Grammar for English. Language Teachers Second edition. Martin Parrott. ~ CAMBRIDGE ~ UNIVERSITY PRESS PUBLI S HED BY THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF. Cambridge University Press - Grammar for English Language Teachers, Second Edition Martin Parrott Frontmatter More information . Grammar for English Language Teachers [Martin Parrott] on soundofheaven.info * FREE* shipping Get your Kindle here, or download a FREE Kindle Reading App.
|Language:||English, Spanish, French|
|Genre:||Business & Career|
|ePub File Size:||30.84 MB|
|PDF File Size:||20.26 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
Download. “ It always seems Martin Parrott. 11 CAMBRIDGE. ¿1 The Grammar of English Grammars - ESL Teachers Board. 1, Pages·· Author: Martin Parrott. downloads Views 24MB Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF A Concise Grammar for English Language Teachers · Read more. Grammar for English Language Teachers_Martin Parrot - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or Task for Language Teachers Martin Parrott (Download Ulang ).
Changing attitudes a, b i Hopefully is used as an attitude marker. We use either in questions and negative statements. Using quantifiers with other determiners We generally don't use quantifiers immediately before or after other determiners. Adjective order Learners may use adjectives in a sequence that native speakers would instinctively avoid. The choice is entirely open.
Since no prior mention has been made of furniture, this alerts us to search for 'qualifying' information, and from the context we conclude that this is the furniture in the house that he has been engaged to work on. This use of the can also be explained by the fact that the far end is qualified by of Since no prior mention has been made of houses, this alerts us to search for 'qualifying' information, and from the context we conclude that this is the house that he has been engaged to work on.
English 1 The learner is referring to the previous week and should have written Last week. The last week would be appropriate in a context where she wished to refer to the final week of an established period of time e. We didn't have very good weather on our holiday but the last week was dty.
The learner may be translating literally from ti. We normally talk of going to the cinema or theatre, thinking of the act of seeing a film or a play. This learner may, however, be acting on the principle that we use a before singular nouns when the information is 'new'. After all, I decided to go to a museum is completely idiomatic. However, the expression itself is an odd one and might be a literal translation from the learner's first language.
A more idiomatic way of expressing her meaning might be something like without too many difficulties. The 'common ground' principle would lead a learner who didn't know this to use alan. She may not know these set phrases and may not realise that Italian can be a noun, acting as the name of the language. In fact the meaning is quite clear, and her use of a follows the 'not common ground' principle. The effect of the is to alert our sensors for 'common ground', and it is disconcerting to discover from the context that there is none.
Perhaps she leaves out a because there are already two words before the noun very interesting film. As in the case of tuberculosis she chooses the. Perhaps she is influenced by expressions such as go to the cinema, the pub, etc.
Key considerations Choosing the correct quantifier is complicated, and learners often leave them out altogether or choose the wrong one. Each time we use a noun we have to decide if a quantifier is necessary and, if it is, which one.
This choice involves the meaning of what we want to express, a range of grammatical factors and also formality. Course materials usually introduce quantifiers systematically in small groups e. Like articles, quantifiers belong to the wider class of'determiner', i. Quantifiers include the following words and expressions: We use quantifiers at the beginning of noun phrases:.
Types of noun Whether the main noun in the noun phrase is countable singular or plural or uncountable limits our choice of quantifier. Plural nouns: Is the sentence affirmative, negative or a question?
We choose some quantifiers mainly in affirmative statements i. I've got some time. Negative or question: I can't see any problem. Do you have any ideas? Course materials often suggest that this is a hard and fast rule, but as we see below there are many exceptions to this.
Formal style Neutral or informal style Much interest was shown. A lot of interest was shown. They made little progress They didn't make much progress. Position of the noun phrase in the sentence We use much and many at the beginning of an affirmative sentence in the subject , but generally avoid them in other positions.
Meaning Meaning determines whether we choose a quantifier instead of an article, and which of the possible quantifiers we choose. Can you pass me the books? General use We use unstressed some:. I taught them some vocabulary. He's got some money. Compare He's got the money. We use some before plural and uncountable nouns, usually in affirmative sentences.
I have some cigarettes. There are some obJects p eggs in the fridge. However, we can also use some in the subject of a clause. Some people came to see you. Some in offers and requests We can use some in offers even though the sentence is a question. Would you like some custard?
