Learning Teaching 3rd soundofheaven.info - Free ebook download as PDF File . pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. CeltaEssentials - Learning. PDF | On Jun 1, , Ahmet Selçuk Akdemir and others published Learning and Teaching: Theories, Approaches and Models. PDF | It is an accepted fact that teachers are usually not born but made. requisite to be good teacher is to understand the teaching learning.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Portuguese|
|Genre:||Academic & Education|
|ePub File Size:||30.34 MB|
|PDF File Size:||11.80 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
Learning Teaching. - i. Jim Scrivener. Macmillan Books for Teachers. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Page Page Learning-Teaching. byJames- IdentifierLearning-Teaching Subject: This is loving teaching Subject: Learning Teaching PDF WITH TEXT download. Introduction. ObMectives. Process of Learning. Concept of Learning. Types of Learning. Factors influencing Learning. Learning.
Plan activities that are based on the following route map: It may feel a little odd, but it really is quite OK to sit down and do nothing when students are working on a pair or group task. Study your students. In naming a method, a school suggests that all or most work will fit a clearly stated, recognisable and principled way of working. Students must understand that they cannot look at each other's pictures. Trying to decipher words in the seemingly fast flow of speech, trying to pick out what is important and what is not, is a skill that needs to be practised; it is work that needs attention in its own right, quite apart from the study of the grammar and vocabulary involved. You join in the conversation, but using English.
Recognising skills or systems aims Every activity is likely to involve some work on both language systems and skills, though, usually, the aim is directed more to one area than the other. In the following list, classify each activity as 'mainly skills or 'mainly systems by ticking the appropriate box.
Then decide which skills or which language systems are being worked on. Mainly Mainly systems skills. In activity 1, the students do read and write, but use few of the skills that we need when we read and write in our normal life. Certainly, comprehending the teacher's handwriting and forming one's own letters on the page may be quite demanding for some students especially for those whose native language does not use roman script , but beyond this, the activity's main demand is on using grammar correctly.
Activity 2 involves the skills of reading and speaking in ways very similar to those in the outside world. Vocabulary and grammar will be encountered in the reading, but the main aim is for understanding rather than analysis and study. Compare this with activity 3, where the same material is used, but now with a specific grammar aim. Compare then with activities 5 and 6, and 8 and 9. The aim in activity 4 is to encourage fluent speaking.
The aim in activity 7 is to teach some vocabulary, and the speaking and listening and writing involved are ofless importance. Other areas that are part oflanguage learning The map oflanguage systems and language skills is useful to keep in mind as an overview of the subject matter of English language teaching. However, it may well be an over-simplification.
Elsewhere in this book, you'll come across some doubts about it for example, when we ask if grammar is more fruitfully viewed as a 'skill' students need practice in using rather than as a 'system' to Jearn.
And, of course, there is more to English language teaching than simply the language itself: Students may be learning new ways oflearning: They will also be learning about the other people in their class, and exploring ways of interacting and working with them. They may be learning about themselves and how they work, learn, get on with other people, cope with stress, etc. They may be learning a lot about the culture of the countries whose language they are studying.
They may be learning how to achieve some specific goal, for example passing an exam, making a business presentation at an upcoming conference.
They may also be learning about almost anything else. The subject matter of ELT can encompass all topics and purposes that we use language to deal with. Many teachers seem to become quite knowledgeable on the environment, business protocol, the British education system, desert survival techniques, etc.
This is probably what keeps the job interesting! Some course book texts seem to achieve nearly legendary status amongst teachers! Ask a teacher who's been in the business a few years if they know anything about a nun called SisterWendy! If we start using English in class to do more than simple mechanical drills, then the subject matter becomes anything that we might do with language, any topic that might be discussed with English, any feelings that might be expressed in English, any communication that we might give or receive using English.
The people who use the language in class, and their feelings, are, therefore, also part of the subject matter. This seems sad to me; I believe that we need to give our students chances to feel and think and express themselves in their new language.
A method is a way of teaching. Your choice of method is dependent on your approach, ie what you believe about: Based on such beliefs, you will then make methodological decisions about: Having said that, some methods exist without any apparent sound theoretical basis! Some well-known methods and approaches Well-known methods and approaches include:. The Grammar-Translation Method Much traditional language teaching in schools worldwide used to be done in this way, and it is still the predominant classroom method in some cultures.
