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Shelve Origin. Views Read View source View history. Views Total views. Properties and Processes Second Edition. While the material recovered appears ate region. The raw data were subjected to and widely used during this period. Full Name Comment goes here.
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Shelve Opposition. The Wedding by Jennifer L. Shelve The Wedding. See also: Obsidian use in Mesoamerica. There was a minor Roman family with the nomen Opsius or Obsius , which Sillig substituted for the unfamiliar Obsidius , a much less common name.
Ancient mesopotamian materials and industries: Geological Survey U. The Survey. Rafferty August The Rosen Publishing Group. Rex Bookstore, Inc. Rocks , Loren A. Raymond, , McGraw-Hill, p. Mechanics of pre-industrial technology: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 9 September The natural history of Pliny. H G Bohn. III, p. Oxford University Press Retrieved Etymology online.
A Consumer's Guide to Archaeological Science: The Handy Geology Answer Book. Visible Ink Press. Physics Methods in Archaeometry. IOS Press. Sevigny 25 February Under Desert Skies: University of Arizona Press.
Sumner editors Handbook of Soil Sciences: Properties and Processes Second Edition. Boca Raton: CRC Press. CS1 maint: Multiple names: Extra text: Geological Survey. Archived from the original on Records of the Australian Museum.
Retrieved on The Archaeology of Measurement: The Archaeology Of Mediterranean Prehistory. Ancient Mesopotamian Materials and Industries: Ancient trade routes for obsidian. New Scientist The Cambridge history of Africa: The introduction Area: Analysis of African obsidian on the shores of the Tihamah goes back to sometime in the sixth millennium BC and its presence is In a joint University of Cambridge — Yemeni survey confirmed until the second to first millennia BC.
The project directed by the author, was carried out in the central changes that took place in exchange trajectories between Tihamah region of Yemen. Such a study Studies Fellowship. A second and a season were requires detailed sampling of the great number of obsidian carried out in collaboration with the Yemeni Ministry of sources located directly across the Red Sea in Eritrea, Environment, the Yemeni General Organization for Ethiopia and Djibouti.
Reef Group. A technological study carried out by Crassard on the use patterns and geomorphological processes affecting the lithic assemblage from a contemporaneous excavated site, Tihamah region.
Its east- , , ; Giumlia-Mair et al. While evidence of a micro-burin ral. Using handheld Geographical Positioning Systems and blow technique is absent, the production of predetermined following a UTM grid system, north—south and east—west bladelets and elongated flakes was made on anvil. These transects were walked every m to begin and later at larger products provided the blanks for backed geometric micro- intervals in areas deemed poor for site preservation or for liths Crassard, in press.
The small size of the obsidian nodules recovered on sites of The Tihamah Survey Khalidi, , b, , the central Tihamah is noteworthy as it expresses a limited documented a large number of sites dating to the access to or availability of the material, as Crassard argues Early to Middle Holocene, the majority of which had a Crassard, in press or else a desire for small nodules which notable amount of obsidian in the form of debitage and seems less likely.
Either way, the presence of large amounts of tools. The relative dating of surface sites was aided by small debitage and small tools exhibits an economical use of material culture parallels, geomorphological e.
The paucity of cortical obsidian of paleosols and climatological e. Unfortunately, surface recovered by Tosi , Zarins and Al-Badr and collections are generally inadequate for in depth studies of Keall on sites previously excavated in the immedi- core reduction schemes.
While the material recovered appears ate region. Those sites pre-dating the sixth millennium BC to point to an exchange in small decortified nodules, it remains were devoid of obsidian. From the sixth to the first millen- difficult to ascertain in what exact form, the nodules or cores nium BC obsidian is ubiquitous on sites in the region, were traded or brought over.
Coinciding with the increase in obsidian is distribution of this bipolar flaking technology, the Tihamah the production of obsidian geometric microliths Fig. The densities of obsidian are highest sites from the third to end of the first millennium BC. On the other hand, densities are poraneous sites across the Red Sea on the coastal plain of low along the inter-fluvial steppe and towards the interior of the Horn of Africa.
Activity areas can be isolated along the wadi survey, demonstrates an African origin for the materials branches, and the general lithic assemblages from many sites from all periods documented, and further implies contact suggest that obsidian was being worked at these sites.
Such densities suggest the were collected are listed, along with their projected dates. Most of these sites the large sites located midway between the littoral and the constitute activity areas, an interpretation that was not foothills. Khalidi but also on evidence for on-site tool production. All of the Obsidian Analysis and Interpretation sites designated activity areas are characterized by a high percentage of obsidian debitage including cores and waste. The central Tihamah survey obsidian samples see Table 1 Only a representative sample of obsidian was collected analyzed by Francaviglia are summarized here.
Several analytic from each site. The majority of the sites are late prehistoric in date, XRF, and tube-XRF, in order to retrieve major, minor and congruent with the fact that obsidian became more available significant trace elements. The raw data were subjected to and widely used during this period. All of the samples showed homogeneity e.
All of the Tihamah samples are of peralkaline compo- sition and most lie in the field of comendites while four samples are pantellerites.
According to Francaviglia, the results of the plots show that, of the samples chosen from these sites, the majority definitely do not originate from known sources in Yemen i. On the other hand, when plotted alongside sam- ples from Yemen, Eritrea including the Alid source , and Ethiopia, two of the Tihamah samples are totally isolated as is the Eritrean Alid sample.
The remaining 30 samples form Fig. Coastal Survey drawings by J. Espagne However, some of these 30 samples can be interpreted as Table 1 Analyzed obsidian samples from sites in the central Tihamah survey area.