We can also say: Would you like any custard? In requests we have to use some. Could I have some sugar, please? Stressed some can suggest a restricted or limited quantity or type of something. I like SOME music. We use stressed some in questions and negative sentences as well as affirmative sentences.
I can't eat SOME types offish. We also use stressed some to emphasise that precise identity is irrelevant. In this case it is often followed by a singular noun. I spoke to SOME idiot in your front office. Quantifiers I Any General use Before plural or uncountable nouns: Do you know any good jokes?
I won't bring any wine. Learners generally learn this use of any at elementary level, as the question or negative alternative to some e.
I have some cigarettes; I don't have any matches. We can use no instead of not He has no interest in education. He doesn't have any interest We tend to prefer no to not No students offered to help with the cleaning. I don't like ANY red wine. I think all red wine is horrible. You can take ANY book. The choice is entirely open. We use stressed any with singular as well as plural and uncountable nouns, and in affirmative sentences as well as negative ones and questions.
When we use any as part of the subject of a clause, it suggests unrestrictedness the particular identity is unimportant even if it isn't stressed. Any music would be better than this horrible noise! Much, many and a Jot of General use We use much, many and a lot ofto suggest a large quantity.
Do you need much space? I've lived here for many years. A lot of soft drinks contain sugar substitutes. At elementary level we usually teach that we use much and many in questions and after negative forms ofthe verb although, as we see below, we can also use much and many in affirmative sentences.
Do they have much money? I haven't got much time. Do you have many things still to do? There weren't many trees left standing. At elementary level we generally teach a lot ofas a neutral, affirmative form for both plural and uncountable nouns.
There are a lot ofpeople outside. They have a lot ofcharm. Much and many after so, too and how After so, too and how we use much before uncountable nouns and many before countable nouns. I've got so many things to do. You're wasting too much time. Tell me how many people have arrived. Much and many in affirmative statements; a lot of in questions and negative statements We often use many in noun phrases that are the subject of an affirmative clause.
We can also use many in a noun phrase which is the object or complement of an complements affirmative clause, particularly in formal and written English.
We use much in affirmative sentences, generally only in very formal, written registers. There has been much research into effective group behaviour. We use a lot ofin questions and in negative statements to give extra emphasis to the amount. Do they have a lot offriends? I don't have a lot of time. Several, a few and a little We use several, a few and a little to suggest a small quantity. Several implies more items than a few.
We tend to use these quantifiers in affirmative statements and questions, rather than in negative statements. Few and little We use few and little without a to suggest a strong sense of reservation, with a hint of 'not enough'.
We tend to use these quantifiers in formal, written English. We use more with both plural and uncountable nouns, while fewer expressions is used only with plural nouns and less is generally used with uncountable of quantity pp nouns.
All, each and every We use all, each and every to emphasise the 'completeness' of a group or class of things. We've considered all opinions. All wine contains alcohol. They defused each bomb. Every night was the same. All looks at things from a collective view and is followed by a plural or uncountable noun. Each and every have a more individual, one-by-one point of view, and are followed by a singular noun and verb. Did you examine each side of the coin? Unlike most quantifiers, all can immediately precede the or a possessive possessive adjective e.
We use both, either and neither to refer to two people or things. Either looks at things from the point of view of alternatives x or y. Both is followed by a plural noun both sides and either and neither by singular nouns and verbs.
We use either in questions and negative statements. We use neither in formal and written English. In informal contexts, we often prefer not Unlike most quantifiers, both can immediately precede the or a possessive adjective e.
Enough We use enough to emphasise that a quantity is sufficient for some purpose. Are you getting enough help? Another We use another to emphasise that something is additional to an existing number or quantity. We're having another baby. We use another with singular nouns and with numbers followed by plural nouns. Have another drink. I've got another three days. Overview The table below provides an overview of the grammatical considerations we take into account in choosing quantifiers.
All can immediately precede the or a possessive adjective. It can immediately precede the or a possessive adjective. Using quantifiers with other determiners We generally don't use quantifiers immediately before or after other determiners. However, all and both can immediately precede the or a possessive adjective and in this case they are known as 'pre-determiners'. They welcomed both the speakers. All your students came. We can combine the following quantifiers:.
I travel everyfew weeks. He needed a few more votes. I received a little less money. We getfew enough treats. In this case the words are classed as pronouns rather than quantifiers. Give it to either ofthe children. I didn't understand much ofit. Many ofour friends came. Quantifiers in conversation In conversation, instead of constructing sentences beginning with a quantifier e.
