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An influential leader in the Indian independence movement and political heir of Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru became the nation’s first prime minister in His daughter, Indira Gandhi, and grandson, Rajiv Gandhi, later served as prime ministers. On August 15, , India. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was a freedom fighter, the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure . During this period, he also studied politics, economics, history and literature desultorily. Writings of Bernard Shaw, H. G. "China's Decision for War with India in by John W. Garver" (PDF). 26 March Archived from. The greatest contribution of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of NEHRU'S role in the development ens the pace of history, and drives and presses.
As India's first Prime minister and external affairs minister, Jawaharlal Nehru played a major role in shaping modern India's government and political culture along with sound foreign policy. The death was announced to the Indian parliament in words similar to Nehru's own at the time of Gandhi's assassination: Nehru, the man and politician made such a powerful imprint on India that his death on 27 May , left India with no clear political heir to his leadership [ citation needed ] later Lal Bahadur Shastri succeeded him as the Prime Minister. Written By: Economic Reform and the Liberalisation of the Indian Economy:
With the help of the overwhelming majority that the Congress Party maintained in the parliament during his term of office, he advanced toward that goal. The four pillars of his domestic policies were democracy, socialism, unity, and secularism.
He succeeded to a large extent in maintaining the edifice supported by those four pillars during his lifetime. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions.
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Read this Article. John F. His policies on Kashmir and the integration of the state into India were frequently defended in front of the United Nations by his aide, V.
Krishna Menon , who earned a reputation in India for his passionate speeches. Nehru orchestrated the ouster and arrest of Sheikh Abdullah , the then prime minister of Kashmir in , whom he had previously supported but now suspected of harbouring separatist ambitions; Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad replaced him.
In , Menon was instructed to deliver an unprecedented eight-hour speech defending India's stand on Kashmir; to date, the speech is the longest ever delivered in the United Nations Security Council , covering five hours of the nd meeting on 23 January, and two hours and forty-eight minutes on the 24th, reportedly concluding with Menon's collapse on the Security Council floor.
Menon's passionate defence of Indian sovereignty in Kashmir enlarged his base of support in India, and led to the Indian press temporarily dubbing him the "Hero of Kashmir". Nehru was then at the peak of his popularity in India; the only minor criticism came from the far-right. Their first formal codification in treaty form was in an agreement between China and India in which recognized Chinese sovereignty over Tibet.
Negotiations took place in Delhi from December to April between the Delegation of the PRC Government and the Delegation of the Indian Government on the relations between the two countries with respect to the disputed territories of Aksai Chin and South Tibet. By , Chinese premier Zhou Enlai had also succeeded in persuading Nehru to accept the Chinese position on Tibet, thus depriving Tibet of a possible ally, and of the possibility of receiving military aid from India.
They became widely recognised and accepted throughout the region during the premiership of Indira Gandhi and the 3-year rule of the Janata Party — The role of Nehru, both as Indian Prime Minister and a leader of the Non-Aligned Movement was significant; he tried to be even-handed between the two sides, while denouncing Eden and co-sponsors of the invasion vigorously.
Nehru had a powerful ally in the US president Dwight Eisenhower who, if relatively silent publicly, went to the extent of using America's clout in the International Monetary Fund to make Britain and France back down. During the Suez crisis , Nehru's right-hand man, Menon attempted to persuade a recalcitrant Gamal Nasser to compromise with the West, and was instrumental in moving Western powers towards an awareness that Nasser might prove willing to compromise.
Nehru maintained good relations with Britain even after the Suez Crisis. Nehru accepted the arbitration of the UK and World Bank, signing the Indus Waters Treaty in with Pakistani ruler Ayub Khan to resolve long-standing disputes about sharing the resources of the major rivers of the Punjab region.
After years of failed negotiations, Nehru authorised the Indian Army to invade Portuguese-controlled Goa in , and then he formally annexed it to India. It increased his popularity in India, but he was criticised by the communist opposition in India for the use of military force.
From , in a process that accelerated in , Nehru adopted the "Forward Policy" of setting up military outposts in disputed areas of the Sino-Indian border, including in 43 outposts in territory not previously controlled by India.
Later, Pakistan handed over some portion of Kashmir near Siachen controlled by Pakistan since to China. The war exposed the unpreparedness of India's military which could send only 14, troops to the war zone in opposition to the many times larger Chinese army, and Nehru was widely criticised for his government's insufficient attention to defence. In response, Nehru sacked the defence minister V. Krishna Menon and sought US military aid.
Nehru's improved relations with the US under John F. Kennedy proved useful during the war, as in , President of Pakistan then closely aligned with the Americans Ayub Khan was made to guarantee his neutrality in regards to India, who was threatened by "communist aggression from Red China".
Nehru would continue to maintain his commitment to the non-aligned movement despite calls from some to settle down on one permanent ally. The aftermath of the war saw sweeping changes in the Indian military to prepare it for similar conflicts in the future, and placed pressure on Nehru, who was seen as responsible for failing to anticipate the Chinese attack on India.
