professional knowledge is amazing. It is easy to follow, interesting and scientifically founded at the same time. Though not quite as intense and shocking as the "Lucifer Effect", I found "The Time Paradox" more useful on a personal level.
While learning that different attitudes towards the past, the present and the future influence our behaviour, our reactions an The second time I read a book by Zimbardo and certainly not the last! I believe I learned more than one good lesson for my personal development and what I find extremely fascinating is that I am able to turn the theory into practice and it seems to be working: The Time Paradox determines first of all, what your most prominent attitude to time is and explains how this affects behaviour.
The remaining sections of the book detail with coherent examples how this information affects your attitudes on past, present, future, money etc Although not overwhelmingly so, this book was informative and helpful, and is recommended for people perhaps wanting to change behaviour in small ways to form a different attitude to time as opposed to learning how to use time better , or people with an interest in human behaviour.
An interesting and insightful read. Recommend to everyone. Jul 22, Paul rated it really liked it.
The Time Paradox is very different from many books in cognitive science and behavioral psychology genre in that it deeply examines personal time perspective as an underlying force that influences behavior and attitudes in people. Rather than focus on well-worn topics like organization, work ethic, and personality type in explaining differences in human ability and outcomes, Zimbardo identifies an underlying mental model that is the root of one's life choices: The author identif The Time Paradox is very different from many books in cognitive science and behavioral psychology genre in that it deeply examines personal time perspective as an underlying force that influences behavior and attitudes in people.
The author identifies and differentiates five key time attitudes that exist to greater and lesser extents in all of us: As one would expect, future oriented persons tend be the highest achievers and most successful by traditional metrics of accomplishment, while most of us can readily point out more than a few present-hedonists in our encounters who sacrifice the future to enjoy the here and now.
Past-positives tend to remember encouraging aspects of their pasts and view their personal history favorably, while thoughts of the past for past-negatives bring to mind regret and pain as they continue to ruminate past mistakes and misfortunes.
Perhaps most uncommon of all types are transcendental-futures whose strong religious beliefs give them faith in better days to come and an ultimate after life that discounts the difficulties of the present; they are often complacent with the present, viewing it as a stepping stone to a preordained future.
In the book, we are asked to complete a survey of about 50 questions, which is designed to rank our fit with each of the five time perspectives on a one to five scale. The Zimbardo time scale test is used to establish our baseline time perspective orientation and point out where we naturally lean so we can use advice later in the book specific to each of the time perspectives.
The author spends much of the book discussing the importance of these time perspectives in influencing decisions and pointing out that many behaviors can be directly tied to one's time attitude. Drug users and criminals often commit their faults not because of a genetic predisposition to illicit behaviors, but due to a present-hedonistic time perspective in which the future is heavily discounted.
As such, a penal system that dis-incentivizes illegal activities with time in jail does little good; future punishment is ineffective motivation for a criminal who does not consider future consequences when making decisions. He also discusses the inefficacy of drug education programs like DARE, hypothesizing that these courses fail to address an underlying present time perspective, which is the key to risky behavior. One of the more interesting portions of Time Paradox is the discussion of suicide bombers.
The author postulates that a transcendental-future attitude whereby an Islamic follower whole-heartedly ascribes his mission to the will of Allah thus conferring benefits in the after life is the most likely reason people commit these acts.
Suicide bombers tend to be educated with well-paying jobs and no history of violence. Another fascinating part of the book is the exploration of past time perspectives and what it means for the present and future. It turns out that having a positive attitude towards the past and looking at previous misfortunes favorably is a key indicator of happiness and future success.
Past-negatives tend to be more anxious, aggressive, and prone to mental illnesses like depression as they obsess over previous misgivings. Taking steps to adopt a past-positive attitude will make those of us who tend to rue our mistakes and think about our regrets much better off by providing a strong foundation and connection to our past that will make us better able to work towards the future.