Many politicians Politicians, many ofthem can't be trusted. People in Britain, a lot ofthem long to live in warmer places. Comprehension When learners don't know or don't notice quantifiers, this rarely leads to significant misunderstanding.
Speaking and writing It is relatively easy for learners to learn the meaning of quantifiers, but more difficult for them to grasp and remember the grammatical restrictions that control their use.
Leaving out quantifiers altogether Learners are particularly prone to leave out the more 'neutral' quantifiers e. Other and another Confusion between other and another is very common.
Speakers of European languages tend to use another in place of other. Speakers of non-European languages tend to do the opposite. Inappropriate use of any Learners sometimes use any in affirmative sentences instead of not Over-using quantifiers Learners also sometimes use two quantifiers together or a quantifier next to an article. This can give rise to damaging misunderstandings about attitude.
For example, in the first ofthese examples the stress on some can give the impression that the speaker is only grudgingly allowing time. In the second example, the stress on any can make the question sound demanding or whining. I've got SOME time to spare. Do you have ANY time to spare?
Using much and many instead of a lot of Learners sometimes over-use much and many because they are concentrating on whether the noun is countable or uncountable, and they forget that they also need to consider whether the sentence is affirmative. Countable and uncountable nouns Learners mistake uncountable for countable nouns and use many instead of much. Singular-plural confusion Sometimes learners use plural nouns after each and every.
Learners also sometimes want to use a singular form of the verb after a lot of. A lot ofappears to be singular, but this use is incorrect. Quantifiers and pronouns Learners often use all as a pronoun instead of everybody, everyone or everything:. Quantifiers 1 Language in context 1 The sentences that follow are from a lecture about managing change in education. What difference would this make, if any? Differences in meaning Look at the following sentences.
Have you got some paint for concrete floors? I've searched through every drawer in the office. I can't find it. I've searched through each drawer in the office.
I've searched through all the drawers in the office. I can find neither of the books you told me to look for. I have no more strength. Has he scored many goals this season?
He's got little sense. Conversely, all teachers have a fund All would also be possible since there is not enough context to show how many sides are involved, and many, a few, few, several and a lot of could also be used. The context makes it clear that both is not possible.
Many, a few, few, several and a lot of could be used here, but the sentence would then be ambiguous it could then be interpreted that Britain also has a gymnasia system, i. If this sentence were read aloud, some would be stressed implying 'some but not all teachers'. Some stressed would also be possible, and would suggest a limited degree of pride. Quantifiers I 49 v a any b Every could also be used.
Any adds the sense of 'if any spiders appear'. Differences in meaning i a Both sentences are correct. However, many people feel that they use these two forms interchangeably. Other people feel that they might use some here because they are concerned with a restricted kind of paint for concrete floors. Many people feel that the third sentence emphasises the completeness of the act, but it is still extremely close in meaning and effect to the other two sentences.
Many people feel that the second is less likely to be used in spoken English. Some people feel that the second is less likely to be used in spoken English. The second sentence suggests that he is lacking in sense i. The first sentence does not have this suggestion of insufficiency. Learners' English i a It is difficult to imagine any context in which this would sound natural or correct.
Quantifiers iii a This use of many in a noun phrase functioning as the subject of the sentence is more natural than its use in ii , even though it is still more a feature of the written than the spoken language. Key considerations Learners are generally more concerned with the meaning of specific adjectives than with their grammar. When the grammar does cause problems, this is often related to:. Adjectives are often called 'describing words' because they provide information about the qualities of something described in a noun, a noun phrase or a noun clause.
Adjectives provide much of the 'colour' in any description, as the following passage illustrates. This text introduces the classic film 'Deliverance' to television viewers. The adjectives are printed in italics. John Boorman's provocative, violent and compelling thriller takes American poet James Dickey's novel to giddy heights of suspenseful stress and proves that Burt Reynolds can act.
Central to the success of Boorman's culture clash nightmare, and what makes it resonate with such a rare intensity, is the powerful theme of red-blooded masculinity under hostile threat. Adjectives related to nouns or verbs A lot of adjectives are closely related to nouns or verbs. Sometimes, as in the case of impeccable, the adjective survives long after the noun or verb it has been related to is forgotten.
Communist -some: Anglican -ive: Participle forms In the following examples boring and bored are parts of the verb to bore. Ami boring you? I haven't bored you, have I? Boring is the present participle and bored is the past participle.
