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# Transportation engineering lab manual pdf

SESHADRI RAO KNOWLEDGE VILLAGE::GUDLAVALLERU. DEPARTMENT. OF . CIVIL ENGINEERING. Transportation Engineering - Lab Manual. Transportation Engineering Lab Manual - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Civil Engineering. Transportation Engineering Lab Manual - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. For Civil Engineering.

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See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www. soundofheaven.info Highway and Transportation Engineering. LAB MANUAL. (FOR soundofheaven.info PROGRAMME). Name.: Branch.: Roll No.: Registration No.: Group.: DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING. CENTURION. PDF | 5 minutes read | Transportation Engineering is a mandatory course in the Civil Engineering soundofheaven.info curriculum. The tests complying to transportation.

The needle is released exactly for a period of 5. Abrasion is a measure of resistance to wear or hardness. To determine the grade of a given binder. Padmo Padmundono. Then specific gravity of bituminous material is given by formula.

The load is applied through the penetration plunger at a uniform rate of 1.

The proving ring calibration factor is noted so that the load dial values can be converted into load in kg. Then the CBR value is calculated from the formula: Generally the CBR value at 2. However if higher CBR value is obtained at 5. If the value at 5. Calibration factor of the proving ring 1 Div. The load penetration curve is plotted taking penetration value on x-axis and Load values on Y-axis.

If the initial portion of the curve is concave upwards, apply correction by drawing a tangent to the curve at the point of greatest slope and shift the origin. Find and record the correct load reading corresponding to each penetration.

To determine the Specific gravity of given Bituminous material. The density of a bitumen binder is a fundamental property frequently used as an aid in classifying the binders for use in paving jobs. In most applications, the bitumen is weighed, but finally in use with aggregate system, the bitumen content is converted on volume basis.

Thus an accurate density value is required for conversion of weight to volume. The specific gravity is greatly influenced by the chemical composition of binder. Increased amount of aromatic type compounds cause an increase in the specific gravity.

The specific gravity bottle containing distilled water is now weighed. Let this be W2 gm. The bituminous material is heated to a pouring temperature and the material is poured half the bottle, by taking care to prevent entry of air bubbles. Then it is weighed. Let this be W3 gm. Let this be W4 gm. To determine the grade of a given binder.

The consistencies of bituminous materials vary depending upon several factors such as constituents, temperature, etc. Determination of absolute viscosity of bituminous material is not so simple. Therefore the consistency of these materials is determined by indirect methods. The consistency of bitumen is determined by penetration test which is a very simple test. Various types and grades of bituminous materials are available depending on their origin and refining process.

The penetration test determines the consistency of these materials for the purpose of grading them, by measuring the depth in units of one tenth of a millimeter or one hundredth of a centimeter to which a standard needle will penetrate vertically under specified conditions of standard load, duration and temperature.

The softer the bitumen, the greater will be the penetration. The total weight of this assembly should be gm. The contact of the tip of the needle is checked using the mirror placed on the rear of the needle. The needle is released exactly for a period of 5. The value of penetration reported shall be the mean of not less than three determinations whose values do not differ by more than the amount given below: To determine the softening point of given paving bitumen.

## Transportation Engineering Lab Manual | Construction Aggregate | Asphalt

Bitumen does not suddenly change from solid to liquid state, but as the temperature increase, it gradually becomes soften until it flows readily.

The softening point is the temperature at which the substance attains particular degree of softening under specified condition of test. For bitumen it is usually determined by Ring and Ball apparatus. This temperature is maintained for 15 minutes after which the balls are placed in position. At least two observations are made. Test results shall not differ from the mean by more than the following: To determine the loss on heating of asphaltic bitumen.

The loss in weight exclusive of water of oil of a bituminous material when heated to a standard temperature and under specified conditions. Weigh into the container During which the sample is in the oven. At the end of the specified heating period. Remove the containers, cool to room temperature and weigh to 0. However when extreme accuracy is required only one material that is two containers shall be placed in the oven at one time.

