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He jumps on the rocky shore by the Lighthouse, which fore- shadows his role as a guiding light showing the right direction to go. They rejected wasting money on the artificiality, and they place importance on independent productions with artistic fea- tures, which would give birth to Cinema Novo. David Polson - A Treasure of Treasures. In this sense, the process of initiation can be seen as a process of construction of the person. Wandering Alchemist Games. It gets smothered under a lot of laughter and pleasantries. Alyssa Faden - The Outskirts Map.
Then he decides to cut the net to provoke and mobilize the cavalla-fishing black men, which will put the fishermen in danger of starving and their lives in threat. This is how these people live. And the people in the city know things will get better. That Firmino cuts the net is a very significant event in the film, since it triggers the action they need. Due to the violent act Firmino commits, they become conscious of the situation they are in. Yet Firmino does not give up his determination and provocations.
I saw what he did last night. He was with Cota when the turning wind tore everything. Is there such a thing as a flesh and blood saint? The Mestre is also guilty. Spells are for old-fashioned people. We have to stop with that! Rocha, He is the one that initiates the struggle against the oppressor. Without any hesitation, he disturbs the peace to obtain a just order.
In terms of violence Rocha and Fanon have the similar approach, and both promotes violence and claims it as the path to follow in inde- pendence. The colonized native has two options: To this respect, Fanon claims vio- lence is the political tool they need to consult in decolonization struggles. Instead of entrusting their freedom to consultations between the native bourgeoisie and the colonizer, they have to be engaged in a political strug- gle against colonial repression unleashed by the colonizer.
By the same token, Firmino is subversive, because he has nothing to lose, but gain: My situation with the police is very complicated. Rocha also argues that Latin America is still under the post-colo- nial regime, which is almost a complete substitute of the previous one: Undeniably, Latin America remains colony a colony.
Meanwhile, those who are preparing future domination try to replace these with even more subtle forms. The problem facing Latin America in international terms is still that of merely exchanging colonisers.
Thus, our possible liberation is always a function of a new dependency Rocha, , p. The Mestre is a slave! Furthermore, Capoeira is a Brazilian martial art and dance, which emerged in the course of slav- ery in Brazil. African slaves developed this fight-like dance to deceive the slave master when they train themselves for an uprising. They trained in dance rhythms and routines. Then the camera slowly moves to the lighthouse, shown in low angle shot.
In his article having the tone of Franz Fanon, Rocha claims that it is a normal behavior for the starving people to resort violence. It is not a primitive act; on the contrary, it is quite revolutionary: It is the initial moment when the colonizer be- comes aware of the colonized. Only when confronted with violence does the colonizer understand, through horror, the strength of the culture he exploits.
He makes a reference to Algerian War and claims that Algerians are to kill the first police officer to kill their hunger for freedom and their recognition by the colonizer.
While Algerians were under colonial regime and were struggling for their freedom, in Barravento they are to deal with the problems of neo-colonialism. As Rocha states they need to face with oppression yet within a different circumstance. When Barravento and The Battle of Algiers Pontecorvo, , a film based on the facts about Algerian War, are compared, violence becomes evident as a crucial step in the revolution.
The note writes: Merabi, the owner, is a police informer. Every afternoon at 5: He stays a few minutes, long enough to drink a coffee and get information. Then he leaves. You are to kill the policeman.
Later on, they stop their bombing incidents and go on strike; however, Ali pre- fers using arms to going on strike. Neither wars nor revolutions. Terrorism is useful as a start. But then, the people themselves must act. Even if the strike does not succeed, it will at least make United Nations discern Algerians strength: Thus, in terms of recognition of their power and resistance, a violent act is a quite crucial action to take.
In brief, both the killing the police officer and cutting the net are the sparks kindling the fire of freedom and revolution. Decolonization is the veritable creation of new men. The disorder coming along with decolonization, brings forth a new man emancipates himself from enslavement or oppression.
Nobody cares about the Black and the poor. Barravento deals with the spiritual world of Bahian people as well as their hunger; therefore, the religious aesthetic is as significant as aesthetic of hunger, and it can- not be overlooked. Similar to African American slaves, African Brazilians underwent religious restraint, but the African Brazilian slaves were not subject to a systematic devastation in their beliefs and cultural values as much as African Americans.