Many adjectives present have the same form as participles e. The second part of multiword adjectives is often a past participle form. Adverb and past participle: In this case the first part is usually a past participle form e. Other multiword adjectives don't involve participle forms at all, e. His two-piece birds-eye suit is impressive, his blue shirt with its rounded collar immaculate, his thin, faintly European slip-on shoes impeccable.
Adjectives don't change before plural nouns. Comparative and superlative forms We add er I gf to the end of most short adjectives to make the comparative form,:.
I'm older than you imagine. Which city is the coldest in the United States? Before a noun When we use adjectives before nouns they are usually the last-but-one item in the noun phrase.
We can usually leave adjectives out of a noun phrase without making nonsense of the sentence. A few adjectives can only be used before a noun e. Apart from central, all the adjectives in the film review on p 51 come before the noun as part of the noun phrase. After a noun or pronoun and verb We also use adjectives after nouns 'predicatively'. In this case we use a complement complement verb to link it to the noun or pronoun it qualifies.
He is cold. It s getting dark. When we use adjectives predicatively, they usually express the main point of the clause, and we can't leave them out. She's asleep.
We look at when adjectives can immediately follow nouns on p Using more than one adjective Order The following is a helpful rule of thumb to use when two or more adjectives occur before a noun:. Learners sometimes appreciate more detailed guidance such as the table below however, precise information like this is only a rough guide and is not foolproof. Punctuation In writing we generally separate the adjectives in a list by commas when they all qualify the same noun.
Linking adjectives with and In theory any number of adjectives can be used together, although most people avoid long strings of descriptive words, particularly in writing and particularly when they come before the noun. Adjectives I Before a noun, we don't need to use a conjunction to separate the adjectives we put together.
However, after a noun or pronoun we have to use and before the last of two or more adjectives. We can choose to use and before the final item in a list of three or more adjectives used before a noun. In this case and emphasises the final adjective, and allows us to change the usual order of adjectives. These narrow down adverbs the meaning of the adjective, making it more precise. Adjectives followed by prepositions, infinitives and that When we use adjectives predicativelywe can sometimes follow them with a preposition, infinitive or that clause.
Good, bad, easy, difficult, usual, unusual, wise and foolish and adjectives with similar meanings to these are among those normally followed by an patterns infinitive. We can help learners in our teaching by grouping together adjectives not only according to their meaning but also according to the words which follow them. Learners also need to develop the habit of using a good learners' dictionary such as Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary to check what can follow any particular adjective.
Sometimes there is more than one possibility. A few adjectives can only be used if they are followed by a preposition, i. Gradable adjectives Gradable adjectives describe qualities that we can measure or grade in some way. Things can be wet, cold, interesting or disappointing to different degrees; we can say something is quite wet, very wet or terribly wet.
Gradable adjectives include calm, flexible, happy, ill and jealous. We can use intensifiers e. She's fairly certain. Ungradable adjectives Some adjectives express:. With these extreme and absolute 'ungradable' adjectives we use only intensifiers which stress the extreme or absolute nature of these adjectives, and we don't use downtoners. He's utterly terrified. She's completely dead.
Exceptional sentence positions Learners often work hard to remember that adjectives have to come before nouns, ObjeCt- and are then puzzled to discover that there are apparent exceptions to this rule.
Here the adjective as complement describes something about the object. Ellipsis We also use adjectives immediately after nouns when we leave something out of the sentence i.
Usually what we leave out is a relative pronoun e. This kind of ellipsis is particularly common after pronouns like reiJt1ve something, someone, somewhere, sometime, and anything.
You should wear something warm. Forms of the verb to be can also be left out to avoid repetition, as in the description on p 52, where is has been left out before immaculate and are before impeccable. Adjective phrases Learners may be particularly confused by cases such as the following description of a musician's piano technique, where adjectives seem to follow a noun:. Here the adjectives form a phrase that extends the information in the noun, and can follow it examples like this may also be classified as 'verbless clauses'.
Comprehension If adjectives usually follow nouns in the learners' first language, they may need time and considerable exposure to English in order to become familiar with the usual sequence of information in English noun phrases adjectives before nouns.
Even though they may know and be able to verbalise the 'rule', they may be wrong-footed by specific instances. This may cause them difficulty in processing information, particularly in listening to English in reading, they have the opportunity to stop in order to study phrases and work out how information is ordered , and particularly when they come across a string of two or more adjectives before a noun. Speaking and writing Plural forms Learners may create a plural adjective form.