Pour the residue into the container specified under 3. Results of duplicate tests shall not differ by more than the following Loss on Heating Percent Repeatability Reproducibility 0 to 0. To determine the flash and fire point of a given bituminous material. Flash and Fire point test is a safety test conducted on a bituminous material so that it gives an indication of the critical temperature at and above where precautions should be taken to eliminate fire hazards during its applications.

Bituminous materials leave out volatiles at high temperature depending upon their grade. These volatile vapors catch fire causing a flash. This condition is very hazardous and it is therefore essential to qualify this temperature for each bitumen grade, so that the paving engineers may restrict the mixing or application temperature well within the limits. Flash Point: The flash point of a material is the lowest temperature at which the vapour of substance momentarily takes fire in the form of a flash under specified conditions of test.

Fire Point: The fire point is the lowest temperature at which the material gets ignited and burns under specified condition of test. The lid is placed to close the cup in a closed system. All accessories including thermometer of the specified range are suitably fixed. The test flame is lit and adjusted in such a way that the size of a bed is of 4mm diameter. During heating the sample the stirring is done at a rate of approximately 60 revolutions per minute.

The duplicate test results should not differ by more than the following: Bituminous mixes are used in the surface course of road and airfield pavements. The desirable bituminous mix properties include stability, density, durability, flexibility, resistance to skidding and workability during construction.

Stability is defined as resistance of the paving mix to deformation under load and is thus a stress level which causes strain depending upon anticipated field conditions. Stability is function of friction and cohesion.

Durability is defined as the resistance of the mix against weathering which causes hardening and this depends upon loss of volatiles and oxidation. In this method the resistance to plastic deformation of cylindrical specimen of bituminous mixture is measured when the same is loaded at the periphery at 5 cm per minute.

This test procedure is used in designing and evaluating bituminous paving mixes. Reverse the specimen and give 75 blows again. Take the mould with the specimen and cool it for a few minutes. The theoretical specific gravity of the mix is determined. Soon after the compacted bituminous mix specimens have cooled to room temperature, the weight, average thickness and diameter of the specimen are noted.

The specimens are weighed in air and then in water. The total maximum load in KN that causes failure of the specimen is taken as Marshall Stability.

The stability value so obtained is corrected for volume Table 2. The total amount of deformation in units of 0.

The total time between removing the specimen from the bath and completion of the test should not exceed 30 seconds. Table 2: Bitumen by Vol. Voids Stability Unit Weight Sample. The average values of each of the above properties are found for each mix with the different bitumen contents.

Graphs are plotted with the bitumen content on the X- axis and the following values on the Y- axis. Marshall Mix design specification for bituminous concrete If the mix design for the optimum binder content does not satisfy all the requirements of specifications it is necessary to adjust the original blend of aggregates.

The trial mixes can be adjusted by using the following guidelines. The voids can be increased by adding more coarse aggregates. Increase the amount of mineral filler in the mix.

This condition suggests low quality of aggregates. The quality of aggregates should be improved. Use different aggregate or use cement coated aggregate. Download pdf. Remember me on this computer. Therefore a test designed to evaluate the toughness of stones i.

S sieve be w 2gm. The crushed aggregate is than removed from the cup and the whole of it is sieved on 2. Then it is tamped 25 times. The fraction passing the sieve is weighed accurate to 0. The test sample is subjected to a total of 15 such blows each being delivered at an interval of not less than one second. Repeat the above steps with other fresh sample. Aggregate Impact value of material A is 15 and that of B is The mean A. How is aggregate Impact expressed? Which one is better for surface course?

Viva voce: What do you understand by dry and wet Impact value? In case of gravel it is determined by its Angularity Number.

## Transportation Engineering Lab Manual

Flakiness and Elongation tests are conducted on coarse aggregates to assess the shape of aggregates. For base coarse and construction of bituminous and cement concrete types. Rounded aggregates are preferred in cement concrete road construction as the workability of concrete improves.