The Sudan, the Nile valley, and greater East Africa in concur- two isolated Tihamah samples are not related to any analyzed rence with lake, river and coastal margin communities, archaeological or source samples from either direction. Consi- some demonstrating the first ceramics and alternating dering that more archaeological samples from the Arabian hunter—forager and early domestication strategies.
While side have been analyzed and compared to the central Tihamah such modes of subsistence are clearly related to the lush survey material, it is likely that these isolated obsidians environments that characterized the Early Holocene, the pertain to un-characterized source areas in the southern Red explanation of the persistence of microlithic tool kits is less Sea region, and most likely in the Beilul area.
Although an clear. It is possible that it corresponds to the exploitation of African origin is not certain for all of the obsidian specimens a variety of microenvironments and a resulting specialized analyzed, a discussion of microlithic technologies that are hunting and incipient plant domestication, for which lighter directly related to an African tradition establishes an undeni- hunting equipment and economical use of the materials and able contact between the two coasts of the Red Sea.
Because of their function as composite tools, microlithic blades could easily be repaired or replaced without replacing the entire imple- ment, a factor that supports an opportunism and expediency Obsidian Microlithic Technologies as relates to the materials and to tool making Phillipson, Obsidian Geometric Microliths In most parts of the world geometric microliths are synony- Late Prehistoric Period Geometric Microliths mous with a Paleolithic and Mesolithic stone tool technology.
The late occurrence of obsidian Eritrea have yielded an abundance of obsidian debitage including flakes and cores, as well as a microlithic technol- ogy consisting of retouched lunates Arkell, At the port site of Adulis in Eritrea see Fig.
In the south and the interior Several dates have been suggested for the Adulis these traditions are well-known from the Paleolithic period as a assemblage. While Fattovich assigns a date in the first mil- successor to the Levallois technique, while in parts of northern lennium BC, Zarins suggests a second millennium BC date and eastern Africa they have a longer life-span and continue based on ceramic parallels with Sihi, Sabir, and SLF-1 in slightly later into the Epipaleolithic and Mesolithic Phillipson, southwest Arabia Paribeni, ; Fattovich, ; Zarins A second millennium occurrence of microlithic technologies is evident in coastal BC date is highly plausible given the occurrence of the tool areas, while the interior and highland instances are Neolithic in type across the Red Sea in this period.
Joussaume, Khalidi microliths including both arch-shaped and circle segment and Arabian shores of the southern Red Sea confirms long- samples. All of the and exchange in prehistoric Arabia. This appears to be the characteristics of the lithic tradition of this site match those case in regions such as the Yemeni highlands where a majority of the Tihamah. Although the site differs in many ways of the obsidian was not always procured from the nearest stone accessibility, different ceramic tradition the contem- source, but often came from very distant sources Francaviglia, poraneity suggests a parallel mode of existence that is clearly a, b.
Yet, highland studies have shown the presence of obsidian Similarly geometric microliths are attested from the sites production areas near highland sources. A Jebel al-Lisi source Wilkinson and Edens, Poisblaud, A tradition of geometric moderately steep drop-off with distance from the sources. Blanc attributed this occurrence to Wiltonian indus- procurement and exchange in the prehistoric period?
Were tries of the Mesolithic period, as at the time geometric micro- there small localized obsidian networks embedded within liths were thought to be more ancient Blanc, Nonetheless, for occupation on this island, given the rise in sea levels dur- the data that are available have important implications for ing this period.
The majority Given our current state of knowledge, it can now be dem- of the highland archaeological obsidians analyzed by onstrated that such a tool kit was used in later periods. One can posit made on obsidian at all of the sites mentioned above, as well that long distances were traveled either for the procurement as those across the Red Sea along the Yemeni Tihamah.
Consequently, obsidian quality may have played a large role in highland obsidian procurement and motivated exploitation from more distant, yet more homogeneous, sources. The combination of this evidence and the presence of cross-Red Obsidian Circulation in the Yemeni Sea contact linked to obsidian exchange, provide a strong Highlands and Tihamah argument for people having transported African obsidians as far as the Yemeni highlands.
A combination of evidence i. The first is that Arabian littoral; the association between the lithic technolo- of localized and limited circulation from certain highland gies and tool types utilized simultaneously along the African sources. Keall, T. Wilkinson and R. Oppenheimer, Dr.
Marshall, and Dr. Lewis for their contributions and Saudi sources.
Highland obsidian that appears to come from non-highland Yemen sources would have had to be procured at relatively long distances through extreme mountainous landscapes, and make the distances needed for a Red Sea crossing pale in References comparison. For the obsidian in the Tihamah study area to have arrived from the nearest Eritrean source, that of Ado Ale or Amirkhanov H. Sovietskaya Arkeologiya ;4. Four occupation sites at Agordat. Jebel al Abyad: Neolithic in Turkey: Arkeoloji Ve Sanat Yayinlari; inhabiting the Tihamah in the prehistoric periods.
That obsidian geometric microliths, in tandem with a Barge O, Chataigner C. The procurement of obsidian: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. Blanc, A-C. Fieldwork in Northern and Eastern Sudan, — first non-Yemeni archaeological obsidians appear on the Nyame Akuma: Bulletin of the Society of Africanist Tihamah coast. Cann JR, Renfrew C. The characterization of obsidian and its applica- A complex system of material procurement and human tion to the Mediterranean region.
Proceedings of the Prehistoric interaction is at play in the Arabian Holocene. The applica- Society. Essays on the late prehistory southern Red Sea obsidian zone. The factors that influenced of the Arabian peninsula. Guilaine J, editor. Errance;