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Biometric authentication pdf

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of biometric authentication should or should not be used in a given system. Biometric technology has not been studied solely to authenti- cate humans. Biometric is one authentication method. It consists in identifying people by recognizing one or several physicals characteristics. It is probably one of the future. Biometric Authentication: Comparative Study of Different Biometrics Features and Recent developments of Multifactor Authentication Biometrics Technology.


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PDF | Advances in the field of Information Technology also make Information This paper presents a review on the biometric authentication techniques and. PDF | Biometrics refers to metrics related to human characteristics. Biometrics is a realistic authentication used as a form of identification and. of studying biometric authentication systems and their security. Our research on .. soundofheaven.info [7] Mansfield, T.

This distinguishes it from fingerprints, which can be difficult to recognize after years of certain types of manual labour. Multi-Factor Authentication 8. Identical -- or monozygotic -- twins form when a single fertilized egg splits in two after conception. Taking advantage of this, biometrics uses unique characteristics of the veins as a method to identify the user. Thus the microenvironment of the growing cells on the fingertip is in flux, and is always slightly different from hand to hand and finger to finger. Sakthivel and Nirmalrani Vairaperumal.

Face recognition can be considered to be same as photograph recognition, so it lacks in many areas. Even the automated system for face recognition has lacking as photographs are highly affected by camera angle, brightness, etc.

And also the face of the person changes over the time, unlike fingerprint which remains same throughout the life span of a person. Face recognition has been getting pretty good at full frontal faces and 20 degrees off, but as soon as you go towards profile, there've been problems.

Another serious disadvantage is that many systems are less effective if facial expressions vary. Even a big smile can render the system less effective. For instance: Tests have shown that with the addition of skin texture analysis, performance in recognizing faces can increase 20 to 25 percent. The role of a signature is not solely to provide evidence of the identity of the contracting party, but rather to additionally provide evidence of deliberation and informed consent.

Signatures can be easily falsified. With advanced signature capturing devices, signature recognition correctly became easier and more efficient.

It can be either an online image i. The palm itself consists of principal lines, wrinkles secondary lines and ridges. It differs to a fingerprint in that it also contains other information such as texture, indents and marks which can be used when comparing one palm to another. Palm prints can be used for criminal, forensic or commercial applications.

The main disadvantage of palm print is that the print hangs with time depending on the type of work the person is doing for a long duration of time. Veins are blood vessels that carry blood to the heart. Each person's veins have unique physical and behavioral traits. Taking advantage of this, biometrics uses unique characteristics of the veins as a method to identify the user. Vein recognition systems mainly focus on the veins in the users hands.

Each finger on human hand has veins connecting directly with the heart and it has its own physical traits. Compared to the other biometric systems, the user's veins are located inside the human body. Therefore, the recognition system will capture images of the vein patterns inside of users' fingers by applying light transmission to each finger. For more details, the method works by passing near-infrared light through fingers, this way a camera can record vein patterns.

Vein recognition systems are getting more attention from experts because it has many other functions which other biometrics technologies do not have. It has a higher level of security which can protect information or access control much better. The level of accuracy used in vein recognition systems is very impressive and reliable by the comparison of the recorded database to that of the current data. Furthermore, it also has a low cost on installation and equipment.

Also, unlike a face, the ear is a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. Gestures include movement of the hands, face, or other parts of the body. Gestures differ from physical nonverbal communication that does not communicate specific messages, such as purely expressive display or displays of joint attention.

Gestures let individuals to communicate a variety of feelings and thoughts, from contempt and hostility to approval and affection, often together with body language in addition to words when they speak. Gestures have been studied for centuries from different viewpoints.

Gesture recognition is a topic in computer science and language technology with the goal of interpreting human gestures via mathematical algorithms. Gestures can originate from any bodily motion or state but commonly originate from the face or hand. Recent focuses include emotion recognition from the face and hand gesture recognition.

Many approaches have been made using cameras and computer vision algorithms to interpret sign language. Gesture recognition can be seen as a way for machines to begin to understand human body language and building a stronger bridge between machines and humans than primitive text user interfaces which still limit the majority of input to keyboard and mouse. Most animals use a variety of gaits. Human gait is the way locomotion is achieved using limbs. Human gait is defined as bipedal, biphasic forward propulsion of center of gravity of human body, in which there is alternate sinuous movements of different segments of the body with least expenditure of energy.