This is particularly common among people whose first language has a plural form of adjectives. Comparative and superlative forms Learners may over-generalise the rules which determine the comparative and superlative forms of adjectives.
Sentence position Some learners often place adjectives after the noun where this is inappropriate in English. This mistake is particularly common among learners whose first language places adjectives after the noun as a matter of course.
Participle forms Learners may use a present participle form instead of a past participle. Adjective order Learners may use adjectives in a sequence that native speakers would instinctively avoid. Combining adjectives Learners sometimes use conjunctions e. Learners may be confused by the fact that the rule is different according to whether or not the adjectives come before or after the noun. Gradable and ungradable adjectives Learners may not know which adjectives we can and can't intensify.
Adjectives and adverbs Learners may use an adverb form instead of an adjective. This mistake is especially common among learners whose first language makes no distinction between adjective and adverb forms e. Language in context The passage which follows is from a novel. It describes London in the s from the point of view of someone who has just arrived in Britain, in winter, from India.
Read the passage and then answer the questions. She hated London - hated it at the very first sight of the foggy streets filled with drab crowds hurrying home, the shop windows glowing feebly in the misty twilight, the huge buses reduced to dim red rumbling shapes that seemed to appear from nowhere out of the smoke and fog. She particularly hated this dingy, dark, ugly room, with its broken-down furniture and the hissing gas heater in the fireplace that went out if you forgot to keep enough shillings to feed into the coin slot.
She thought about struggling into a heavy skirt and cardigan and pulling on a pair of thick stockings: Her wool gloves, which she disliked even more, were suspended from a wire in front of the pale- blue flames of the gas heater, drying from another hopeless morning of job hunting and giving off an odour which Queenie found loathsome.
Everything in England seemed to smell of damp wool, as if the entire population consisted of wet sheep. How much difference would this make to the description? What kind of difference? Account for its position in the sentence. Identify and explain any mistakes in the form and use of adjectives. I am a person very working-hard and seriously. I am tall one metre thirty nine and I have blonds, longs hairs, blues eyes and a nose little and crooked. I like to wear clothes with brightly colours so you can always see me and easy to recognise my smilingly face.
I wear make up with lips brightly reds and I am usually a character with passionately. Language in context a The following are adjectives: Some grammars consider the following as adjectives: The passage also contains a number of adjective-like forms.
These include the participle forms filled, glowing, reduced and suspended, and the modifying nouns shop, coin, wool, gas and job. It is the adjectives which, above all, create the pervasive feeling of drabness, dampness and cold.
This feeling is arguably more important than the details. Broken-down is a past participle. The final part of this sentence is a relative clause see Chapter 27 and the verb in this clause found is an object-complement verb. We understand the following: Queenie found the odour loathsome. None of the adjectives has a prefix. Learners' English The learner uses a number of adverb forms in place of adjectives: She uses the following after rather than before the nouns they refer to: We need to use long, blond rather than blond, long general before specific.
We would say a little crooked nose rather than little and crooked. We might also choose small rather than little to make it clear that this describes nose rather than crooked her nose is little and it is crooked; it is not a little crooked as opposed to very crooked. She mistakes the form of hard-working. She incorrectly constructs a number of expressions with with: She needs either to write it is easy to recognise We use measurements before adjectives - we say one metre 39 tall also three feet long; six centimetres wide etc.
Key considerations The term 'adverb' refers to different kinds of words with quite different functions. For teaching purposes it is generally necessary to specify particular types of adverb e. Adverbs can occupy a range of positions in the sentence, and choosing where to place them is often a major problem for learners. The meaning of certain adverbs e. The popular definition of adverbs as words that 'modify a verb, an adjective or another adverb' is neither accurate nor very helpful.
Whereas it is relatively easy to define and describe what a noun or an adjective is, we can only usefully define and describe different categories of adverb. It is sometimes helpful to think of 'adverb' as a 'dustbin' term- all the types of word that don't fit neatly into other categories such as noun, adjective, verb, preposition are lumped together as adverbs.
The following is a useful way of dividing adverbs: Focusing adverbs and attitude markers can also be classified as discourse markers. The adverbs in the text are pp Each of them is classified below so that you know how these terms are used in this chapter.
