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Electric Power Generation Transmission and DistriElectric Transmission and Distributionbution - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File S.N. Singh . Comparison of Various Transmission and Distribution Systems Buy Electric Power Generation: Transmission And Distribution by SINGH, S. N. PDF Online. ISBN from PHI Learning. Download Free Sample. Electric power generation transmission and distribution. Author(S) S. N. Singh ( Author). Publication. Data. New Delhi: Prentice-Hall of India. Publication. Date.
Th y ffi r 1 co t a y tart-up pro n reliability hi 1 ad foil in haract ri tic and h at r co ry potential. Coal is fired to generate heat that is used to produce steam. Limited fossil fuels resources and their impact on environment, several countries have started to explore the alternative types of energy sources. The potential for cogeneration thus lies in faci lities with joint requirement of heat and electricity, primarily sugar and rice mills, distilleries, petro-chemical sector and industries such as fertilizers, steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, and aluminium. It is normally 33 kV, 25 kV, 11 kV and 6. Its advantage is that it can be used to generate electricity with the same equipment or power plants that are now burning fossil fuels. Jalli Saroja.
Th book i an outcome of the author s e perience of t aching power sy t m cour es at th ndian Institut of echnology Roor e, and at e Asian Institut of chnology, Thailand. Chapt r 2 provides a brief revie of various sourc of I tric energy. The basic principl and load characteristics are e plained in hapt r and 4 resp cti ly. Chapt rs 9- 14 d al ith calculations of transmission line con tant perfonnanc of tran mis ion lines in terms of efficiency and r gulation, corona and radio interfer nee with communication lines, design of insulators for overhead transmission line mec anical d si.
Power electronics based FACTS technology can increase the power transfer capability of transmission systems and regulate power flow over designated routes. The distribution systems are discussed in Chapter 16, whereas Chapter 17 is devoted to substation configurations and their equipment.
Neutral grounding is explained in the final chapter. Numerous solved examples are included within the text to illustrate the concepts discussed. Problems given at the end of chapters are aimed at furthering the students' understanding of the topics presented. I gratefully acknowledge the support provided by several of my colleagues and friends who have contributed to the development of the text. Special mention must be made here of Prof. Singh and Dr.
Vinay Pant, liT Roorkee; Mr. Jovitha J. I am indebted to my many students who helped me immensely in typing the manuscript and making the diagrams.
I also thank all my students whose enthusiastic participation in classroom discussions helped me to present many ideas and concepts, with greater clarity. My thanks are also due to Prentice-Hall of India, especially its editorial and production teams for their utmost cooperation in bringing out the book on time.
Finally, no words are adequate to express my gratitude to my wife Madhuri and sons Prashant and Praveen for their loving support, patience, and understanding throughout the period of writing this book.
B ginnin with a historical sketch of their evolution, the basic structure of modem power sy terns is elaborated. A chapter-wise outline of the text has also been presented. The credit for inventing electric power system goes to Thomas Edison. Edison had establish d an electric power station at the historic earl Station New or in which began operation in September There wer imilar developments in the other cities of the world within the next few years.
D motors load were added to such systems after its inv ntion by Frank Sprague, in The invention of transfonners and ac system by L. Gaulard and J.
The development o poly-phase system three-phas by N. By , Tesia held several patents on ac motors, generators, transformers and transmission systems. Westinghouse bought the patents of these early inventions. In , the first ac transmission line at V, single-phase, 21 km was put into operation in Oregon, North America between Willamette Falls and Portland.
In the s, there was great controversy over whether the power utilities should be standardized on ac or de. Westinghouse advocated ac and Edison favoured de. Finally, ac system won out over de system due to its various advantages such as voltage transforma- tion, possibility of long-distance transmission with high voltage, and simpler and economical utilization. In , first three-phase line in southern California, North America came into operation at 2.
There was phenomenal growth of electric companies by Operating voltages and frequencies were not same at the beginning. The used frequencies were 25, 50, 60, 66, and Hz, which created the difficulties in the interconnection, and therefore, the standardization of frequencies was felt necessary.
North America adopted 60 Hz, however, many other countries use 50 Hz. Up to , the ac system voltage used were 12 kV, 44 kV and 60 kV rms line-line , which rose to kV in , kV in , kV in , kV in , kV in , kV in , kV in and kV in It was also felt necessary to standardize the voltage system.
Every country has different standard ratings. Although kV lines has been constructed in India but it is presently operating at kV. Early developments witnessed the different generating voltages and unit sizes.
Generating unit sizes up to MW are in service, which was made operational in at Cumberland station of the Tennessee Valley Authority. The maximum generating voltage in advance countries are 33 kV. In India, it is 21 kV and the highest unit size is MW. The growth of unit sizes was possible only after the interconnection and better cooling systems of generators.
The ac transmission systems was again challenged by high-voltage de HVDC transmission system in when Swedish Power Board energized 60 mile, 1 kV de submarine cable between Baltic island of Gotland and Swedish mainland. With the advent of mercury valves in early s, HVDC transmission system became economical for long- distance transmission. The development of new solid-state technology, HVDC has become even more attractive.