The teacher rarely uses the target language. Students spend a lot of time reading texts, translating them, doing exercises and tests, writing essays. There is relatively little focus on speaking and listening skills. The Audio-Lingual Method Although based on largely discredited theory, the techniques and activities continue to have a strong influence over many classrooms.
It aims to form good habits through students listening to model dialogues with repetition and drilling but with little or no teacher explanation.
Communicative Language Teaching CLT or Communicative Approach CA This is perhaps the method or approach that most contemporary teachers would subscribe to, despite the fact that it is widely misunderstood and misapplied. It may help if we distinguish between a stronger and a weaker version of CLT. With strong CLT students learn by communicating, ie doing communication tasks with a limited role for explicit teaching and traditional practice exercises.
In contrast, with weak CLT students learn through a wide variety of teaching, exercises, activities and study, with a bias towards speaking and listening work. Most current course books reflect a version of weak CLT. Asher, mainly useful with beginner and lower-level students. Learners listen to instructions from the teacher, understand and do things in response, without being required to speak until they are ready see page Community Language Learning CLL A method based around use of the learners' first language and with teacher help in mediating.
It aims to lower anxiety and allow students to communicate in a more genuine way than is typically possible in classrooms. The n atural approach Devised by Stephen Krashen, this is a collection of methods and techniques from many sources, all intended to provide the learner with natural comprehensible language so that the learner can pick up language in ways similar to a child learning their first language. Task-Based Learning TBL A variant ofCLT see above which bases work cycles around the preparation for, doing of, and reflective analysis of tasks that reflect real-life needs and skills.
The Silent Way Devised by Caleb Gattegno, this method requires the learner to take active ownership of their language learning and to pay great attention to what they say. Distinctive features include the relative restraint of the teacher who is not completely silent! The usc of Cuisenaire rods in mainstream ELT arose from this method see page Person-centred approaches Any approach that places learners and their needs at the heart of what is done.
Syllabus and working methods will not be decided by the teacher in advance of the course, but agreed between learner and teacher. Lexical approaches Proposed by Michael Lewis and jimmie Hill.
On the back of new discoveries about how language is really used, especially the importance oflexical chunks in communication, proponents suggest that traditional present-then-practise methods are oflittle use and propose a methodology based around exposure and experiment.
Dogme ScottThornbury's proposed back-to-basics approach. Teachers aim to strip their craft of unnecessary technology, materials and aids and get back to the fundamental relationship and interaction of teacher and student in class. Some schools or inctividual teachers follow one of these named methods or approaches. In naming a method, a school suggests that all or most work will fit a clearly stated, recognisable and principled way of working.
Other schools sometimes advertise a unique named method of their own, eg the Cambridge Method. These arc usually variations on some of the methods listed above, or not a method at all but something else, eg simply the name of the coursebook series being used eg the Headway Method , a way of ctivicting levels according to a familiar exam system, or an eclectic contemporary lucky dip.
Personal methodology Despite the grand list of methods above, the reality is that very few teachers have ever followed a single method in its entirety unless they work in a school that demands that they do and carefully monitors adherence.
I remember watching many language teachers at work in the then Soviet Union, which was well known as a bastion of traditional Grammar-Translation teaching. Yet I was struck by how every teacher had their own personal way of working in the classroom.
There were some similar factors between different teachers, and ifi listed all the most frequently observable features and added them together I could have found a core of things that were recognisably Grammar-Translation. But the truth was that there was no monolithic method at work. Many teachers nowadays would say that they do not follow a single method. Rather they work out for themselves what is effective in their own classrooms.
They may do this in a random manner or in a principled way, but what they slowly build over the years is a personal methodology of their own, constructed from their selection of what they consider to be the best and most appropriate of what they have learned about.
The process ofchoosing items from a range of methods and constructing a collage methodology is sometimes known as principled eclecticism. Key hints when planning your first lessons Use the coursebook if there is one Don't feel that you have to come up with stunning original lesson ideas and creative new activities. If you have a course book, then you have an instant source of material.
It's fme to rely on the longer experience of the coursebook writer and do the lesson exactly as it was written. Take your time before the lesson to read carefully through the unit and give the same attention to the Teacher's Book, if you have access to one. There's a reasonable chance you'll end up with a workable lesson. Many teachers also use ideas books, known as 'recipe books', which do exactly what that nickname suggests- give you everything you need to know to be able to walk into class with the right ingredients to 'cook up' a good activity.
A lesson is a sequence of activities Think of the lesson as a series of separate but linked activities. Your first planning job is to select some. Read Chapter 2 and be clear what an activity is and how you can organise it in class.
