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Select the desired option. If you haven't already stored names. To end the curve. The tracks are located in the program area of the session. Windows Vertical lines are called Column and cress section of row and a column is called Cell.

Index 3.

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System software acts as an interface between the hardware of the computer and the application software that users need to run on the computer.. An operating system has three main responsibilities: Provide a software platform on top of which other programs i. The diagram below illustrates the relationship between application software and system software.

This software is designed to solve a particular problem for users. The purpose of an operating system is to organize and control hardware and software so that the device it lives in behaves in a flexible but predictable way. The operating system OS is the first thing loaded onto the computer.

The operating system is a interface between user and computer. On the other hand. Computer software can be divided into two main categories: Application software and system software. Examples of application software include spreadsheets.

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Application software consists of the programs for performing tasks particular to the machine's utilization. Perform basic tasks. Ensure that different programs and users running at the same time do not interfere with each other.

Booting Up the computer In computing. A boot sequence is the set of operations the computer performs when it is switched on which load an operating system. Two separate bit versions of Windows XP were also released. The letters "XP" stand for experience. New software management capabilities were introduced to avoid the "DLL hell" that plagued older consumer versions of Windows.

Windows XP has also been criticized by some users for security vulnerabilities. It presents a significantly redesigned graphical user interface GUI. It is also the first version of Windows to use product activation to combat software piracy. Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Windows are the network operating system which is used in the network. Windows XP is the name of a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems.

Windows XP was first released on October Windows XP is known for its improved stability and efficiency over previous versions of Windows. Other operating systems are UNIX. Windows Vista is scheduled to be the next major revision of Microsoft Windows. Microsoft has released different versions of Windows over the years.

In addition. Windows They both share the same basic functionality. XP Professional just has a few more features specifically designed for large corporate networks. In fact. There are actually two different retail versions of Windows XP. My Music. Windows XP Professional Edition. Mouse and Keyboard Desktop As you can see in the following figure.

My Pictures. The Media Center is an optional interface that sits on the top of the normal Windows XP desktop and allows one-button access to key multimedia functions.

Get to know the desktop. PCs equipped with Media Center come with a handheld remote control for quick switching from across the room!

Windows XP Home Edition. Introduction about Keyboard 6. Displays buttons for your open applications and windows. This is where you dump any files you want to delete. The part of the taskbar that holds the clock. Opens the Start menu. These are links to software programs you can place on your desktop.

PgDn Used to perform special functions. Pointing and clicking is an effective way to select menu items.

Enter or Return Used to execute an instruction or data being keyed in through the keyboard Caps lock Used for keying in capitalized alphabets. SysRq System Required. Introduction about Mouse A mouse is a small device that is connected to the system unit by means of a long wire. Key Function F1. F12 Function keys Used to perform special functions that depend on the software being used.

NumLock Used to activate the numeric keys on the Numeric keypad. You perform all these operations with your mouse. Also used to input the upper symbols for keys with two symbols or characters on them. It usually has two or three buttons using which the user can select options from the screen. Cursor keys Used to move the cursor in the direction indicated.

Print Screen Used to print whatever is displayed on the screen. Simply move the mouse so that the cursor is pointing to the object you want to select. Shift Capslock off: If pressed simultaneously with a character key. Usually used to cancel a command. Important Windows Operations To use Windows efficiently. Alt key Pressed with other keys. It reverses the above effect. This is another input device.

Esc Depends on the application. Backspace Used to erase the character to the left of the cursor position. Ins Used to insert characters at the current cursor position Del Used to delete characters at the current cursor position. Pointing and Clicking The most common mouse operation is pointing and clicking.

Right-Clicking When you select an item and then click the right mouse button. You do this by positioning the cursor over the very edge of the window—any edge. You also can change the size of most windows. As long as this button is depressed. Moving and Resizing Windows Every software program you launch is displayed in a separate onscreen window.

If you position the cursor on the top or 8. Many operations require you to hover your cursor and then perform some other action. This menu. Refer to your individual programs to see whether and how they use the right mouse button. Dragging and Dropping Dragging is a variation of clicking. You can use dragging and dropping to move files from one folder to another or to delete files by dragging them onto the Recycle Bin icon.

When you open more than one program. One way to do this is to move a window to a new position. Hovering When you position the cursor over an item without clicking your mouse. There are many ways to deal with desktop clutter. If you position the cursor on either side of the window. Move the mouse without releasing the mouse button. This involves pointing at something onscreen with the cursor and then clicking the left mouse button twice in rapid succession.