Thus, the re- ligious syncretism with the one having social power was survival tactics they applied. In her book Imperial Eyes: Similarly, Homi Bhabha also argues that living in margins constitutes condition of hybridity, which requires construction of new identity in order to resist and survive marginalization: The film opens with the harmonious labor of fishermen along with the dance and drums providing a background of African rhythms.
The songs, dances, rituals and drums have a very significant importance in the film, since they represent the African Brazilian culture. Then, we have the fishing ritual of the cavalla fishermen.
The dance or the ritual of them emphasized with the close shots of their feet. Rather than the people and the faces, the camera is fo- cused on the feet, which depicts both the labor and the ritual. Clearly, the collaborative work of cavalla fishermen is expressed in sacralized harmony in which religion and everyday life constitute an art of living despite the hunger they struggle with.
They lead a religiously oriented life in poverty, but still in harmony. In the film, the hunger and illiteracy of cavalla-fishermen are interwoven with the beauty of African Brazilian mysticism. Rather than presenting its rituals as insignificant and frenzied behaviors, they are illustrated as a powerful religion with a dignity: In Ifa divination of Yoruba religion, there are sacred texts, which can be acknowledged as equivalent to Bible in Christianity, and in this system, sixteen palm nuts are tossed sixteen times and all configura- tions, or signs are interpreted into verses that the tossed numbers signi- fy.
Over the years, thus, across the Atlantic in Bahia, priestesses have assumed the role of Babalawos, and the palm nuts are placed with jogo de buzios set of sixteen cowrie shells. As in the case with Ifa divina- tion, with a reference to sacred texts, cowrie shells are tossed to provide a solution or an answer to a question: Thus the close shot of the ritual clearly exemplifies how African beliefs are revived in a new form for as the contact zone.
When Barravento is analyzed in terms of its own cultural frame of reference, Firmino becomes prominent character requiring in-depth analysis. He distinguishes from the other characters due to his proph- et-like mission. Even though, he expresses himself in materialist dis- course: In fact, Firmino is not merely a Marxist character as rendered by Rocha, but a character having a great significance in terms of African Brazilian religion and beliefs.
That Firmino has contradictions is, indeed, the essence of the figurative narration used in the script.
Like Hermes in Western my- thology, Esu is the messenger and interpreter of the gods: As Gates emphasizes, the trope of Signifyin g is a crucial component in the rhetoric of the double-voiced Esu. What he says and what he does is likely to contradict. When Firmino appears on the screen for the first time, he gives an impression as if he descended from the sky.
He jumps on the rocky shore by the Lighthouse, which fore- shadows his role as a guiding light showing the right direction to go. In con- trast to Marxist Firmino who stands against the religion, I propose that he himself is the religion.
As Stam asserts: In his deeds, Firmino always consults the religion. He asks help from Mea Dea for a spell, but she re- jects him. In brief, when Firmino is analyzed in the light of the trope Signifyin g , he is part of the convention, and he acts accordingly. Horus, the god of sky and kingship is depicted with a scepter holding in his hand in ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics. Figure 1: According to the story, a stranger with two-sided hat greets two lifelong friends, which later induces a dispute on the color of the hat between friends.
While one claims the hat is white, the other asserts that it is black. Do you know that he who does not put Esu first in all his doings has himself to blame if things misfire? Indeed, they are both right and wrong, because the hat is neither white nor black. Firmino as a trickster figure plants the seeds for the action. He is not a malicious man, but a brother who wants to help his kinfolks: He gives the feeling of that he is an antag- onist and adversary, but at the end of the film, his antagonist behaviors fall into place.
In Brazilian history, blacks were mar- ginalized and obliged to live on low paid jobs, which led the birth of an urban myth of the malandro after the abolition of slavery.
Similarly in Barravento, Firmino fits the description of a malandro who is on the run: He draws attention to the defini- tion of himself coined by the police: In the very beginning of Barravento, the shots of the collective labor of the fishermen, Firmino and the Mestre present a distinctive isolation. While we have fishermen working in solidarity on one side, we have Firmino and the Mestre in separate juxtaposed shots on the other side.