Learn som ething about your s tuden ts If possible, talk to other teachers and fmd out something about the class and the people in it. Plan student-focu sed a ctivities Don't plan first lessons that will put you up front in the spotlight feeling the need to burble. That leads to panic and muddle. Plan activities that are based on the following route map: Lead-in a brief introduction to the topic, eg you show a picture to the class and invite comments. Steps 1, 2 and 4 should take relatively little time.
The heart of this sequence is Step 3. This route-map lesson plan is looked at in more detail in Chapter 2. M ake a written p lan of the running o rder of your activities Write out a simple list showing the activities in order. You don't need to include a lot of detail, but make sure you have a clear idea of your intended sequence of stages, perhaps with estimated timings.
Con sider a ims Think about what students will get from your lesson, ie what is the point of them spending their time in this lesson? F luency or accuracy? Decide, for each stage in the lesson, if you are mainly working on fluency or accuracy- this is a key choice for many activities see Chapter 9, Section 4. Get the room r ead y; get you rself r eady If the time tabling and organisation of your school allows it, take time before any students arrive to make sure everything is ready before the class starts.
Make sure the room is set up as you wish eg how will you arrange the seating? Make sure you have everything you need eg chalk or board pens - don't expect them just to magically be there! And most importantly, just feel what it's like to be in that room. Start to settle into it, to exercise ownership over it. For the length of the lesson, it's your space. Have at least on e emergency activity!
Prepare your own personal emergency 'Help, I've run out of things to do and still have five minutes left' activity ega word game, an extra photocopied game, etc.
Keep this and add more emergency ideas day by day. Talk to the students as they come into the r oom Don't hide or do not-really-necessary 'business' while you wait for all students to arrive.
Instead, think of the lesson as starting from the first moment a student arrives in the room. You can calm your own nerves and break the ice with students very quickly by chatting with each of them as they come into the room. Welcome them. Ask them their names. You'll immediately start to learn something about them as real people rather than as generic 'students', and you'll find that you can start to relax a little.
Learn names a s soon a s possible There is a huge difference in comfort levels if you know people's names. They stop being scary anonymous entities and start to become humans. In everyday life, if we meet a number of people in one go, say at a party, we are often a little careless about learning names. But in class, it is a very important teacher skill, and you should aim to internalise names as soon as possible.
It is a bit embarrassing if you have to ask people their names over and over again. Don't say 'I'm bad at remembering names. If for any reason the pronunciation of names is a problem, take time to get the sounds right; if you arc teaching in another country, maybe get a local speaker to help you. As you ask each student for their name, write it down on a mini-sketch-map of the classroom.
Check and repeat any names you don't yet know. They should write their names on this so that every name is visible to you at the front. As the lesson proceeds, turn individual cards around when you think you know the student's name.
Some teachers use cards like these through whole courses; that seems rather lazy to me! This strategy is to help you learn names, not a substitute for that learning! If it's not just you, the teacher, who is new, but your students are also new to each other, then using some of these name-game activities will defmitely be a good idea.
Be yourself Don't feel that being a teacher means you have to behave like a 'teacher'. As far as possible, speak in ways you normally speak, respond as yourself rather than as you think a 'teacher' should respond. Students, whether children, teens or adults, very quickly see through someone who is role playing what they think a teacher should be.
Authenticity in you tends to draw the best out of those you are working with. Teaching doesn 't m ean ' talking all the time ' Don't feel that when you are 'in the spotlight', you have to keep filling all the silences. When you are teaching a language, the priority is for the learners to talk, rather than the teacher. Start to notice the quantity of your own talk as soon as possible- and check out how much is really useful. High levels of teacher talk is a typical problem for new teachers.
Teaching doesn 't m ean ' teaching' all the time Don't feel that being a teacher means that you have to be doing things all the time.
It may feel a little odd, but it really is quite OK to sit down and do nothing when students are working on a pair or group task.
There are times when your help will actually be interference. Take the chance to recover from your exertions, check your notes and enjoy watching your class at work. Slowdown A large number of new teachers tend to do things much too fast. They often seriously underestimate how difficult things are for students, or are responding to a fear that students will find things boring.
Learning to really slow down takes time- but it's worth bearing in mind from your first lesson onwards. For example, don't ask a question and then jump straight in again because you think they can't answer it. Instead, allow three times the length of time you feel students need this is sometimes called wait time.