For example. To drag an object. When you release the mouse button.

The program in the window is still running. To view the rest of the document or page. To restore a minimized window. Scrolling Through a Window Many windows contain more information than can be displayed at once. You do this by maximizing the window. This shoves the window off the desktop. All you have to do is click the Maximize button at the upper-right corner of the window.

When you click the Restore Down button. If what you really want to do is close the window and close any program running within the window. When you have a long document or web page. There are several ways to scroll through a window. To move to a specific place in a long document, use your mouse to grab the scroll box between the up and down arrows and drag it to a new position.

You can also click on the scroll bar between the scroll box and the end arrow, which scrolls you one screen at a time. If your mouse has a scroll wheel, you can use it to scroll through a long document. Just roll the wheel back or forward to scroll down or up through a window.

Most windows in Windows use a set of pull-down menus to store all the commands and operations you can perform. The menus are aligned across the top of the window, just below the title bar, in what is called a menu bar. The full menu then appears just below the menu bar, as shown in Figure below. You activate a command or select a menu item by clicking it with your mouse. Some menu items have a little black arrow to the right of the label. This indicates that additional choices are available, displayed on a submenu.

Click the menu item or the arrow to display the submenu. Other menu items have three little dots called an ellipsis to the right of the label. This indicates that additional choices are available, displayed in a dialog box. Click the menu item to display the dialog box. Some Windows programs put the most frequently used operations on one or more toolbars, typically located just below the menu bar. A toolbar looks like a row of buttons, each with a small picture called an icon and maybe a bit of text.

You activate the associated command or operation by clicking the button with your mouse. When Windows or an application requires a complex set of inputs, you are often presented with a dialog box.

A dialog box is similar to a form in which you can input various parameters and make various choices—and then register those inputs and choices when you click the OK button.

Figure shows the Print dialog box, found in most Windows applications. There are several different types of dialog boxes, each one customized to the task at hand. However, most dialog boxes share a set of common features, which include the following:.

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The most common buttons are OK to register your inputs and close the dialog box , Cancel to close the dialog box without registering your inputs , and Apply to register your inputs without closing the dialog box.

Think of each tab, arranged across the top of the dialog box, as a "thumb tab" to the individual page in the dialog box below it. Click the top of a tab to change to that particular page of information. Position your cursor over the empty input box, click your left mouse button, and begin typing. Select an item from the list with your mouse; you can select multiple items in some lists by holding down the Ctrl key while clicking with your mouse.

You display the Start menu by using your mouse to click the Start button, located in the lower-left corner of your screen. Your most frequently used programs are listed in the left column; basic Windows utilities and folders are listed in the right column. To open a specific program or folder, just click the icon. The title bar for the active program is brighter. Manually turn off your monitor. If you have overlapping windows on your desktop. When the Turn off Computer dialog box appears.

If you have multiple windows open at the same time. From here you can access various programs. An inactive title bar is more dull. Click the Turn off Computer button.

If the program is displayed on the Start menu. Click the Start button to display the Start menu. To shut down Windows and turn off your PC.

To switch to another program and send all other open programs to the background. All you have to do is follow these steps: This cycles through all open windows. When more programs are contained within a master folder. To view the rest of your programs.

Windows loads automatically and goes on to display the Windows desktop. Although you will see lines of text flashing onscreen during the initial startup.

Do not turn off your computer without shutting down Windows. Shutting Down Windows—and Your Computer Windows starts automatically every time you turn on your computer.

Launching a Program Now that you know how to work the Start menu. This displays a new menu called the Programs menu. A defined structure exists for naming files. A folder is like a master file. Select My Computer. Every file has its own unique name. Each filename must consist of two parts. To open My Computer. As you can see in the following Figure. The exact location of a file is called its path and contains all the folders leading to the file.

Windows stores files in folders. The contents of a file can be a document from an application such as a Works worksheet or a Word document. A filename can consist of letters. Managing PC Resources with My Computer The My Computer utility lets you access each major component of your system and perform basic maintenance functions.

A file is nothing more than a collection of data of some sort. When you double-click the icon for that drive. This pane lets you view relevant information about and perform key operations on the selected item. Each folder in Windows XP contains an activity pane sometimes called a task pane on the left side of the window.

Just follow these steps: Windows lets you access the contents of your My Documents folder with a few clicks of your mouse.