So was jealousy a bit of a problem amongst you and your brothers? Absolutely 1. Jealous squabbles were always 2 bursting out between us, and our parents could never 3 find a way of handling it successfully 4. And they were. But because jealousy frightened and worried them so 6 much 7 , we never 8 got the chance of being properly 9 jealous, finishing it, going through it, and letting the feeling find its normal, natural place in our personalities.
Still, I've learned from this, and nowadays 10 , when families I see complain of jealousy in their children despite the fact that they always ll cut the cake equally 12 with a ruler and give everyone penicillin when only 13 one child has a sore throat, I know what to do. I usually 14 tell them that, though they are such a nice, successful family in many ways, they're obviously 15 not very 16 good at being jealous and need more practice before they come to see me next time.
Grammars and dictionaries often disagree about what words are adverbs and what aren't. One-word textual discourse markers such as firstly, however and nevertheless are sometimes classified as adverbs. Some grammars don't use the term 'adverb' at all. This chapter follows the way the term is used in most popular course books. We look at what specific adverbs and types of adverbs do on p In most cases the meaning ofthe adjectives and adverbs are very close.
He's a careful driver. He drives carefully. Adverbs I Although many adverbs end in ly, not all words which end in ly are adverbs. The following are adjectives: These do not have a standard adverb form. Some people say, for example:. However, most people simply avoid sentences like this. It is more usual to use an expression such as the following: Other adjectives e.
We use the expression with difficulty in place of an adverb. A few adverbs which are closely related to adjectives in form don't mean the same as the corresponding adjective e. This can be a source of confusion for learners. Other adverbs Some adverbs e. A number of adverbs have the same form as adjectives and there is no ly alternative e. Other adverbs have two forms - one is the same as the adjective and the other which many people prefer and may consider to be the only correct form ends in ly.
Commonly used Used formally and in written language Hold it tight. She held the bag tightly. Come here quick. She ran quickly. Try to sing less loud. He always spoke loudly. Is the plug sold separate? Additional RAM can be purchased separately. Where do adverbs come in sentences?
General points The rules which govern the position of adverbs in sentences are complex. Some adverbs are an intrinsic part of phrases e. Other adverbs e. We look in detail at the sentence position of specific adverbs and types of adverb below. The following provides only a general overview of sentence position. The examples are all taken from the text on p Before a whole clause: Before the verb: At the end of a clause: Types of adverbs Adverbs of manner In the following text, the adverbs of manner are printed in italics.
Diana, Roger and Snubby are children, and Loony is a dog.
Diana and Roger had no wish to fling themselves joyfully on Snubby; but Loony flung himself on them so violently that he almost knocked Diana over. He appeared from under the table, barking madly, and threw himself at them.
The spaniel licked him lavishly, whining joyfully. Miss Pepper looked crossly at them. You are very late. Meaning Adverbs of manner usually express how something is done. Open it quickly! He hit me hard. They can usually provide one-word answers to questions beginning How How did she approach them?
Sentence position The most common place to use adverbs of manner is at the end of a clause. After a verb: You spoke convincingly. After an object: You described everything convincingly. After an adverbial: You described everything to the board convincingly. However, we can vary the position of adverbs of manner according to what we want to emphasise. Before a subject: Carefully, she put it on the shelf. Before a verb: She carefully put it on the shelf.
Between an object She put it carefully on the shelf. We also use adverbs of manner immediately before past participles. The new roof was carefully lifted into position. We generally avoid placing these adverbs between a verb and its object or a non-finite or that clause. However, this is not an absolute rule and learners will frequently come across examples of the adverb in this position.
Nonetheless, particularly in formal written language, many people disapprove of placing an adverb between the particle and verb in a 'full' infinitive form. Learners may be penalised in examinations if they do this themselves. Adverbs which qualify adjectives We can use adverbs of manner to qualify adjectives.
Passionately occurs with verbs like kiss and love, but also with a range of other verbs suggesting feeling or conviction e. Urgently frequently occurs with verbs suggesting need: Adverbs of frequency Meaning We use adverbs of frequency to indicate how often we do things or how often things happen.
Adverbs of frequency include: Sentence position Before the main verb This rule of thumb describes most cases where the verb phrase p is a one-word form e. She never speaks. They don't always believe what I say.
They would often have eaten before we arrived. When we use one-word forms am, is, are, was, were , we usually place adverbs of frequency immediately before the complement.