Under American advice by American envoy John Kenneth Galbraith who made and ran American policy on the war as all other top policy makers in the US were absorbed in coincident Cuban Missile Crisis Nehru refrained, not according to the best choices available, from using the Indian air force to beat back the Chinese advances. The CIA later revealed that at that time the Chinese had neither the fuel nor runways long enough for using their air force effectively in Tibet.
Indians, in general, became highly sceptical of China and its military. Many Indians view the war as a betrayal of India's attempts at establishing a long-standing peace with China and started to question Nehru's usage of the term "Hindi-Chini bhai-bhai" meaning "Indians and Chinese are brothers".
The war also put an end to Nehru's earlier hopes that India and China would form a strong Asian Axis to counteract the increasing influence of the Cold War bloc superpowers. The unpreparedness of the army was blamed on Defence Minister Menon, who "resigned" his government post to allow for someone who might modernise India's military further. India's policy of weaponisation via indigenous sources and self-sufficiency began in earnest under Nehru, completed by his daughter Indira Gandhi, who later led India to a crushing military victory over rival Pakistan in Toward the end of the war India had increased her support for Tibetan refugees and revolutionaries, some of them having settled in India, as they were fighting the same common enemy in the region.
Nehru ordered the raising of an elite Indian-trained "Tibetan Armed Force" composed of Tibetan refugees, which served with distinction in future wars against Pakistan in and Kennedy, requesting 12 squadrons of fighter jets and a modern radar system. These jets were seen as necessary to beef up Indian air strength so that air-to-air combat could be initiated safely from the Indian perspective bombing troops was seen as unwise for fear of Chinese retaliatory action.
Nehru also asked that these aircraft be manned by American pilots until Indian airmen were trained to replace them. According to former Indian diplomat G Parthasarathy, "only after we got nothing from the US did arms supplies from the Soviet Union to India commence". Twelve huge C Hercules transports, complete with US crews and maintenance teams, took off for New Delhi to fly Indian troops and equipment to the battle zone.
Britain weighed in with Bren and Sten guns, and airlifted tons of arms to India. Canada prepared to ship six transport planes. There were four known assassination attempts on Nehru. The first attempt on his life was during partition in while he was visiting North-West Frontier Province now in Pakistan in a car.
Nehru's health began declining steadily after , and he spent months recuperating in Kashmir through Some historians attribute this dramatic decline to his surprise and chagrin over the Sino-Indian War, which he perceived as a betrayal of trust. He spoke to the doctors who attended on him for a brief while and almost immediately Nehru collapsed. He remained unconscious until he died.
His death was announced to Lok Sabha at On 28 May, Nehru was cremated in accordance with Hindu rites at the Shantivan on the banks of the Yamuna , witnessed by 1.
Nehru, the man and politician made such a powerful imprint on India that his death on 27 May , left India with no clear political heir to his leadership [ citation needed ] later Lal Bahadur Shastri succeeded him as the Prime Minister. The death was announced to the Indian parliament in words similar to Nehru's own at the time of Gandhi's assassination: Nehru served as the prime minister for eighteen years. During his tenure he had many ministers in his cabinet who were heavy weights in their own right.
Key members from his first cabinet include Vallabhbhai Patel who oversaw the integration of princely states in the Indian union but was also his greatest rival in the Congress party, and B.
Ambedkar, the law minister in the interim cabinet who also chaired the Constitution Drafting Committee. Vallabhbhai Patel served as home minister in the interim government. He was instrumental in getting the Congress party working committee to vote for partition. He is also credited with integrating peacefully most of the princely states of India.
Patel was a strong rival to Nehru but died in , leaving Nehru as the unchallenged leader of India until his own death in Jagjivan Ram became the youngest minister in Nehru's Interim government of India a Labour Minister and also a member of the Constituent Assembly of India , where,as a member from the dalit caste, he ensured that social justice was enshrined in the Constitution. He went on to serve as a minister with various portfolios during Nehru's tenure and in Shastri and Indira Gandhi governments.
Govind Ballabh Pant — was a key figure in the Indian independence movement and later a pivotal figure in the politics of UP and later in the Indian Government. He was also responsible for the establishment of Hindi as an official language of the central government and a few states. Deshmukh was one of 5 members of the Planning Commission when it was constituted in by a cabinet resolution. During Deshmukh's tenure the State Bank of India was formed in through the nationalisation and amalgamation of the Imperial Bank with several smaller banks.
Vengalil Krishnan Krishna Menon — was a close associate of Nehru, and had been described by some as the second most powerful man in India during Nehru's tenure as prime minister.
He was forced to resign after the debacle of China war. In the years following independence, Nehru frequently turned to his daughter Indira to look after him and manage his personal affairs.
Indira moved into Nehru's official residence to attend to him and became his constant companion in his travels across India and the world.
She would virtually become Nehru's chief of staff. Nehru married Kamala Kaul in Their only daughter Indira was born a year later in Kamala gave birth to a boy in November , but he lived for only a week. They had two sons — Rajiv b. After Kamala's death in , Nehru, as a widower, was alleged to have had relationships with many women.