Use My Computer to manage your hard drive and other key components. You can also use My Computer to view the contents of a specific drive. Managing Files with My Documents The documents you create with Microsoft Word and other software programs are actually separate computer files. Click My Documents. Double-click a subfolder to view its contents. By default. To view the contents of any folder.

Click Control Panel. This utility. When the Pick a Task page appears. When you click a task. When the Control Panel opens. The Control Panel is actually a system folder like My Computer and My Documents that contains a number of individual utilities that let you adjust and configure various system properties. Access your important document files from the My Documents folder.

To open the Control Panel. These programs include a calculator. Windows also includes a large number of accessory programs and system tools you can use to perform other basic system operations. You can then change the individual settings within that dialog box. These include a web browser Internet Explorer. You access most of these accessories by clicking the Start button and selecting All Programs.

Accessories Windows includes a number of single-function accessory programs. Internet Utilities In addition to the aforementioned Windows accessories. Windows XP also gives you three important Internet utilities. When you open a configuration utility. You access these three utilities by clicking the Start button and selecting All Programs. All the Other Things in Windows Windows is more than just a pretty desktop and some configuration utilities. System Tools Windows XP includes a handful of technical tools you can use to keep your system running smoothly.

You can access all these tools by clicking the Start button and selecting All Programs. Overview Released on April NET Framework. Significant enhancements have been made to various services such as the IIS web server which was almost completely re-written to improve performance and security. NET from the name during the Release Candidate stage in late Microsoft removed.

Windows Server was also the first operating system released by Microsoft after the announcement of their Trustworthy Computing initiative.

This allowed the name. NET" represents and responding to criticism. Windows Server which carries the version number 5. The product went through several name changes during the course of development. Windows Server includes compatibility modes to allow older applications to run with greater stability.

When first introduced to technical beta testers in mid Incorporating and upgrading a Windows NT 4. NET Server" as part of Microsoft's effort to promote their new integrated enterprise and development framework. Terminal Server. Windows Server Windows Server is the name of Microsoft's line of server operating systems. Print Server. Windows Server brought in enhanced Active Directory compatibility.

It was made more compatible with Windows NT 4. NET to exclusively apply to the. NET was just a tag for a generation of Microsoft products. Windows Server 's default installation has none of the server components enabled.

Active Directory. Unlike Windows Server. It was introduced in April as the successor to Windows Server. This invokes MS Word and displays a document window. The steps to activate Word are: A new document window is displayed each time Microsoft Word is invoked: The Menu Bar Menu bar—is positioned below the Title bar.

Opening a Document The steps to open an existing document are: Select the New option from the File menu. Opening documents. An Open dialog box is displayed as shown in Figure. The options can be activated by pressing together the Alt key and the underlined character in the option name often called hot keys. Two of the most commonly-used toolbars are the standard toolbar and the formatting toolbar. When the user starts MS Word. Select the Blank Document icon.

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A blank new document is displayed. To create a new template. The standard toolbar provides shortcuts for menu commands while the formatting toolbar contains tools related to formatting of the text in the document. Using the Icons below menu bar — Toolbar Toolbar— helps the user to perform tasks faster and with ease.

A drop-down menu comprises a list of options which drops down when you click on the menu bar item. The steps to create a new document are: Save and Save As Word allows you to create and save a document on the disk. Click on the OK button. Click on the Document radio button in the Create New box. The steps to save a document are: Type the name of the file to be opened in the File Name text box or select the file from the list.

In order to preserve the document for future use. Type a file name in the File Name box. Click on the Open button. Select the appropriate drive and folder. The Save As dialog box is displayed as shown in the following figure: Select the Save As option from the File Menu. Click on the Save button. Saving a Document When a document is typed. If we want to save as different type we have to click save as type as show below: Once a document is saved with a specific name.

If we want to set different tools from Save As dialog box. Print View. Printing of documents. Print a selected page Page Setup This command is used to change paper source. Following dialog box will appear. Select a paper source 1. Page Setup. For security options.

On the File menu. Select the Paper size from the drop down list box. Select the Print Preview from the File Menu Click on Paper Tab. Change page margins 1.

Print View 1. Select a paper size 1. Under Margins. Select the Paper source from the List box. Print dialog box will appear as shown in the following figure.

Enter the no. Select the name of printer from the Printer Name box. Click on Ok to Print the document. Printing of Document 1. Print a selected page 1. Put a cursor on the page which is to print. Click on Current page radio button from the page range. Click on Print from the File menu. Click on Tools from Menu bar. An Option dialog box will appear as shown in the following figure. Select Options from the Tools. Click on Ok to print the selected page.

