Learn Shorthand. Home; Learn Shorthand. Book Category, SH LEARNING, SH LOWER UPTO 80WPM, popular_books, SH INTER UPTO WPM, SH SENIOR . Pitman's Shorthand. (WITHOUT EXERCISES). When the student has worked carefully through the SHORTER. MODERN COURSE, he will find it extremely. WHAT IS PITMAN SHORTHAND? Pitman Shorthand is a modified version of Pitman's Shorthand as it has been known and practised over the past.
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possi ble,bec ause a kn owl edge of them is n ecessaryin fastwritin g. Throughou t the exerc i ses in thi s book the grammalogs an d c on traction s are prin te d in. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have Pitman's Shorthand Writing Exercises and Examination Tests. Pages·· Learn Pitman English Shorthand (Free download pdf file) - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Learn Pitman English.
The examples below are listed based on the stroke that is being disjoined, rather than the exact ending itself: As shorthand speed is helped by having reasonably compact notes rather than sprawling ones, it is important that only the clearest proximity phrases are used. This is not done to reflect the longhand spelling or to suggest that the consonant is sounded twice, but merely to produce a distinctive pair:. Note distinguishing outlines: The vowel added by the doubling syllable is never shown in the outline, and indeed cannot be shown as there is nowhere to write it. Using doubling for both inter and intro relies on the fact that, apart from the two pairs above, they are mutually exclusive, thus avoiding clashes. The two outlines "cowhide" and "go-ahead" seem to be the only examples of Hay being halved for D.
The aim is to encourage daily use of shorthand, as well as daily reading. Little and often works wonders in learning and consolidating the outlines. The difficulties of January will be reduced in February, and by December entirely forgotten. If you are pinning up the calendar, keep the two vocab sheets underneath, so you can turn to them instantly for your outline.
It is no hardship to make a daily note of the weather in a few words, and the diary vocab will help with taking phone messages, which enables you to continue listening and speaking without losing any time or attention. The quotes are also repeated in the Reading site: Print Your Own Shorthand Notepad. Personalised notepad and strokes reminder list with ring binder divider tabs. The pages in the PDF are designed specifically for writing the ideal size of Pitman's Shorthand and enable you to produce your own shorthand pads at low cost, thus encouraging plenty of drill practice which is your key to progress.
If you fill in the uncut pages with drill material, you can keep them as masters and produce endless ready-made drill books but you must take the time to check that the shorthand is accurate. Repeating the same exercises is beneficial, as you become accustomed to writing known outlines at speed.
You can choose paper quality that is best for your pen or pencil. A paper that feels smooth may be too absorbent, so test with your ink pen first. The pads need to be bound with long loose treasury tags or smooth cord, so that the pages can turn easily.
They are therefore not suitable for important dictations, as the pages under your hand do not sit as firmly or turn as smoothly as they would in a normal spiral bound pad. There are 14 line colours, with margins, a numbered line page, strokes reminder list, cover pages, and A5 ring binder tabs so that you can create your own shorthand resource folder. Shorthander's survival kit You might try this for keeping a pencil in a ring binder: This is my A5 binder with notes for this website.
Margins are given on both sides to accommodate the space available on A4 paper. As they are principally practice pads, having two margins is ideal for making extra notes or drills of individual outlines. In any case, if you trim off the right margin on one side, the other side of the sheet will lose its left margin, so time is better spent wielding the pen rather than the scissors.
A good use for two margins when taking "real life" notes is to have the subject headings or sub-divisions in the right margin, as a quick-find index, and use the left side for other insertions and corrections. You could print this extra small for your wallet or purse, or laminate it so you can attach it to any surface, or edit the columns to produce a slim laminated bookmark. Use this to counteract any shrinking of the page text that your printer may do, or to get your preferred spacing by stretching the image or to produce a notepad with additions, e.
The derivatives will generally keep the stroke Ess, but Circle Ses is sometimes used where it is more convenient e. Exceptions have been made for the following very common words for the sake of convenience. The outlines are distinctive with Circle Ses, and therefore they do not need to use the stroke S: Words like those above form their plural by a change of vowel.
It would be good practice to omit the singular vowel, and always insert the plural one:. Some of these types of words have identical plurals and verb endings in longhand, although pronounced differently, so vocalising the Circle Ses may be helpful:.