Angular shape of particles are desirable for granular base coarse due to increased stability derived from the better interlocking when the shape of aggregates deviates more from the spherical shape.

Aggregates which are flaky or elongated are detrimental to the higher workability and stability of mixes. They are not conducive to good interlocking and hence the mixes with an excess of such particles are difficult to compact to the required degree.

The particle shape of aggregate is determined by the percentages of flaky and elongated particles contained in it. The test is not applicable to sizes smaller than 6. To determine the flakiness Index of a given aggregates sample. Similarly the weights of the fractions passing and retained on the specified sieves be w1. The apparatus consists of a standard thickness gauge. The elongation test is not applicable to sizes smaller than 6. Viva Voce: What do you understand by the term Combined Index?

Explain Angularity Number. Explain what is meant by flaky and elongated particles? How is it found? S-sieves as given in the table and a balance of accuracy 0. Length gauge. A minimum of aggregate pieces of each fraction is taken and weighed.

The gauge length is used should be those specified in the table for the appropriate material. To determine the Elongation Index of the given aggregate sample. S-sieves specified in the table.

The specific gravity test helps in the identification of stone. The specific gravity of an aggregate is considered to be a measure of strength or quality of the material.

Water absorption gives an idea of strength of aggregate. A wire basket of not more than 6. To determination specific gravity and water absorption of the given aggregate sample. Aggregates having more water absorption are more porous in nature and are generally considered unsuitable unless they are found to be acceptable based on strength. The basket and the aggregate are then removed from water and allowed to drain for a few minutes. Then the aggregates are transferred to the second dry cloth spread in a single layer.

In case it is necessary to transfer the basket and the sample to a different tank for weighing. At least two tests should be carried out. The bituminous material is heated to a pouring temperature and the material is poured half the bottle. Then it is weighed. The specific gravity is greatly influenced by the chemical composition of binder.

Pyknometer Method: Specific gravity Bottle. In most applications. Then specific gravity of bituminous material is given by formula. Let this be W3gm. To determine the Specific gravity of given Bituminous material. Let this be W2gm. The specific gravity is defined by ISI as the ratio of the mass of a given volume of the bituminous material to the mass of an equal volume of water.

Thus an accurate density value is required for conversion of weight to volume. Balance and Distilled water. There are two methods. Let this be W 4gm. Increased amount of aromatic type compounds cause an increase in the specific gravity.

The specific gravity bottle containing distilled water is now weighed. The code of practice used to determine the specific gravity is IS: The density of a bitumen binder is a fundamental property frequently used as an aid in classifying the binders for use in paving jobs. Determination of Specific Gravity of Bitumen. Indian Standard Specification for Paving Bitumen. Indian Standard Method for Tar and Bitumen. Define specific gravity.

What are the factors affecting specific gravity test? G Justo. Nem Chand Bros. Khanna and C. What is the use of finding specific gravity? Highway Materials Testing Laboratory Manual. The consistencies of bituminous materials vary depending upon several factors such as constituents. The needle is provided with a shank approximately 3.

Container is 55mm in diameter and 35mm to 57mm height. Determination of absolute viscosity of bituminous material is not so simple. To determine the grade of a given binder.

Thus the basic principle of the penetration test is the measurement of the penetration in units of one tenth of a mm of a standard needle in a bitumen sample maintained at 25C during five seconds. Various types and grades of bituminous materials are available depending on their origin and refining process. The penetration test determines the consistency of these materials foe the purpose of grading them. The softer the bitumen.

It consists of items like container. The test is conducted as per IS for paving bitumen. Therefore the consistency of these materials is determined by indirect methods.

The consistency of bitumen is determined by penetration test which is a very simple test. The contact of the tip of the needle is checked using the mirror placed on the rear of the needle.

The needle is released exactly for a period of 5. The total weight of this assembly should be gm. Determination of Penetration of Bitumen. What are the applications of penetration test? What are the precautions to be taken while conducting a penetration test? This is in turn results in damaging effect to the pavement structure.