If we want to set saving options click save dialog box. Select View tab from the dialog box. Down arrow. Name of Keys s Moves the Cursor to Up arrow. Right arrow right. Home Beginning of the line. Moving around in a Document. Left One character up. Scrolling the Document Following Table lists the various keys and key combinations used to move around in a document.

End End of the line. Select the Indents and Spacing tab. Paragraph and Tab Setting. Text selection. Word paragraphs always end with a paragraph mark. The default spacing is single. Select an option from the Line Spacing drop-down list. The Paragraph dialog box is displayed as follows: It is measured by lines.

Word enables you to change the line spacing in your text. Select a value from the at list box. Moving the horizontal scroll bar from the down side of word screen moves page left and right. Line Spacing Spacing is used to design a document and make it more readable. The paragraph mark is normally hidden from view. Select the Paragraph option from the Format menu.

You can set spacing to single. Moving a Vertical Scroll bar from the right side of word screen moves page up and down. The steps to set line spacing are: Select the paragraph s to space. Setting Tab Stops The Tab dialog box provides additional tab-related features.

Working with tabs is a two-part process. The default tab stop is left. Setting Tabs Tabs are used for creating quick. Click on the OK button to close the dialog box. Word offers five types of tab stops—Left. Select the paragraph. The first step is to set the tab stops.

Word also provides tab leaders that make text easy to read. The second step in using tabs is to press the Tab key as the document is typed. Decimal and Bar tabs. The steps to add a single line of white space before or after a paragraph are: Open the Paragraph dialog box.

The default tab-stop position is 0. Select the paragraph s. The Tabs dialog box is displayed as follows: The steps to set tabs stops using the Tabs dialog box are: Paragraph Spacing You can define the amount of white space that should be placed before and after paragraphs by using the Paragraph dialog box.

Enter the specification in the before or After Spacing spin box 5. Select the Tabs option from the Format menu. A tab leader is a row of dots or dashes that is inserted between two text elements.

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Editing text is an essential feature of a word processing package. Select the tab leader style you want: You can indent your text by using the: Corrections of these mistakes are called editing. Indenting Text Indenting is making your text look more eye-catching. Select paragraph s to be indented. Select the tab alignment you want: Text Selection When you enter your text. Enter the specifications in the Left or Right Indentation spin box.

Select the paragraph s for which you want to set tabs. Select the Paragraph option of the Format menu. Using decimal numbers. Point to and then drag the appropriate triangular indent markers to the desired locations.

The Paragraph dialog box is displayed. Select a value in the by spin box. You can also select First Line or Hanging indent from the Special drop-down list box. To clear the Tab setting. Indents are added to margins. The steps to set indents for text by using the paragraph dialog box are: Click on the Set button to set the tab stop.

Select the text whose font has to be changed. Word offers many ways to change fonts and font styles. Select the Paste option from the Edit menu. Copy 1. Click on the down-arrow to the right of the Font list box in the Formatting toolbar. The text to be formatted needs to be selected first. The selected text will be highlighted.

Select the Text to be cut. The steps to change font styles are: Hold down the left mouse button and drag the mouse in any direction across the text to be selected. In the following section. Position the insertion point at the beginning of the text to be selected. Position the insertion point at the location where the text should appear. Cut 1. Paste 1. Font and size selection. Select the Copy option from the Edit menu.

Different fonts contain different collection of characters and symbols. In order to perform any editing operation on the text in a document.

The steps to select a text are: Changing Fonts and Style Font refers to the manner or style in which text is displayed in the document. Select the Cut option from the Edit menu. Select a font from the list. Points and picas are used for measuring spacing.

Italic Changing font style. The steps to change the font size are: Word offers many ways to choose font sizes. Normal template document is 10 points Times New Roman. Select a font size from the list There are 12 points to a pica and six picas to an inch. Select the text whose font size has to be changed. A list of available fonts is displayed as shown in the following figure. Use one or more options explained in Table 1.

Underline Changing font style.

Left-aligned Text Text is said to be left-aligned if it is aligned with the left margin of the page. It refers to the position of the text relative to the margins.

Word uses left alignment. To justify a line of text. To left-align a paragraph. Justified Text This feature aligns a paragraph with both the left and the right margins.