If the accent falls in different places, you can indicate this by adding a small cross next to the vowel. This method is useful for many pairs of words where the nouns and verbs have different syllables accented. As the words are generally spelled identically, this merely aids comprehension of the text as you read your shorthand back, especially important if reading back in situ, with all eyes on you.
My personal suggestion is to replace the vowel — the position of the cross lets you know what the vowel might be, and other vowels should not be necessary. You should ensure that the cross does not look like a diphthong or diphone:.
In brief, the short vowel sound as in "pen" is not indicated in Circle Ses, as it is the most common, but any other vowel between the S-S may be written inside the circle. Circle S can be added onto the big Circle Ses by continuing the motion, writing the small circle on the other side of the stroke:. This is a large circle, used at the beginning of an outline, placed and read in the same way as Circle S, to represent the sound of SW.
The vowel that follows it is placed against the stroke. Circle Sway can be combined with R hook to straight strokes, just like Circle S: When used with stroke Ell, the initial hook that would normally form "Wel" becomes redundant:. It never combines with the hook on stroke Yay or Way. If such a word arose, it would probably best to start the outline with Circle S on Way, followed by the appropriate strokes or diphone.
Someone who is swayed might be a swayee? If you lived in the town of Swaye, maybe you could be travelling Swaye-wards?
People do make up words and the shorthand writer has to write them, whether they are in the dictionary or not. Do not be tempted, in a confused moment, to use Circle Sway for these types of words where the sound is SKW:.
The loop should be shallow, closed and extend half the length of the stroke. Keep the final part flattened so that it does not look like Circle S. Ensure it is closed so that it does not look like a hook. If the stroke is halved, then the Stee loop is half of that length:. When used finally, there does not have to be a vowel before the ST: Stee loop is used medially after Tee Dee Jay Ell, where it makes a good join with a clear angle but also see derivatives note below:.
With other strokes, the join is not so good, or cannot be made, so these use dot "-ing" or Circle S and Tee:. Sometimes a medial lightly-sounded T is omitted from the outline, therefore just Circle S is used:. In compound words, even though the second word normally uses the loop, it is quicker to write one outline with full strokes — loops by nature involve a change of direction, whereas consecutive strokes keep the movement going forward more quickly; a speed-reducing pen-lift is also avoided:.
The following do not follow the normal rule about keeping the strokes of derivative parts separate but the convenience of the outlines prevails:. A medial stee loop never crosses the outline. The ST is read first, then the stroke with its R Hook next. There is always a vowel sound between initial Stee loop and the stroke. The R Hook is used in these cases because the vowel before the R sound is indeterminate:. The stroke with its N Hook are read first, and the ST read last.
There is no vowel between the N sound and the ST:. Where there is a vowel between the N sound and the ST, these outlines are derivatives using a full stroke En:. Circle S can be added after Stee loop by continuing the motion, writing the small circle on the other side of the stroke:. When the ST precedes a stroke with a hook that cannot be combined with the loop, then Circle S and Tee must be used.
The hooked form is used because the vowel is unaccented:. Derivatives generally follow on from the original outline wherever possible, whilst a word that has a similar consonant structure may be written differently because it is either not a derivative of anything, or derived from a different outline:.
Keep the final part flattened so that it does not look like Circle Ses. Ensure the loop is closed that it is does not look like Shun Hook. It is not used on halved or doubled strokes. For "-ingly" use all full strokes the strokes for "-ingly" are often used disjoined elsewhere in shorthand, when a join is not possible:.
Ster loop not used on doubled or halved strokes. The following are not doubled strokes, but two of the same stroke in succession: The stroke and its N Hook are read first, and the Ster read last. There is no vowel between the N and the Ster:. Circle S can be added after Ster loop by continuing the motion, writing the small circle on the other side of the stroke:.
If ST-R are the only consonantal sounds in the word: There are very few cases where Ster is used medially, and in derivatives the outine generally uses Circle S and T or TR:. Words like "master-key" may equally well be written as separate words both in shorthand and in transcription , as the hyphenation of pairs of words is not strictly fixed and can be changeable, according to the differing opinions of dictionary editors, as well as custom and fashion.
However, writing one outline is quicker than writing two. Attempting to lear alone is not advised and will lead to errors in their use. They are similar size to C up. These unused combinations may be employed when creating hook may serve to represent a whole word e.