Key hints for starting to teach better once you've got past the first few classes. Turn your radar on You arc likely to be a little self-focused during your early lessons, but as soon as you can, start to tune in more to the students.
Start to ask for comments and brief feedback on things you do. Watch the students at work and learn to notice what is difficult, what is easy, what seems to engage, what seems boring. Study your students. Don' t teach and teach. Checking what students have understood and testing if they can usc items themsehes is usually more important than telling them more about the new items. Don't do endless inputs. Teach a very little amount Give students the opportunity to try using the items, ega little oral practice, a written question or two, or even simply 'repeat'.
Here's a rule-of-thumb ratio to experiment with: Are you teaching the class.. When you ask questions I check answers, etc, are you really finding out if they all know the items If one person says an answer, does that mean they all know?
What about the others? How can you fmd out? We also look at some basic classroom management issues, such as how to arrange students in working pairs on groups. We'll define this fairly broadly as 'something that learners do that involves them using or working with language to achieve some specific outcome'.
The outcome may reflect a 'real-world' outcome eg learners role play buying train tickets at the station or it may be a purely 'for-the-purposes-of-learning' outcome eg learners flU in the gaps in twelve sentences with present perfect verbs.
By this definition, all of the following urc activities or tasks: Learners do a grammar exercise individually then compare answers with each other in order to better understand how a particular item of language is formed. Learners listen to a recorded conversation in order to answer some questions in order to become better listeners. Learners write a formal letter requesting information about a product. Learners discuss and write some questions in order to make a questionnaire about people's eating habits.
Learners read a newspaper article to prepare for a discussion. Learners play a vocabulary game in order to help learn words connected with cars and transport.
Learners repeat a number of sentences you say in order to improve their pronunciation of them. Learners role play a shop scene where a customer has a complaint. Some things that happen in the classroom are not tasks. For example, picture a room where the teacher has started spontaneously discussing in a lengthy or convoluted manner the formation of passive sentences. What arc students doing that has an outcome? Arguably, there is an implied task, namely that students should 'listen and understand', but, by not being explicit, there is a real danger that learners are not genuinely engaged in anything much at all.
This is a basic, important and often overlooked consideration when planning a lesson. As far as possible, make sure that your learners have some specific thing to do, whatever the stage of the lesson.
Traditional lesson planning has tended to see the lesson as a series of things that the teacher does. By turning it round and focusing much more on what the students do, we are likely to think more about the actual learning that might arise and create a lesson that is more genuinely useful. And if you plan ever ything in terms of what the students will do, you might flnd you worry less about what the teacher has to do! Even for stages when you are 'presenting' language, be clear to yourself what it is that students are supposed to be doing and what outcome it is leading to.
Think of a complete lesson as being a coherent sequence of such learner-targeted tasks. Speaking Which of these 'firsts' do you remember best? In using it as the basis for a class activity, which of the following working arrangements would be possible?
Even a simple task like this can be used in a variety of ways- and aU the suggested uses are possible. Combinations of ideas are also possible; for example, students could fust think on their own for a few minutes and then compare in pairs.
Whatever you choose, there are then further options as to how you do the task; for example, you could ask students to compare, discuss and question each other's views or, alternatively, to reach a consensus compromise solution.
These variations lead to two very different types of speaking activity. More variations are possible when considering the stages that immediately precede or follow the activity. Your choices as to how the task will be done depend partly on the aim of the activity, ie what you want students to get out of it.
Teacher options Bear in mind that, even where coursebook tasks include explicit instructions such as Compare answers in pairs or Wbrk in small groups, you always have the option as a teacher to give a different organisational instruction. For example, you may feel that a 'work in pairs' exercise might be more interesting done in small groups.
And even if you follow the book's instruction, you stilJ have the possibility of manipulating the organisation a ljttle, for example: The coursebook provides the raw material which only comes alive in class. You have important choices as to how to do this. Figure 2. Individual work Students talk together and write nothing; they are permitted to write. Pairwork You choose pairs; students choose pairs; pairs are randomly selected eg from a game ; face to face; back to back; across the room shouting ; communicating in writing only.
Small groups three to six people Groups have a secretary note-taking duty ; groups have an appointed leader; membership of groups is occasionally rearranged; groups are allowed to send 'ambassadors' 1 pirates' to other groups to compare 1 gain 1 steal ideas. Whole class: A few more variations for running an activity Do it at speed, with a very tight time limit. When a group finishes, they disperse and join other groups. Each person makes a quick answer which is noted but not discussed; then, when all have spoken, the discussion begins, using the notes as a starting point.