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Right and Justify Alignment's a way of organizing the text. Right-aligned Text Text is said to be right-aligned if it is aligned with the right margin of the page. This can be done by using the four formatting toolbar buttons: To center a line of text. To right-align a paragraph.

The steps to open the Font dialog box are: Type the text at left margin and press the Center button to center your text. This is the default mode of alignment. Inter-word spacing is adjusted such that each line of text begins at the left margin and ends at the right margin.

Formatting the Text: Changing the Font. Size and Color Using the Font Dialog Box Font dialog box contains most comprehensive collection of formatting options. It is a good policy not to use spaces to center your text. Alignment of Text: Select the Font option from the Format menu. Word enables the user to left-align. Centered Text The center option is normally used to center the heading and text. Select the text whose format is to be copied.

The Font dialog box is displayed as shown in the following Figure. The Format Painter copies formats from the selected text to the text you want to format. Select the text to be formatted. Click on the Format Painter button in the standard toolbar. Press the Esc key when formatting is over or click on the Format Painter Button again. The text automatically changes to the copied format.

The mouse pointer changes to a paintbrush with an I-beam. Make the appropriate selections for the Fonts. Rather than formatting each paragraph of the document separately. The steps to copy character formatting are: The Bullets and Numbering dialog box is displayed as shown in the following Figure.

Paragraph Indenting. Bullets and Numbering Indenting Text Indenting is making your text look more eye-catching. Select the Bullets and Numbering option from the Format menu. The steps to add bullets or numbers are: Select an existing list or type in a new list. You can bullet or number your lists by using Bullets and Numbering dialog box. Creating Bulleted and Numbered Lists You can use bullets and numbers to make the lists in your document attractive and easy to read.

Changing case Use of Tab Tabs are used for creating quick. Changing Case The steps to convert the case of text are: Put the cursor in the document where the text is to be copied. Select the Change Case option from the Format menu. A Change Case dialog box is displayed as in the following figure: Leave the current document open. Select Cut or Copy option from the Edit menu 5. Copy and Paste across the documents If a text is required to cut or copy into another document.

Select the text to be changed. Select Paste option from the Edit menu. A list of opened word documents will be displayed Select another Document from that list. Click on Window from the standard toolbar. Use of Tab and Tab Setting. Select the text. Open another document from the File menu OR open new document. Select a bullet style of your choice. Microsoft Word checks spelling and grammar automatically as you type. Title Case Capitalizes the first letter of each word of the selected text.

Spelling and Grammar Check Some of the content in this topic may not be applicable to some languages. Select the Check spelling as you type and Check grammar as you type check boxes. Right-click a word with a wavy red or green underline. Type in the document. Following Table lists the various options of the Change Case dialog box along with their function.

On the Tools menu. Option Function Sentence case Capitalizes only the first letter in the selected sentences. Select the desired option. Check spelling and grammar all at once Type your correction in the document. Use of Drawing Tools You can add a variety of diagrams using the diagramming tools on the Drawing toolbar.

On the Standard toolbar. Diagram types include Cycle. You can check for possible spelling and grammatical problems. For a detailed explanation of a grammar flag. Click Options on the Tools menu.

If you mistype a word but the result is not a misspelling for example. A Spelling and Grammar Dialog box will appear as in the following figure: You can correct spelling and grammar directly in the document while the Spelling and Grammar dialog box is open. Use the diagrams to illustrate various conceptual materials and to enliven documents diagrams are not numerically based. This method is useful if you want to postpone proofing a document until after you finish editing it.

If you want to check spelling only. Tables Concept of Tables: Vertical lines are called Column and cress section of row and a column is called Cell. Click on Table from Standard menu bar 2. On the Drawing toolbar. Right click on any toolbar. Tick on Drawing Toolbar. To end the curve. Select Insert from Table and then select Table. Flowcharts Flowcharts or flow diagrams can be created using a combination of AutoShapes on the Drawing toolbar. A drawing toolbar will be displayed at the bottom of the word work area as in the following figure.

Columns and Cells Horizontal elements are called Rows. Draw a curve 1. Draw Table To insert a table. Click where you want the curve to start. To see a drawing toolbar.

A Table Properties dialog box will appear Select the cell for which the width and height is to be changed 2. Click on Table and Select Table Properties 3. An Insert Table dialog box will appear as in the following figure 3. Insert no of Rows and Column into the proper box in dialog box 4. Select a Cell which is to be copied. Study in Australia. Education student solution manual for exploring chemical analysis. All Courses. Doeacc ccc course.

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