Different gaits are characterized by differences in limb movement patterns, overall velocity, forces, kinetic and potential energy cycles, and changes in the contact with the surface ground, floor, etc. Gait analysis generally takes gender into consideration. Hand geometry readers measure a user's hand along many dimensions and compare those measurements to measurements stored in a file.

Viable hand geometry devices have been manufactured since the early s, making hand geometry the first biometric to find widespread computerized use. It remains popular; common applications include access control and time-and-attendance operations. Since hand geometry is not thought to be as unique as fingerprints or irises, fingerprinting and iris recognition remain the preferred technology for high-security applications.

Hand geometry is very reliable when combined with other forms of identification, such as personal identification numbers. In large populations, hand geometry is not suitable for so called One-to-many applications, in which a user is identified from his biometric without any other identification.

The ability to identify odors varies among people and decreases with age. Studies show there are sex differences in odor discrimination; women usually outperform males. Humans can detect individuals Facial Thermograms that are blood-related kin mothers and children but not husbands and wives from olfaction.

In humans, the formation of body odors is mainly caused by skin glands excretions and bacterial activity. Body odor is present both in animals and humans and its intensity can be influenced by many factors behavioral patterns, survival strategies.

Body odor has a strong genetic basis both in animals and humans, but it can be also strongly influenced by various diseases and psychological conditions, making a unique identification more difficult.

But using dental pattern for identifying a person cannot be of much success as there is a change of dental pattern of a child and when that person is grown up. Also removing a damaged tooth is a common practice in human, making identification difficult. Temperatures vary from red hottest through yellow, green and blue to mauve coldest. Thermal skin imaging may be used for security access or, if used in conjunction with a police database, to identify known criminals. The infrared cameras used in such systems can work at distances of over metres.

Smiling female identical twins are seen with thermograms of their heads. The thermograms show the facial heat patterns produced by blood flowing through blood vessels below the skin's surface.

Pdf biometric authentication

The patterns are unique even in these identical twins, allowing them to be accurately identified. Finger ridge configurations do not change throughout the life of an individual except due to accidents such as bruises and cuts on the fingertips.

This property makes fingerprints a very attractive biometric identifier. Fingerprint-based personal identification has been used for a very long time [10].

Owning to their distinctiveness and stability, fingerprints are the most widely used biometric features. The environment in the uterus affects the phenotypic development of all parts of the twin fetuses. Thus, despite an identical DNA structure of the two fetuses, fingerprints become different.

Identical twins have fingerprints that can be readily distinguished on close examination. However, the prints do have striking similarities. In fact, before the arrival of modern genetic testing, similarity of fingerprints was often used to determine whether twins were identical or fraternal.

The last decade of forensic science has been dominated by genetic analysis. Lawyers now focus on DNA testing to prove the guilt or innocence of those accused of crimes, pushing traditional techniques such as fingerprint analysis into the background. Ironically, however, fingerprint analysis could be used to solve a key conundrum of genetic analysis — how do we tell about identical twins?

Identical -- or monozygotic -- twins form when a single fertilized egg splits in two after conception. Because they form from a single zygote, the two individuals will have the same genetic makeup. Their DNA is virtually indistinguishable. Yet the parents of twins can usually tell them apart by subtle visual cues, and, while their fingerprints are generally similar, they are not identical.

Fingerprints are not an entirely genetic characteristic. Scientists love to use this topic as an example of the old "nature vs. The ultimate shape of fingerprints are believed to be influenced by environmental factors during pregnancy, like nutrition, blood pressure, position in the womb and the growth rate of the fingers at the end of the first trimester.

Thus, you will find similar patterns of whorls and ridges in the fingerprints of identical twins. But there will also be differences -- just as there are differences between the fingers on any individual's hands. In the case of fingerprints, the genes determine the general characteristics of the patterns that are used for fingerprint classification. As the skin on the fingertip differentiates, it expresses these general characteristics. The fingertips are also in contact with other parts of the fetus and the uterus, and their position in relation to uterus and the fetal body changes as the fetus moves on its own and in response to positional changes of the mother.

Thus the microenvironment of the growing cells on the fingertip is in flux, and is always slightly different from hand to hand and finger to finger.