Require compromise I consensus single answers. Introduce task by dictating instructions I problem, etc; individuals dictate answers back to the whole class. Students prepare a report-back presentation summarising their solutions. Students prepare a role play dialogue incorporating their answers.
Students do the exercise as homework. In some bigger activities, there may be a number of clearly separate 'sections' within the task, in which case you would go through Steps 3, 4 and 5 a few times.
Before the lesson: Read through the material and any teacher's notes. Try the activity yourself. Imagine how it will look in class. Decide how many organisational steps are involved. What seating arrangements I rearrangements are needed?
How long will it probably take? Do the learners know enough language to be able to make a useful attempt at the activity? What help might they need? What questions might they have? What errors using the language are they likely to make? What errors misunderstanding the task arc they likely to make? What will your role be at each stage? What instructions are needed? How will they be given explained, read, demonstrated? Prepare any aids or additional material. Arrange seating, visual aids, etc.
Most importantly, you need to think through any potential problems or hiccups in the procedures. For example, what will happen if you plan student work in pairs, but there is an uneven number of students? Will this student work alone, or will you join in, or will you make one of the pairs into a group of three?
Typical lead-ins arc: Show I draw a picture connected to the topic. Ask questions. Write up I read out a sentence stating a viewpoint. Elicit reactions. Tell a short personal anecdote related to the subject. Ask students if they have ever been I seen I done, etc. Hand out a short text on the topic. Students read the text and comment. Play 'devil's advocate' and make a strong I controversial statement eg I think smoking is very good for people that students will be motivated to challenge I argue about.
Write a key word maybe the topic name in the centre of a word-cloud on the board and elicit vocabulary from students which is added to the board. This may involve making pairs or groups, moving the seating, etc.
Give clear instructions for the activity. A demonstration or example is usually much more effective than a long explanation. You may wish to check back that the instructions have been understood eg So, Georgi, what are you going to do first? In some activities, it may be useful to allow some individual work eg thinking through a problem, listing answers, etc before the students get together with others. If the material was well prepared and the instructions clear, then the activity can now largely run itself.
Allow the students to work on the task without too much further interference. Your role now is often much more low-key, taking a back seat and monitoring what is happening without getting in the way.
Beware of encumbering the students with unnecessary help. This is their chance to work. If the task is difficult, give them the chance to rise to that challenge, without leaning on you. Don't rush in to 'save' them too quickly or too eagerly. Though, having said that, remain alert to any task that genuinely proves too hard- and be prepared to help or stop it early if necessary!
Rather than suddenly stopping the activity at a random point, try to sense when the students are ready to move on. If different groups are finishing at different times, make a judgement about when coming together as a whole class would be useful to most people. If you want to close the activity while many students are still working, give a time warning eg Finish the item you are working on or Two minutes. This stage is vital and is typically under-planned by teachers!
The students. Many teachers rely on an 'ask the class if there were any problems and field the answers on the spot' approach.
While this will often get you through, it can also lead you down dark alleys of confusing explanations and long-winded spontaneous teaching. It can also be rather dull simply to go over things that have already been done thoroughly in small groups. So, for a number of reasons, it is worth careful planning of this stage in advance- especially to think up alternatives to putting yourself in the spotlight answering a long list of questions.
Groups meet up with other groups and compare answers I opinions. Students check answers with the printed answers in the Teacher's Book which you pass around I leave at the front of the room I photocopy and hand out, etc. Before class, you anticipate what the main language problems will be and prepare a mini-presentation on these areas.
During the last few minutes of a long task, go round the groups and warn them that each group will be asked to 'report back' to the whole class. Ask them to appoint a spokesperson and to agree on the main message they want to say.
You could ask them to choose just one point from their discussion that they think is worth sharing. When checking answers, ask for groups to exchange and compare their answers across the room themselves Collect in all answer sheets then redistribute them for 'correcting' by other students. When everything has been checked, students pair up with those who marked their paper and listen I explain I justify I argue, etc. Correct one student's answers; that student then goes on to correct other answers, etc.
Divide the board up into spaces for answers and throw pens to different students who fill the board up with their answers each answer written by a different student. The whole group looks at the finished board and comments I corrects.
Choose the five most Important. Is there anything missing from the list? This may help you to similarly analyse your own teaching material in future.