Today, numerous installations with voltages up to k V de have become operational in the world.
The de transmission may be advantageous to ac transmission for more than km for overhead line and 50 km for underground cables.
In , a high voltage synchronous machine, called powerfonner that is suitable for direct connection to the high-voltage network without any step-up transformer, is launched.
The rating of first powerformer was 45 kV, 42 MVA. One turbo machine rated at kV, Iran mi ion ubtran mi ion yst m prima di tri ution y t m and nda di tri uti n y t m. I 2 Annual Report, Ministry of Power, It is very difficult to distinguish subtransmission system from the main transmission system.
In India, we supply power to large consumers at kV and 66 kV Moreover, kV systems come under transmission system. In early days when the transmission voltage was not high, lower voltages were used for transmission.
Due to system expansion and increase in voltage level of transmission system, the lower voltage transmission systems are termed as subtransmission systems. Energy is often converted into electrical form which is used in the form of beat, light and mechanical energy.
Utilization of power is restricted to low voltage only. Distribution systems are further divided into 'two parts, viz. Subtransmission systems form the link between the main receiving station and the secondary substation. It is normally 33 kV, 25 kV, 11 kV and 6. Distribution systems have the largest share in power system network. Figure 1. Every power system network need not necessarily have all the components.
In some cases, there is only one level of' transmission, where a secondary transmission does not exist.
The conceptual working principles of conventional sources of electric power generation are also discussed. The other sources of electric power generation, such as cogeneration, combined heat and power have also been introduced. Demand of di stributed generation is increasing nowadays and a concept of distributed generation along with its advantages are explained in this chapter.
Most of the analysis of power system is done on the per unit basis and a detail description along with numerical examples and problems are presented in this chapter. Chapter 4 elaborates the different factors, load curves those are normally used in power system planning and operation. Power factor is one of the important issues in ac power supply and hence concept of power factor along with the economics of power factor correction has been explained.
Importance of interconnection and tariff structure are also described in this chapter. Chapters 5- 8 are devoted to detail descriptions of steam power plants, hydroelectric plants, nuclear power plants and gas power plants, respectively. Starting with the operating cycle of steam power plant, main parts and their working functions are explained in. Chapter 5. Chapter 6 discusses the site selection, hydrology, classification and components of hydroelectric plants, classification of turbines, etc.
Concept and description of pumped storage plants are also given in this chapter. Nuclear power plant with pros and cons of generation is described in Chapter 7. Effects of radiation and safety of nuclear reactor are also explained in this chapter along with the nuclear power program in India. Description of open cycle, closed cycle and combined cycle power plants are given in Chapter 8. Microturbines along with integrated gasification combine cycle plants are explained in this chapter.
Skin and proximity effects along with various theorems those are useful in the calculation of inductances and capacitances are also presented in this chapter. Chapter 1 0 is devoted to the performance analysi s of overhead lines. Starting with the calculation of line constants, different equivalent models are used for calculation of regulation and efficiency.
Different compensation schemes of the line are also explained, in this chapter, to improve the performance of the line.
Chapter 11 discusses the insulators for the overhead lines along with the string efficiency and methods to improve it. Mechanical design of transmission lines including the sag and tension calculations, effect of wind and ice loadings, stringing chart, sag template, and conductor vibrations and dampers are explained in Chapter In Chapter 13, corona and radio interference are discussed with examples.
Chapter 14 describes the insulated cables including the grading and calculation of capacitances. Dielectric loss and faults in cables are also discussed in this chapter. Diffi rent typ of distributo and ubmain ar al o plain d in thi ch pter. Different type of grounding systems ar describ d in apter Sources En 2. Limited fossil fuels resources and their impact on environment, several countries have started to explore the alternative types of energy sources.
Sources of electric energy are generally classified into two categories: Conventional energy sources include coal, diesel, water, gas and nuclear.
On the other hand, non-conventional energy sources are wind, solar, fuel cells, tidal, biogas, etc. These are also called renewable energy sources. The exploitation of wind power, at present, is increasing due to high price of oil and fast depleting of oil, gas and coal deposits.
The another concern is environmental problem that arises with the conventional source of energy. Wind energy is plentiful, inexhaustible and pollution free but great drawback on the utilization arises from both the intermittence and unreliability.
Denmark was the first country to use wind for the generation of electricity. It is mor suitabl n ar co tal and remote ar as. The great advantag of indmill i t at they may be in tal d in any locality wher th topographical and m teorological conditions are suitable and r quire no outsid.
Windmills or ind energy convert r con rt ind pow r to lectrical po r. Rotor con truction i eith r ariable blad angl. Figure 2.
Efficiencies of different types of wind turbin are shown in igure 2. Footprint size is in the order of 0. Following are disadvantages of windmills: Blow down of towers due to hurricane or typhoon 2. High acoustic noise level 3. Electromagnetic interference with metal blades 4. May 26, Habib added it. View 1 comment.
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Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution.
PHI Learning , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition: Synopsis This accessible text, now in its Second Edition, continues to provide a comprehensive coverage of electric power generation, transmission and distribution, including the operation and management of different systems in these areas.
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