Shun for "association". Note the stroke starts acre on the line, with the hook Note the hook starts on the line, with the stroke tackle below the line slightly above the line. Gay grow gain glow Note the stroke starts eager eagle on the line, with the hook Note the hook starts on the line, with the stroke below the line slightly above the line.
L is a large hook inside the beginning of the stroke. As hooks are never written outside the curve, the difference has to be shown by having a larger hook: Sher is always written downwards and Shel always upwards, so they can never be mistaken for each other:.
There appears to be no word that contains ZH-L with an slurred vowel, but should one occur, it would never be written upwards, as it is a thick stroke. That combination of sounds would probably is best written using the full stroke Ell. Vowels are always placed outside the hook.
This is never shown and the outline is fully correct without it. With the R hook, this is generally the "-er" sound equivalent to 2nd place light dot , hence the 2nd position of the outline. See Intervening Vowels on Theory 2 Vowels page for fuller explanation:. Such vowels are indicated somewhat differently from normal, by circles and intersected dashes, and their placement.
In many words the second syllable starts with a consonant. As no vowel needs to be written between the syllables, using the hook results in a briefer outline: Care with "per-" needs to be taken, because there are many similar words starting with "pre-" and "pro-". Some combinations of consonants never occur in English without a vowel inbetween, so the hook may safely be used to obtain a briefer outline, as it will not clash with any other words:.
Unlike Circle S, the presence of a hook in the middle of a stroke does not affect the correct placement of a third place vowel against the second of the 2 strokes. This is because, although the hook is written between the strokes, the R or L that it represents is spoken after the stroke, i.
Reversing is used:.
The reversal is not a mirror image, either vertically or horizontally, but the "mirror" is along the stroke's own angle of formation. They cannot clash with Ar Rer Ess Zee because of the presence of the hook — see zither below which has both strokes together. Thel does not take right curve form. Most words with that combination use stroke Ell see below. No known examples of the voiced THel. Derivatives that add another stroke retain the form if possible: If all else is equal, the right curve is preferable, because it then matches the R hooks on straight strokes, thus helping overall legibility:.
Distinguishing outlines: This includes those with a "dot con-". This matches with the L hook on straight strokes, which are all left curves, thus helping overall legibility.
There is normally an effort to preserve original forms in derivatives, but legibility always takes top priority:. Similar motion of curves and medial hooks gives a faster outline: For "inflationism" and "inflationist" a non-dictionary right-curve would be more legible. For "reflationary" a non-dictionary contraction similar to "inflationary" i. Any contraction decided upon must not clash with "revaluation". The suffix "-ful" and "-fully" are normally written the same as the single words:.
Ing plus R hook is not used for ing-er as one might expect, but instead for ing-ger hard G and ing-ker, as these are more common sounds:. Some dialects in UK pronounce a hard G in words like these but this is not taken into account in Pitman's Shorthand:. Although Ing can use the R hook, ing-ger and ink-ker can also be shown by doubling the stroke; this is used where the hooked form does not join easily, or if alone.
Ing does not take a large L hook, because that would not indicate the sound of hard G or K that occurs in the middle. Therefore, Gay or Kay with L Hook is used:. Sometimes the hook has to be opened out or flattened slightly.
The pen should flow into the hook smoothly with no undue effort at making a sharp angle. On no account should the pen be lifted from the paper. Do not curl the end of the hook round in an attempt to make it look like the normal full hook:. A slight exaggeration of the size of the hook is unavoidable if the hook is to be seen at all, and giving the hook a very slight corner as it emerges from the stroke is helpful.
It is safe to elongate the Circle S, as it will not clash with Stee loop which never crosses a stroke. Such expedients will keep the outline readable: A distinct vowel between the consonant and the R or L sound generally requires separate strokes. This allows you to see how the word breaks into its natural syllables, thus aiding legibility:. Sometimes the consonant and the following R or L belong to different words, or word and suffix, and so separate strokes are used to accurately reflect the separate syllables:.
Way, Yay, Hay, Kwa, Gwa cannot take an initial R or L hook because because they already have an initial attachment, as well as being unpronounceable without a vowel between. An R or L sound after them will use strokes. Their initially hooked forms are "borrowed" by F V Ith Thee as a reversed form, see explanation above. An R or L sound after them will use other strokes. F or V is shown by an anticlockwise hook at the end of the stroke. The hook signifies either F or V and context is required to ascertain which one is meant.