Anecdote 4 Think about your life at the age of eight. You are going to tell your partner about 1t. Choose from the lic;t the things you want to talk about. Think about what you will. Did your life uc;c to be very dtfferenl to how it is now? How did you get there!? L Do you remember any of your teachers? Were there any you particularly hked or d15oliked? IJ Who were your friends? C Did you ever do anything naughty?
Were you caught and punished? Eric, WC! Are any special materials or visual aids needed? What are the steps in this task? But if you wanted to give instructions orally, what are some important considerations? The main language areas are: This may help to build good relationships within the class and help create a good working atmosphere; recalling and reconsidering some quite specific personal memories; students may fmd that they are thinking about things forgotten till now.
This degree of personal investment and self-discovery tends to be a frequent element in many contemporary coursebook units and may lead studencs to find that they are also learning about themselves, others and the world as much as about the language. Some teachers feel uncomfortable with this kind of work and try to keep the focus on language work rather than what they see as more intrusive general and personal education. But of course language is intertwined with our lives and our understanding of the world, and any teaching approach which seeks to disentangle the two may be hard to implement and may miss out on some essential elements.
Other interpretations of stages and sequence are possible. The fact that there are possibly six sub-steps within a single task reminds us that a teacher does need to take care in a checking activities before offering them to students, and b preparing clear uncomplicated instructions. If a task has a number of separate steps or stages within it, it is sometimes a good idea to give instructions for these stages one at a time, and wait till that stage is completed before giving the next instruction.
With this task, you could f. Separating activities and instructions into different steps is an important technique. At each point, the learners know what they need to know without possible confusion from instructions for later parts of the activity. Demonstrations arc often a better way of introducing a task than a wordy explanation. In this example, there may not seem to be very much to demonstrate, but you could still work through an example sentence or two maybe saying your own answers aloud , rather than simply explaining the instructions.
By doing this, the learners may become clearer about what the activity involves. It is likely to start with individual thinking and note-taking, which may then be followed by comparing in pairs, small groups or whole class. All are potentially suitable for early lessons in your teaching; all should be relatively straightforward to set up in class, yet they all stand a reasonable chance of not flopping! From the students' perspective, the activities should be engaging and useful.
Even if you don't use the specific material, you may feel that you can draw something from the general ideas and devise similar activities yourself. The tasks arc all based around getting the students to speak and exchange information and ideas, ie using language to communicate. There is some possibility for you to input some language, but speaking rather than learning new items is the primary aim. Defining 'Information gap' What is an 'information gap'?
If you don't already know, work it out by studying the Beach picture, Office scene and European holiday resources on the DVD. When one person knows something that another person doesn't, we can say that there is a 'gap' of information between them. Most real-life communication comes about because of such gaps of information or of opinions or ideas, etc. When someone knows something we don't, there is a reason for talking or writing I reading.
By creating classroom activities that include such information gaps, we can provide activities that mimic this reason for communication, and this may be more motivating and useful to language learners than speaking without any real reason for doing so.
Predicting uses for material: Before you read the commentary below. Activity route map 1 Before the lesson: The material consists of two similar but not identical familiarise yourself pictures; there are fifteen differences between the with the material and pictures.
The task is 'Spot the difference', but each activity. Prepare any student will only see one of the pictures. Students will materials or texts you work in pairs. Without looking at each other's pictures, need. Photocopy enough pictures so that you have one 'A' and one 'B' for every pair of students.
Ask what people do there. If students are in a country where people take beach holidays, you could ask for their own opinions, eg whether they like beaches. Ask students to tell you some things you find at the beach. Write the words on the board as they come up. If necessary, add new things to the picture eg ice cream.
Make sure that a number of useful words from the task picture are mentioned. NB You don't have to exhaustively 'pre-teach' everything. You could ask students to copy the picture and labels.
Rearrange students into pairs, facing each other. Hand out the pictures, making sure that in each pair there is one 'A' and one 'B' picture. Students must understand that they cannot look at each other's pictures. Saying the word secret with a 'hiding-the- picture' mime may help make this clear. Explain the task simply and clearly, ie the students must find what is different between the two pictures by talking and describing, not by looking.
As students start doing the activity, walk around unobtrusively, just to check that they are following the instructions correctly ie they understand the task and are doing it in English. After that, you could continue with discreet monitoring or maybe sit down and wait for students to finish the task.
If you monitor, you could col lect overheard examples of good or problematic sentences. Don't feel the need to join in or take an active part in the work; this stage is for students to work together.