I was always the best student. Is she often ill? Front and end positions For emphasis we can also choose to place usually, often, sometimes and occasionally at the beginning of a whole clause. Sometimes her attitude is rather off-putting.
We also place often and sometimes at the end of a clause, after the verb, object or adverbial. I don't go out often. Phrases similar in meaning to adverbs of frequency e. When we place these at the front of a clause for emphasis, we use the word order of a question form, i. This is more common in writing than in speaking. Adverbs of time and place We use adverbs to specify both times e. We also use adverbs to stand in place of adverbials phrases such as on Wednesday or at the bus stop which make the precise time or place known.
I need to see her now. I'm seeing him at 6. I'll tell him then. While we're here, can we see the garden? You can't stay there too long. We generally place these adverbs at the end of a clause. Adverbs of relative time Meaning These adverbs provide information about the time of an action or event in relation to some other point of time often 'now'.
He's currently working in Namibia. They're just coming. I'll be there soon. Sentence position Just We use just immediately before the main verb or between two auxiliary verbs. They have just arrived. I have just been lookingfor you. Afterwards and soon We usually use afterwards and soon at the end of a clause. We're leaving afterwards. We'll be at the station soon. Currently, presently and recently The position of currently, presently and recently is more flexible.
These adverbs often:. I'll be going out presently. She's currently trying to finish the book. She has recently been getting back late. These adverbs can also come at the beginning of a clause, particularly in written and more formal styles of English. Presently, she got up from the bench and wandered down to the edge of the stream. Special adverbs: Is she here? I thought she might leave before now. Is she here yet?
We both know she is coming but I don't know if she has arrived. Is she here already? Has she come earlier than we expected? We need to pay particular attention to tone of voice in teaching these adverbs as in questions they can easily be interpreted as criticisms Have you finished yet? Adverbs I 69 In teaching these adverbs it is often helpful to refer to how these meanings are expressed in the learners' first language s. We can also place these adverbs at the end of a clause.
I know already. I am using it still. Already is generally used in affirmative statements but may be used in questions, especially in American English. Adverbs of degree Meaning We divide adverbs of degree into 'intensifiers' e. We are very hungry. I am totally confused. We ran fairly quickly. Choosing an intensifier depends not only on the degree of intensification e.
Some adjectives are gradable, and we choose intensifiers such as very or extremely. With ungradable adjectives we choose intensifiers which express gradalJic ildjCCtiVCS p 56 absoluteness such as absolutely, completely or totally. Other intensifiers such as largely and wholly comment on the completeness of something. We use some intensifiers only to describe abstract qualities e.
The intensifiers we use with gradable adjectives can also be used with. I really like it, I totally agree. We use downtoners only with gradable adjectives such as angry, cold, hot or with related adverbs such as angrily. We can use quite with both gradable and ungradable adjectives and related adverbs , and its meaning changes accordingly. Quite functions as a down towner with gradable adjectives and adverbs i. We also use different stress and intonation with the different meanings of quite.
She was qftite t'tred. Sentence position We generally place adverbs of degree immediately before the word they qualify, e. When the verb phrase contains a modal verb e. Before the modal verb: You really must look at the garden. Before the main verb: You must really look at the garden. We usually place adverbs of degree immediately before the main verb when auxiliaries are used to form the tense. I have quite enjoyed the holiday. As well as placing very much before the verb, we can also place it at the end of the clause.
Adverbs of quantity A lot, a little and much tell us something about quantity. We consider the expressions a lot and a little in this chapter which is mainly concerned with single-word forms because they have no one-word equivalent.
We generally use a little only in affirmative statements and much in negative or question forms.
Rocio Garcia Moreno. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
First published 2nd edition Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN 0 0 Paperback ISBN 0 8 Hardback Cover design by David Lawton Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.
Information regarding prices, travel timetables and other factual information given in this work are correct at the time of i rst printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter. My thanks to all of you and to anyone I have forgotten to mention here. My special thanks go to the eagle-eyed Helen Forrest, whose rigour and professionalism as an editor have contributed much to the improvements in this edition.
Acknowledgments he authors and publishers are grateful to the following for permission to use copyright material in Grammar for English Language Teachers 2nd Edition.
All eforts have been made to contact the copyright holders of material belonging to third parties, and citations are given for the sources. We welcome approaches from any copyright holders whom we have not been able to trace or contact, but who ind that their material has been reproduced herein. All rights reserved. Progress or Decay?
Reprinted by permission of he Random House Group Ltd.