During most of Nehru's tenure as the prime minister, Indira served her father unofficially as a personal assistant. In that capacity, she was instrumental in getting the Communist led Kerala State Government dismissed in Described as Hindu Agnostic ,  and styling himself as a " scientific humanist ",  Nehru thought that religious taboos were preventing India from going forward and adapting to modern conditions: The spectacle of what is called religion, or at any rate organised religion, in India and elsewhere, has filled me with horror and I have frequently condemned it and wished to make a clean sweep of it.
Almost always it seemed to stand for blind belief and reaction, dogma and bigotry, superstition, exploitation and the preservation of vested interests. In his autobiography, he analysed Christianity  and Islam ,  and their impact on India. He wanted to model India as a secular country ; his secularist policies remain a subject of debate. As India's first Prime minister and external affairs minister, Jawaharlal Nehru played a major role in shaping modern India's government and political culture along with sound foreign policy.
Nehru's education policy is also credited for the development of world-class educational institutions such as the All India Institute of Medical Sciences ,  Indian Institutes of Technology ,  and the Indian Institutes of Management. In addition, Nehru's stance as an unfailing nationalist led him to also implement policies which stressed commonality among Indians while still appreciating regional diversities.
This proved particularly important as post-Independence differences surfaced since British withdrawal from the subcontinent prompted regional leaders to no longer relate to one another as allies against a common adversary.
While differences of culture and, especially, language threatened the unity of the new nation, Nehru established programs such as the National Book Trust and the National Literary Academy which promoted the translation of regional literatures between languages and also organised the transfer of materials between regions. In pursuit of a single, unified India, Nehru warned, "Integrate or perish.
Historian Ramachandra Guha writes, "[had] Nehru retired in he would be remembered as not just India's best prime minister, but as one of the great statesmen of the modern world. In his lifetime, Jawaharlal Nehru enjoyed an iconic status in India and was widely admired across the world for his idealism and statesmanship.
Congress leaders and activists often emulate his style of clothing, especially the Gandhi cap and the " Nehru jacket ", and his mannerisms. Nehru's personal preference for the sherwani ensured that it continues to be considered formal wear in North India today; aside from lending his name to a kind of cap, the Nehru jacket is named in his honour because of his preference for that style. Numerous public institutions and memorials across India are dedicated to Nehru's memory.
The Jawaharlal Nehru Port near the city of Mumbai is a modern port and dock designed to handle a huge cargo and traffic load. The complex also houses the offices of the 'Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Fund', established in under the Chairmanship of Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan , then President of India.
The foundation also gives away the prestigious 'Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Fellowship', established in Many documentaries about Nehru's life have been produced. He has also been portrayed in fictionalised films. The canonical performance is probably that of Roshan Seth , who played him three times: Girish Karnad 's historical play, Tughlaq is an allegory about the Nehruvian era.
He had written 30 letters to his daughter Indira Gandhi , when she was 10 years old and in a boarding school in Mussoorie , teaching about natural history and the story of civilisations. The collection of these letters was later published as a book Letters from a Father to His Daughter.
In , Nehru was awarded Bharat Ratna , India's highest civilian honour. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Kamala Nehru m. See also: States Reorganisation Act, Further information: List of state visits made by Jawaharlal Nehru. India and the Non-Aligned Movement. Sino-Indian War. The Autobiography of Jawaharlal Nehru ; pp. Biography portal Politics portal India portal Jawaharlal Nehru portal.
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During the Non-Cooperation movement of , Kamala played a vital role by organizing groups of women and picketing shops selling foreign cloth and liquor in Allahabad.
On19 November, she gave birth to a daughter, who came to be known as Indira Priyadarshini. Kamala died from tuberculosis in Switzerland on February 28, , while Jawaharlal Nehru was in prison. His time in jail helped him achieve a deeper understanding of the Gandhian philosophy and the nuances of the non-cooperation movement. He was moved by Gandhi's approach of dealing with caste and "untouchability". With time, Nehru emerged as a popular and influential nationalist leader, particularly in Northern India.
He was elected as the president of the Allahabad municipal corporation in He refused to move to the Swaraj Party established by his father and Chittaranjan Das in Jawaharlal Nehru travelled to European nations like Germany, France and the Soviet Union in with his family and sought meetings with several Communists, Socialists, and radical leaders from Asia and Africa. Nehru was also impressed with the economic system of the communist Soviet Union and wished to apply the same in his own country.
In , he became a member of the League against Imperialism created in Brussels, the capital city of Belgium. During the Guwahati Session of the Congress in , Mahatma Gandhi announced that the Congress would launch a massive movement if the British did not grant dominion status to India within the next two years.
It was believed that under the pressure of Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose, the deadline was reduced to one year. Jawaharlal Nehru criticized the famous "Nehru Report" prepared by his father Motilal Nehru in that favored the concept of a "dominion status for India within the British rule". In Mahatma Gandhi supported the name of Nehru as the next president of the Congress.
The decision was also an attempt to abate the intensity of "communism" in the Congress. The same year, Nehru was arrested for the violation of the Salt Law.