F and V are the least common sounds of all the hooks and, with judicious vowel insertion, this is not a problem in practice:. Ell takes its N Hook at its end, whether upwards or downwards.
An Ell standing alone is always written upwards and therefore a hook at the base is Wel and at the top is L-N. F or V cannot be shown by a final hook on a curved stroke, because attachments circles, loops, hooks, attached vowels are never written outside the curve, so a full stroke Eff or Vee must be used.
Stroke En is preferable when it starts its own syllable, so long as the join remains good. Syllables generally have their own stroke, with abbreviating devices used for additional sounds within the syllable. In practice you will omit most vowels and the remaining consonant structure of the outline generally lets you know where the syllables break and where the vowels are:.
If both attachments are on the same side of a straight stroke and therefore written in the same direction, the outline would tend to curve and become illegible at speed. This mostly occurs in past tenses with the suffix "-ted" and "-ded":.
The stroke is vocalised as normal, with a third place vowel being written outside the hook. The stroke is read first, then the vowel, then the hook.
If the next syllable starts with a vowel, the vowel sign is placed against the next stroke, as it is spoken after the N sound: A third-place light dot vowel would be appropriate, if vowel insertion was felt necessary. The stroke is read first, then the hook, then the halving or doubling sound.
It is easier to remember if you think of the hooked stroke as being halved or doubled:. The only time the hook is read after a halving or doubling sound is when the hook is used in a few phrases to represent another whole word. This goes against the rule for the order in which the elements are read — the rule is always observed within a word, and only occasionally broken for adding a word in a phrase. The instances of such phrases are few but the usefulness gained is worthwhile, and no clashes will be found:.
If the N hook is already in use in the main word, you cannot then make it do double duty for the next word in the phrase as well, such as "kinder than" "blunder on" "gift of" "bereft of". Derivatives will not always retain the N hook of the primitive outline, they will vary according to the subsequent strokes, vowels, and attachments that are involved, in exactly the same way as spoken words change their syllable stress and their vowels.
This also applies to words that are not derivatives but share the same consonant structure. Where the syllable after the N F or V is unaccented, a following R- or L- hooked stroke or full strokes are often used, producing a better reflection of the pronunciation and therefore more legible outlines: Derivatives may replace a stroke with a hook, or vice versa, to accommodate vowels or suffixes, or to obtain a compact or faster outline:.
When a final vowel follows the N F or V sound, the stroke En is used. Thus the existence of a final vowel is indicated without actually writing it:.
When the N sound is preceded by a circle or loop, there is no stroke to put a hook on. In these cases using stroke En is the only option and therefore does not indicate a following vowel:. A few words retain the hook and used halved Ess for the "-est" sound, to gain a better outline:. After other triphones, and diphones, N hook is used: You cannot use the NS circle i.
In some cases it is possible to show the medial hook followed by Circle S. These need extra care to write clearly and it is helpful to exaggerate the length of the hook and the flattened circle see also explanation of R Hooks in middle of outline which have a similar formation:.
Downward Ell is generally an upstroke, but an initial Ell is written downwards before horizontals Kay, Gay, En, Em, Ing to show that there is a vowel before the Ell, and then stroke En is used, because an N Hook would make the Ell look like Wel.
Using stroke N in such cases does not necessarily signify a following vowel:. As with other hooks to curves, the Shun Hook is always written inside the curve, never outside. It is written approximately one third the length of the stroke the same size as the L hook on curved strokes:.
Straight strokes: The Shun Hook can be written on either side of a straight stroke, according to the following rules. It is written approximately one third the length of the stroke the same size as the hooks in Kwa and Gwa. Balancing the outline takes precedence over rules b and c:. The Shun Hook is written on the opposite side to an initial attachment circle, loop or hook , to help the outline remain straight when written at speed.
If the attachments at each end were on the same side, the stroke would tend to curve and become illegible:. A preceding curved stroke that makes no angle with the straight stroke requires to balanced, for the same reason, i. The strokes that have initial attachment as part of their basic form also need to observe balance, as there is the same tendency to curve the outline: If there is no balancing required, then the direction of the Shun Hook is able to indicate the presence of a vowel, without actually writing it.