To conduct ductility test on given bitumen sample. This is because of the temperature changes in bituminous mixes and the repeated deformations that occur in flexible pavements due to the traffic loads. Ductility machine with water bath and a pulling device at a precaliberated rate.

The ductility is expressed as the distance in centimeters to which a standard briquette of bitumen can be stretched before the thread breaks. It is of significant importance that the binders form ductile thin films around the aggregates.

Civil Engineering Department Transportation Engineering 3. The binder material which does not possess sufficient ductility would crack and thus provide previous pavement surface. The test is standardized by the IS: Briquette mould.

A certain minimum ductility is necessary for a bitumen binder. Two or more specimens may be prepared in the moulds and clipped to the machine so as to conduct these test simultaneously. The machine is started and the two clips are thus pulled apart horizontally.

Ductility Test Concept Observation and Calculation: Then the sides of mould are removed and the clips are carefully booked on the machine without causing any initial strain.

The distance at which the bitumen thread of each specimen breaks is recorded in cm to report as ductility value. Determination of Ductility of Bitumen. Bitumen does not suddenly change from solid to liquid state. What do you understand by the term repeatability reproducibility?

The softening point is the temperature at which the substance attains particular degree of softening under specified condition of test. Explain the significance of ductility test. The test is conducted as per IS: List the factors that affect the result of a ductility test. For bitumen it is usually determined by Ring and Ball apparatus.

At least two observations are made. To determine the softening point of given paving bitumen as per IS: Water bath with stirrer. Ring and Ball apparatus. Steel balls each of 9. This temperature is maintained for 15 minutes after which the balls are placed in position.

Softening Test Concept Observation and Calculation: If material A has softening point of 56 and B has 42 which binder is good and why? Determination of Softening Point of Bitumen. What are the factors which affect the ring and ball test results? What is softening point? Fire Point: Flash and Fire point test is a safety test conducted on a bituminous material so that it gives an indication of the critical temperature at and above where precautions should be taken to eliminate fire hazards during its applications.

During heating the sample the stirring is done at a rate of approximately 60 revolutions per minute. To determine the flash and fire point of a given bituminous material. Flash and Fire point test is conducted as per IS: This condition is very hazardous and it is therefore essential to qualify this temperature for each bitumen grade. All accessories including thermometer of the specified range are suitably fixed. Bituminous materials leave out volatiles at high temperature depending upon their grade.

The test flame is lit and adjusted in such a way that the size of a bed is of 4mm diameter. As per IS: Flash Point: The lid is placed to close the cup in a closed system. Pensky-Martens closed cup tester. These volatile vapors catch fire causing a flash. Define flash and fire points. Determination of Flash and Fire Point of Bitumen. What are the parameter that affects the result of flash and fire point tests?

What is the significance of flash and fire point test? It will increase the compactive force or effort. At high fluidity or low viscosity. During cooling the material continuously. The degree of fluidity at the application temperature greatly influences the ability of bituminous material to spread. Viscosity is defined as the increase of fluidity.

There is an optimum value of fluidity or viscosity for mixing and compacting for each aggregate gradation of the mix and bitumen grade.

To determine the property of a given bituminous material as per IS: A orifice viscometer one of 4. What are the precautions to be taken during viscosity test using orifice viscometer? Explain the term viscosity. Determination of Viscosity of Bitumen. What are the uses of viscosity test? Schematic Representation of Experiment Observation and Calculation: Bituminous mixes are used in the surface course of road and airfield pavements. The desirable bituminous mix properties include stability. Loading Machine.

Breaking Head. Compaction Pedestal and Hammer. Sample Extractor.

This test procedure is used in designing and evaluating bituminous paving mixes. Mould Assembly.

Stability is defined as resistance of the paving mix to deformation under load and is thus a stress level which causes strain depending upon anticipated field conditions. To determine optimum binder content of given bituminous mix by Marshall Method of Mix Design.

Durability is defined as the resistance of the mix against weathering which causes hardening and this depends upon loss of volatiles and oxidation.