The author concludes that the best mix of time perspectives is a blend of future, present-hedonistic, and past-positive. Those of us who are happiest and most successful view the past positively, enjoy the present with gusto, and plan adequately for the future in order to achieve our goals.
As the author states, "When it is time to work, work hard. When it is time to play, play hard". Enjoy the present, plan for the future, and take the positive out of past to give us stability for the future.
In this book, Zimbardo and Boyd expose a model for describing our relation to time and how that affects the decisions we make and what we value in our lives.
The model doesn't try to be The One Truth, it is just a way to look at things and explain behaviors. It shows: Our attitudes towards Time are generally not chosen and we're mostly unaware of them. Because it is always passing, invisible, abundant for most of our lives , we tragically ignore it until too much of it has gone by, or our "reserve" is for some reason severely cut short.
It's at this moment that we think back on how we've used our Time and the conclusions can be tragic. I'll avoid writing a CliffsNotes of the book: But most importantly, for me at least, the authors aim to spur you into deliberate action, out of the auto-pilot we're in most of our lives, into reflection of what our purpose is and whether we're spending our time according to our values and in ways that we'll look back to with pride.
It's a literary memento mori that will have you reviewing your decisions throughout. Zimbardo and Boyd have found purpose in helping us use our time in better ways, not by telling us how, but by making us aware of it.
And awareness is, as always, half of the solution. Aug 29, Jconjustin rated it liked it. Three stars doesn't reflect my overall enjoyment of the book. Rather my expectation that it was going to ignite a paradigm shift in how I thought about time. And then it didn't. The book is interesting and it's based on research almost to a fault , so there's not too much fluff or conjecture.
What I was hoping for: Paired with research and insights into how to use that information to change mindsets Three stars doesn't reflect my overall enjoyment of the book.
Paired with research and insights into how to use that information to change mindsets as-needed to develop a healthier relationship with time. What the book is: My biggest takeaway and probably the only lasting thing I'll take from the book: There is a place for every time perspective.
As one of those "I should meditate" people, I realized I hold this implicit assumption that living in the present is the best and living in the past or the future is always bad. Obviously when you consider it that's not true. Living in the past at times is essential to learn from it.
Living in the future is the only way to set and achieve long-term goals and see the long view. I think the reason Buddhist teachings focus on the present is because our brains tend toward either ruminating about the past or planning for the future, so it's important to train ourselves to be able to "just be" in the present moment.
The different time perspectives they identified through their research are interesting but, for me, not that useful from a personal development standpoint.
I take that back. Realizing that I'm a past-negative person made me realize I need to have a healthier relationship with my past. Since I can't do anything to change it, might as well come around to it. Aug 08, YHC rated it really liked it. I got this book in English version, but before reading it i checked out youtube video to listen to Mr Zimbardo's lecture and got the basic idea more easily about the whole book. So there is a text about 6 different kinds of how we view time: Past-negative, Past-positive, Present-fatalistic, Present-hedonistic, Future, and Transcendental future.
Interesting to view a couple in different categories might have communication problems if one liv I got this book in English version, but before reading it i checked out youtube video to listen to Mr Zimbardo's lecture and got the basic idea more easily about the whole book.
Interesting to view a couple in different categories might have communication problems if one lives in the past shadow, the other future. The analysis on each category fit to certain kind of personalities seems to pretty much accurate.
This book will actually make you understand yourself better after you figure out which one you belong. And try to find the balance in your life.
I can not wait to read his another book: The Lucifer effect. Noted that in this book it seems the one who is "Past-negative" got highly chances to turn into evil. Some quotes: Be active, not a passive worrywart.
Find magic in the moment, joy in making someone smile. Most of all, marvel at the wonder that eons of evolutionary time and all your unique experiences have joined to comprise the symphony that is YOU.
Aug 24, Douheng Pang rated it liked it Shelves: A book that contains nuggets of wisdom type 3. Obviously, there are few people who are truly at the extreme types purely past-negative or past-positive The author is biased towards the future perspective.