The hook is written on the opposite side of the preceding vowel. As there is always a vowel between a Tee, Dee or Jay, and the Shun Hook, it is not necessary to indicate its presence, and therefore, if there is no balancing required, the Shun Hook is written on the right hand side anticlockwise in order to keep the outline moving forward:. The end of the hook is level with the end of the stroke:. A preceding third place dot vowel or diphone is shown next to the small Shun Hook; second place vowels are not indicated; first place vowels do not occur between S-Shun:.
Association Below is an advanced non-dictionary outline that reflects its alternative pronunciation "asso-SI-ashun", and its use is worth considering, as it is such a common word. Its representation in phrases is however normal theory that you will find in instruction books although the Circle S in the phrases is representing the first S sound i.
Derivatives of this, as well as similar words and their derivatives appreciation etc, see above all use stroke Ish and this should be adhered to, as not all of them can be pronounced with the S sound as an alternative.
The S sound seems to be preferred when there are two SH's in the word, which can be awkward to say clearly. The Shun hooks do not take Stee or Ster loops, or any other hooks.
The Circle S may end up slightly flattened into a small loop but should be kept small. The Shun Hook to should not be allowed to sprawl, to avoid mistaking it for a full stroke. Imagine these pairs written less than neatly and without vowels:. Words written in longhand with double SS are still just plain Shun, do not be tempted by the longhand spelling to insert an additional Circle S:.
Medial Shun Hooks generally join well, although in some joins the large hook needs to be opened out slightly. The direction of the Shun Hook is maintained when it is used medially, but in a few words it changes sides in order to join the last syllable:.
Shun Hook cannot take a loop, therefore "-shun-ist" uses a halved Ess, either up or down:. Some endings have to be disjoined or use full strokes for the "shun": The Shun Hook is written about half the length of the halved stroke and the T or D is sounded last:.
With stroke En, halved stroke Ish is preferred, because the join between a full stroke and a halved En would have no angle and be illegible:. After a triphone mostly long U diphthong plus another vowel , the stroke Ish is used to provide distinguishing outlines:. T sound often slurring to CH: Use stroke Dee to add D sound to a thin stroke: This occurs naturally in English when there is no vowel between e. It might be easier to remember thus: This allows many past tenses to be formed without changing the form.
The T or D is spoken after the hook sound:. In plurals, the vowel is no longer joined and so the outline reverts to rule a and b above, i. Outlines that represent "two thins or two thicks" can retain their halving in the plural, they are not relying on an attached diphthong to be allowed to halve:. The more strokes or attachments that an outline has, the easier it is to read, and so there is less need for the restrictive rule that covers monosyllables:.
Past tenses in "-ed" generally halve the last stroke, and therefore the outline will sometimes change slightly. You cannot just add stroke Dee to the end of the existing outline. As a rule outlines with similar sounds have similar outlines and do not show differences based on what part of speech it is although some clashes do need to be dealt with by having distinguishing outlines:. It may be halved if it has an initial circle or loop, a final hook or when joined to another stroke. If hooked, halve for either T or D:.
When there are other strokes in the outline, up or downward Hay halved may be used for either T or D as convenient:. Overall, on an unhooked upward Hay, it is safe to halve for T and use stroke Dee for D. The two outlines "cowhide" and "go-ahead" seem to be the only examples of Hay being halved for D.
Halve for T; if hooked, halve for either T or D: The endings "-ward- wart -wort -yard" are described on Theory 20 Contracted Suffixes page. If written perfectly, at the correct angle and length, there is no clash between the following pairs, but at speed this small distinction may suffer and it is important to be aware of the necessity to maintain accurate outlines:.
Rising strokes such as "and" "should" Ray and Hay must keep their shallow angle. If you write extremely small outlines, the distinctions will be more difficult to maintain. When halved for D in their plain unhooked form, these strokes are thickened, in order to provide a more distinctive outline:. M-D and N-D strokes are not compound consonants, as they can have a vowel inbetween: The strokes Eld and Ard are compound consonants, they do not have a vowel inbetween. They are always written downwards, as no thick stroke is ever written upwards:.
Sometimes Ray is used for the -erd sound where it makes for a quicker outline or where Ard does not join easily:. These strokes cannot be halved in their plain form, as those shapes are used for the halved and thickened versions of Em En Ell Ar, where they are of more use because of their greater frequency.
Ing plus T or D needs to have the full stroke added, as the halved form is unavailable, being allocated to N-D. The lightly sounded K sound that comes inbetween the two is omitted:. Ing may be halved if hooked for R, and the light K or G sound is omitted: Keeping both words in their normal form is more legible:.