When the students. After you stop the activity, ask students what was easy or difficult; help them with expressions or vocabulary they ask for - or use other feedback ideas. Ask students work. They should also work out corrections for any errors. Alternatively, use any other follow-on activity, eg 'You are one of the people in the picture.
Work in pairs and write a paragraph describing your day at the beach. Deciding on the aims of an activity When the activity has finished, what might the students have learned or be better able to do, ie what was the aim of the activity? Amongst other things, students may be better able to: It's worth noting that the students are practising fluent speaking under some degree of pressure. Students will become more focused on the message they wish to communicate and on getting that across successfully.
This shift of values from 'getting the grammar right' to 'achieving successful communication' is an important one for many students to come to terms with.
While a fair degree of good grammar is necessary to succeed in the task, successful communication is a more important real-world goal than simply being perfect. For more on fluency and accuracy, sec Chapter 9, Section4. Ina European holiday resources in the same section are similar to picture resource and are designed around the same idea of pairs exchanging information.
In happened? They must share information and decide exactly what happened.
In we do tomorrow? They should discuss the various possibilities and agree their favourite event to recommend to ot her people in class as a good day out. Refer to the detailed instructions for Beach picture above and use the route map to plan your own exploitation of the material in the other resources. Type 2: How students learn to use grammar If you don't explain' grammar points to students, what other ways are there that they could become better at using grammar?
One answer is that learners can try using language that they already know- or half-know- and experimenting with it, as in a chemistry laboratory, mixing components together and seeing what kinds of outcomes arise. As we will see in Chapter 7, studying grammar only partially involves a need for teacher explanation; the essential heart oflearning grammar seems to be that students have lots of opportunities to try things out themselves. This is a 'trying things out themselves' kind oflesson. The heart of this task is based around learners making sentences and questions in a range of tenses which you can specify in the task instructions.
To some extent, the activity's level is self-grading. If the students don't know some language items, they simply won't use them. The basic activity involves pairs looking at a picture and making sentences, passing on the sentences to another pair and receiving another pair's sentences about a different picture themselves.
Each pair must now try to recreate the other pair's original picture from the information they have received. Here are my own instructions and guidelines, using the activity route map. By the way, this activity has two sections and therefore goes through Steps 3, 4 and 5 twice. The material consists of various pictures showing familiarise yourself events happening.
Students will be able to use more than these tenses, but it's important that you establish whether the events are now or in the past. Prepare a large copy of the first picture and copies of the other pictures- one for each pair.
If you have more pairs than pictures, reuse them, but be careful not to hand out the same picture to two pairs sitting next to each other. Tell them that it shows what is happening now or yesterday afternoon if you want learners to work using past tenses.
Invite learners to think up good sentences about the picture. When a student suggests one, write it up without acknowledging whether it is good or bad English. Invite students to check and suggest amendments or improvements. Collect ten sentences. If students produce over-simple ones, upgrade the chal lenge by asking, for example, for 'sentences at least seven words long' or 'exactly 13 words long' or 'you must include the word although. This has effectively been a demonstration of the task students will now do in pairs.
Hand out the other pictures, one to each pair. Emphasise that pictures are secret. Pairs should take care that other pairs do not see their picture. Give task instructions. Try not to 'over-help'. Make sure students are writing clearly on a separate piece of paper. Each pair receives sentences from the pair they gave theirs to.
Give instructions for the next section. This has not been demonstrated! Get pairs to meet up. They compare pictures and sentences. There may be some amusement at mi sunderstandings and alternative interpretations. Alternatively, redistribute the pictures and repeat the original activity 'live', ie basically the same, but have pairs work with other pairs from the start and say the sentences to them as t hey t hink of them rather than write them down.
Before you read the full instructions, think how you might use such material in class. The activity uses a board game to get students discussing in smaJJ groups. The game element helps focus attention, and students may fmd that it adds something exciting and humorous to a more serious discussion topic. The activity is adaptable for a wide range of topics. One example set of cards on general discussion topics Intermediate level and above is given in the resources section oftheDVD under boardgames.
Photocopy one game board for every four students in familiarise yourself your class. You will need a die for all groups and a with the material counter for each player these could be coins. Cut and activity.
Prepare some paper into a lot of small blank cards. Decide any materials or what topic you want the students to discuss and texts you need. Photocopy and cut up one set for each group. If you have chosen a single topic eg activity. You could do this by writing the word on the board and eliciting definitions and examples of one or two arguments for and against. Or you could choose one of the more extreme viewpoints from the cards and say it to the class, hoping to get a reaction.