In the scene of collaborative work of the cavalla fishermen, a call and response work song accompanies; however, when the camera turns to the solitary figure of Firmino on the rocks, we hear a solo samba song. The music is an im- portant part of the films as it presents the culture.
Samba specifically, is a combination of African and Portuguese musical traditions and presents the hybrid culture of African Brazilians and life experiences of blacks in Brazil.
Although the malandro seems to a malicious and illegal character violating the law and manipulating people, he does not take advantage of his people and never intend to harm them. On the contrary, he finds a way out of an unjust situation through wit. He challenges any form of manipulating by the state, and thus is worshipped by the rest of the community. He does not want to become a middle class city dwell- er, preferring instead to indulge in small acts malandragem[…] The myth of the malandro had much more power than the real life spiv, and helped preserve the socio-cultural identity of his community.
He has become the symbol of resistance for forced submission to dominant ideology and culture as Firmino. In the first half of the film, Firmino seems a destruc- tive person, but as the story moves on it appears that he is the savior of cavalla fishermen, because he raises the social consciousness and unites them to resist the oppressor. Similar to malandro serving as a hero in black folklore, Firmino is a hero in Barravento. The trickster figure in African tales is a very important character as he was always a liberator and hero for blacks, especially during the slavery years.
He was the savior of the slaves and the enemy of the slave- holders: Manipulating the power relationships has always been the kernel of the African tales. As Lawrence W. It is true that in Barravento, the oppressor is absentee and our trickster figure Firmino does not confront the oppressor; however, with his tricks, he manipulates the fishermen and has them obtain the cour- age to change their financial power relation in the near future.
You have to stop this. Similarly, in Barravento, Cota whose name also sounds similar to Gira, is a beautiful and sexy woman. She is a prostitute and an independent individual who does not conform: I can get what I want.
Certainly, she cannot be replaced with Firmino, but without their collaborative work, Firmino cannot achieve his goal. You can only die of hunger, bullet holes, whip strokes. My friend, there are many Black people suffering around the world.
The sea is filled with hopeless fishermen. Roger Sansi explains that the ritual of a santo is considered as the process of construction of a saint. In this sense, the process of initiation can be seen as a process of construction of the person.
It not only tries to classify people through archetypes or reflect a repressed ego, as psychological interpretations of possession have often postulated, but its ritual practices also produce new social persons. If we see the person as an open process, we could say that the santos are active elements that collaborate precisely in the construction of a person who is always in the making Sansi, , p. He is transformed into a courageous man who is determined to solve the problems of his villagers.
Like the barravento itself, he ap- pears suddenly and brings turmoil in his wake. Firmino is not a destructive character; on the contrary, as a trickster figure, he is the one telling what to do to the cavalla fishermen. He tells lies and plays tricks on people: I risked my self willingly. One of the conversa- tions between Firmino and Cota goes: When he accomplishes his mission he disappears as magically as he appears for the first time on the screen.
It should be borne in mind that even though Rocha made changes in the script, Barravento is created based on black narration roots back Africa. The black narration does not offer the hidden meaning to the reader outside its culture, but resists as Doris Sommer asserts. Conclusion Barravento, the foremost of Cinema Novo, offers a wonderful combina- tion of aesthetic of exotic Bahian coast, mystic conventions of African Brazilians and the hunger the cavalla fishermen.
The facts of cavalla fishermen are depicted by the imperfectness of Cinema Novo in a per- fect harmony. He aims at unveiling the real face of African Brazilian life in the coast of Bahia, and his strong Marxist discourse on hunger preponderates over or religious aesthet- ics. Moreover, the new identity constructed in the New World through the religious syncretism is a form of cultural resistance, and it as signif- icant as their struggle to make a living.
In conclusion, Barravento makes inroads into two contradictory re- sistances existing in one body, because the religious aesthetics stands contradictious what Rocha wants to provoke by his Marxist discourse. As far as the aesthetics of cinema concerned the film creates such a space to infuse not only a political manifesto but also a religious manifesto in favor of their liberation struggle.
Therefore, as Stam states Barravento requires a spiritualist analysis as well as a materialist one: Illuminating the Blackness: Blacks and African Muslims in Brazil.
Rabaah Publishers. Alonso, M. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Bastide, R. The African Religions of Brazil.
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