Some phrases also use halving for a T or D that rightly belongs to the next word, or even a whole word like "it" and "to". One of the words may end up halved, and so be written differently than when standing alone:. Vowels are placed to the stroke as normal, and read before or after that stroke. The three places of the vowels are closer together along the stroke, so that more care is needed when inserting them. Each vowel sign must stay with its own stroke, and so the rule regarding putting a third-place vowel against the next stroke does not apply here: Pitman goodness goodwill biddable cottage potato.
First up or downstroke of outline is halved The first up or downstroke is the one that is placed in position to match the vowel, and it continues to do so even if halved. Any downstrokes following it may end up going through the line, but that is irrelevant, only the first up or downstroke needs to be in position. Do not raise the outline up further to get other strokes off the line:. For comparison, note that if the S or ST comes before the T or D, the formation is entirely different: This order of reading always applies within outlines, but in some phrases it is overridden because of their great usefulness.
Note that the hook is being used to indicate another complete word, not a sound within a word:. The presence of the full Tee or Dee stroke at the end of an outline does not always mean that a vowel follows, because the monosyllable rule above sometimes requires a full stroke for other reasons. In such cases inserting the last vowel should be considered, and always inserted in names:. This generally occurs where a medial T or D sound is followed by a Circle S, which itself cannot be vocalised, thus requiring a stroke against which to write the vowel that comes after the T underlined:.
Most outlines are constructed to enable full vocalisation, and abbreviation methods generally take a lower priority.
The lack of somewhere to put a vowel sign would imply that there is no vowel to place, thus reducing legibility. Exceptions are made on an individual basis to gain a more facile outline, so long as it remains readable unwritable vowels underlined:. If no clear angle can be made, halving is avoided and other methods must be used:.
Use disjoining. Note that it is the last stroke that is halved. In everyday shorthand the vowels are omitted and so the disjoined strokes can be written closer to the rest of the outline:. A change of thickness may provide a reasonable angle with halved curves, but not with a succession of straight strokes:. Sometimes the angle has to be made a little sharper on purpose to show up the join:. Two half length strokes may be joined as long as there is a clear angle, otherwise use full strokes or disjoin:.
The sounds of -NT -ND would normally be achieved by adding N hook and halving the preceding stroke, but in the following words that would not produce any angle of join. There is no choice but to use a halved stroke En, and its use does not therefore always indicate a vowel between the N and the T or D: Medial hook to produce a join: The past tense is shown also with each example:.
Normally halvaing for past tenses occurs on the last stroke, but outlines like "accentuate" have pushed the halving back onto the stroke before, in order to have a full stroke T to accompany the triphone.
This also allows derivatives to match. Compare with:. Names sometimes use full strokes in preference to using abbreviating devices. This improves legibility, although the outlines may be slightly slower to write.
This is especially important as context cannot help. Vocalisation is often easier, and avoids ambiguities, such as whether a halving means T or D, or a hook means F or V:. The vowel added by the doubling syllable is never shown in the outline, and indeed cannot be shown as there is nowhere to write it. As its vowel is slurred, this is not a problem. Doubling is not used when the vowel is an accented one, full strokes are used, to enable the outline to be vocalised.
Doubled strokes are not quite so straightforward as normal length strokes to place in position:. Downstrokes all go through the line, as their angle is steep and crossing the line cannot be avoided. It is possible to start first position outlines higher up, but this does not really make a lot of difference and should not be relied upon.
Occasional extra vocalisation would be a wise precaution. Upstrokes are written at a shallower angle, taking up less vertical space, and they can therefore have the normal three positions. This is easier to achieve because the lowest part of the stroke is at the beginning — there is slightly more control over the beginning part of any stroke or outline than at the end. Horizontal strokes are positioned as normal, i.
Where the doubled stroke is not the one that is being put in position i. A final circle S can also be added to any of the outlines and is spoken last of all:. The plurals use a hooked stroke, as the diphthong is no longer joined: Curved strokes are doubled for all the sounds. Unlike straight strokes, no restriction is necessary because a double curved stroke does not resemble two of the same stroke in succession. No thickening is needed for the D sound, as that is represented as part of the doubling:.