This initial mini-discussion will prepare them for the conversation in the game itself. Form small groups of four to five students and hand out a pack of cards to each group. Students keep the cards face down. Explain that students should take it in turns to throw the die and move their counter around the board.
If they land on a square with a '? If they land on a 'Talk' square, they should express their own opinion about it for at least two minutes. Everyone else in the group can then join in a short discussion about the question. Every time a learner passes 'Bonus' ie having circled the board once , they get a point. The winner at the end is the one with most points. Monitor as usual. Some teams might really get into the from the students.
The best thing to do is watch and JUdge when most groups have had the most value from it. If any groups finish very quickly, go over and tell them to play another round. It seems natural to extend the group work into a whole- class comparison of views if students aren't sick of the subject already.
You could link the discussion into reading a relevant magazine article. The topic may provide a useful context for working on some grammar points , eg globalisation could help introduce We should Issues such as seating, gestures and ways of using the board effectively are covered so that you are well-equipped. Section 9 then looks at some common ways in which teachers can inadvertently prevent learning from taking place. Your most important job as a teacher is perhaps to create the conditions in which learning can take place.
The skills of creating and managing a successful class may be the key to the whole success of a course. An important part of this is to do with your attitude, intentions and personality and your relationships with the learners. However, you also need certain organisational skills and techniques. Such items arc often grouped together under the heading of'classroom management'. Common classroom management areas include:.
Activities Setting up activities G iving instructions Monitoring activities Timing activities and the lesson as a whole Bringing activities to an end Grouping and seating Forming groupings singles, pairs, groups, mingle, plenary Arranging and rearranging seating Deciding where you will stand or sit Reforming class as a whole group after activities Authority Gathering and holding attention Deciding who does what ie answer a question, make a decision, etc Establishing or relinquishing authority as appropriate Getting someone to do something Critical moments Starting the lesson Dealing with unexpected problems Maintaining appropriate discipline Finishing the lesson.
Tools and techniques Using the board and other classroom equipment or aids Using gestures to help clarity of instructions and explanations Speaking clearly at an appropriate volume and speed Use of silence Grading complexity oflanguage Grading quantity oflanguage Working with people Spreading your attention evenly and appropriately Using intuition to gauge what students are feeling Eliciting honest feedback from students Really listening to students Classroom management involves both decisions and actions.
The actions are what is done in the classroom, eg rearranging the chairs. The decisions are about whether to do these actions, when to do them, how to do them and who will do them.
At any classroom moment, there will be a range of options as to possible actions. To say one thing or to say something different. To stop an activity or to let it continue for a few more minutes. To take three minutes to deal with a difficult question or to move on with what you had previously planned.
To tell off a latecomer or to welcome him. To do something or to do nothing. These options continue throughout the lesson; at every step, your decision will take you forward on your particular route. No one can tell you the 'right' way to do something. There is no perfect lesson, no single correct answer, no single route through a lesson, though some routes may in the end prove to be much more effective than others. Different people or different situations create different solutions.
Your total lesson is created by your choices. You cannot know whether alternative routes might have been more effective- but, post-lesson, it's useful to reflect on what you did and didn't do- and let this inform your future lessons. The essential basic skill for classroom management is therefore to be able to look at and read classroom events as they occur and think of possible options available to you, to make appropriate decisions between these options, and to turn them into effective and efficient actions.
As you grow in experience, your awareness of possible options wiJJ grow. Thus the basic skills of classroom management can be summarised as follows:. Look Options Actions? Looking at Finding options Doing the? Choosing classroom management options Write two or more options for the following situations: It has taken 20 so far, and the students still seem to be very involved.
There is something else you would like to do before the lesson ends in ten minutes. Two groups have finished the task you set them and are now sitting looking bored. The other groups still seem to have a long way to go before they finish. Here are a few possible options: Learning Teaching: A Guidebook for English Language Teachers. Jim Scrivener. Language Teaching Methodology: A Textbook for Teachers.
Read more. Grammar for English Language Teachers. Teaching English: Inspired English Teaching: A Practical Guide for Teachers. Essentials for Successful English Language Teaching. Testing for Language Teachers. Teaching and Learning English Worldwide. A History of English Language Teaching. Teaching English, Language and Literacy. Values in English Language Teaching. Second Language Learning and Language Teaching.