The doubled Ell is normally written upwards; it is only written downwards for ease of joining i. As there is never a vowel after it, it never changes direction to indicate a following vowel, as the normal length Ell can sometimes do:. The doubled stroke is exactly the same sound as the normal length hooked form, but is only used where the hooked form does not join easily or if it is the only stroke in the outline. There are thus two versions for the same sound:. Use hooked form for better join; use hooked form where both would be convenient i.
A doubled straight stroke is the same shape as two of the same stroke in succession. As the latter are less common, always vocalise them. As it is a short form, it is never vocalised, and it sits on the line. Doubling can be used in phrases for "there their other dear".
Generally all short forms consisting of a full stroke can be doubled to add these words. No attachments: If a straight stroke has none of the required attachments, then a hooked stroke must be used for the sounds:. The presence of an initial hook on a straight stroke is insufficient on its own to allow doubling:.
The initial circle at the beginning of Hay does not count as an attachment as it is an integral part of the stroke:. Unequal length with no clear join: Strokes of unequal length must have a clear angle of join, otherwise use hooked strokes or disjoin:. Accented syllable: Do not use when the syllable has an accented vowel — the full strokes are needed in order to have somewhere to write the vowel sign:.
If the third vowel is short as in "proprietor" doubling can be used — as the last vowel of such a triphone is slurred or hardly sounded, there are in effect only two main vowels. Do not use when a final vowel follows — full strokes are needed to provide somewhere to write the vowel, and in some cases lets you know the vowel is there, even if it is not being written in:.
No R sound: If there is no R sound in the syllable, doubling is not appropriate. An R sound is always represented in Pitman's Shorthand, despite the fact that many variations of English do not pronounce it clearly or at all.
Hilda Kilda Florida Inga. The sound of H can be represented in several ways, the choice being influenced by which makes the best join and therefore most legible outline:. A silent longhand H is not represented in shorthand. Upward Hay is the most used form — it is preferable as it is a forward moving stroke:. Take care that "hydraulic" and "hydro-electric" are not read for each other. Large Medial Circle A Circle S can be enlarged so that it includes a following Hay circle, but this large circle must be written so that the result still resembles upward Hay, i.
Only a few words use this:. Retain in derivatives where a syllable is added see also Derivatives below for -s, -n and -ed:. Medially and finally: Note that the downward Hay can only take a final Circle S when it is attached to another stroke, because only then is it obvious it is a Hay and not some other stroke. The circle part of the Hay is written anticlockwise diagram below:.
Before Ray: Upward Hay is generally used before Ray, but a few words produce better outlines with downward Hay. The first four are taking advantage of halving the Ray, and the last two are avoiding 3 straight strokes in succession which would be illegible:.
It therefore does not count as the first stroke when placing the outline in position and is not used if a vowel precedes it. The form offered here, using two of stroke Ray, accords with the accented vowels that follow them — take your choice.
Tick versus full Downward Hay If the H sound has an initial vowel before, or triphone after, use the full stroke. This is the only time that the stroke Hay indicates the presence of a vowel or triphone. Tick Hay in phrases Tick Hay may occur medially in a phrase.
Vocalisation should be considered, as in a phrase it is identical to Tick The. You cannot used both ticks together in a phrase:. Note the exact placement of first place vowels in regard to the tick — the vowel sign is placed at the extreme end of the stroke, necessary so that the vowel sign is not mistaken for a second place vowel. This does not mean that the vowel is spoken before the H — if there were a vowel before the H, you would be using a full downward Hay stroke to place it against.
Note also that the tick does not count as the first up or downstroke:. Use Dot Hay when the other forms cannot conveniently be written. It is only used if the resultant outline remains legible when unvocalised.
If you omit the vowel sign, then also omit the Dot Hay. Dot Hay on its own is meaningless, but a vowel sign on its own is preferable, when hard-pressed, if you feel the outline needs it for clarity. The Dot Hay is the outer one of the two. The two dots are not side by side in relation to the stroke. This can look similar to two vowel signs written together e. Dot Hay in compound words Some outlines that use stroke Hay will change to Dot Hay when they are part of a compound word, either because stroke Hay is inconvenient or impossible to join, or to obtain a briefer outline.
The list is not exhaustive: Initial in- , when not a negative, is shown by a small "-in" hook to upward Hay only. This hook is only used for inh- instr- inskr- The hook does not need vocalising, as the vowel is included in the meaning of the hook. The stroke Hay still goes through the line because the first sounded vowel is a third place one, despite it not being represented by a dot:.
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