It is this microenvironment that determines the fine detail of the fingerprint structure. While the differences in the microenvironment between fingers are small and subtle, their effect is amplified by the differentiating cells and produces the macroscopic differences that enable the fingerprints of twins to be differentiated. More generally, the environment in the uterus affects the phenotypic development of all parts of the twin fetuses.

Thus, despite an identical DNA structure of the twofetuses, a very careful examination of other physical characteristics will show that twins are systematically different, although those differences may be too subtle to detect without careful measurement. This process of differential development continues throughout life. As twins age, they diverge more and more, and in middle and old age will look more like non-identical twins. If you compare palm prints and fingerprints of the Dionne quintuplets born in , they were the first quints of which all five survived , you find that the broad-brush pattern of lines, whorls, loops, etc.

Nonetheless each kid had unique prints due to differences in detail. Presumably these minor but crucial differences arise from random local events during fetal development. One genius has computed that the chances of duplicating even a portion of a fingerprint are 1 in quintillion one followed by 20 zeros.

Multiply that by the totality of each finger times ten fingers to get the real picture. Fingerprints suggest we are not simply the prisoners of our genes. On the contrary, much of our physical makeup seems to be improvised. Comparison between Different Biometrics Used The following table compares some of the biometric systems used lately, from the point of view of accuracy, cost, and devices required and social acceptability.

We can see that fingerprint has a good balance about everything from the bellow tables. Multi-Factor Authentication 8.

Single-factor authentication SFA is a process for securing access to a given system, such as a network or website that identifies the party requesting access through only one category of credentials.

Extra rules that increase complexity are seen to drive call volumes for password-related issues to help desks proportionately. This problem can result in IT and management letting password standards slip and as a result passwords of shorter length and complexity tend to happen, such as simple seven character words.

These passwords can be cracked in a matter of a few short minutes making them almost as ineffective as no password at all or a password that is discovered from a sticky note, either in use or carelessly discarded. While those avenues need to be guarded against, passwords also need to be less predictable to machines. A test of password entropy predicts how difficult a given password would be to crack through guessing, brute force cracking, dictionary attacks or other common methods.

While it is clear that passwords need more entropy to be less predictable, employees need to be trained to create passwords with entropy that they can actually remember. Throwing a number of rules at employees often makes for passwords no one remembers. Length is perhaps even more important in creating entropy -- users should be encouraged to create long but memorable phrases.

The addition of capitols, numerals and perhaps a few special characters greatly increase entropy due to the larger character set. Password meters have shown to be effective at motivating users to create stronger passwords, especially those that show a live updated numerical rating.

Still, passwords may be cracked by brute force, dictionary and rainbow table attacks, once an attacker captures the password database that resides on the protected computer. With the speeds of CPUs today, brute force attacks pose a real threat to passwords. Depending on the particular software, rainbow tables can be used to crack character alphanumeric passwords in about seconds.

Rainbow tables achieve this by comparing password database to a table of all possible encryption keys. This hugely memory-intensive task is only possible because of the increasing amount of memory in computers.

The threats continually become more advanced: A password database doesn't stand a chance when it is a real target of interest against an attacker with extensive compute and technical resources. Social engineering is a major threat to password-based authentication systems.

To decrease its social engineering attack surface, an organization must train all users, from management to staff. Password strength means nothing if an attacker tricks a user into divulging it.

Even IT staff, if not properly trained, can be exploited with invalid password-related requests. All employees must be aware of phishing tactics, where false emails and forged websites may be used to acquire sensitive information from an unwitting recipient.

Other threats, such as Trojans may also come in email messages. And for any system that needs high security, stronger authentication methods should be used. Multi-factor authentication MFA is a method of computer access control in which a user is only granted access after successfully presenting several separate pieces of evidence to an authentication mechanism - typically at least two of the following categories: The goal of MFA is to create a layered defense and make it more difficult for an unauthorized person to access a target such as a physical location, computing device, network or database.

If one factor is compromised or broken, the attacker still has at least one more barrier to breach before successfully breaking into the target. An authentication factor is a category of credential used for identity verification.

For MFA, each additional factor is intended to increase the assurance that an entity involved in some kind of communication or requesting access to some system is who, or what, they are declared to be. The three most common categories are often described as something you know the knowledge factor , something you have the possession factor and something you are the inherence factor.

Whether encrypted or not, if the database is captured it provides an attacker with a source to verify his guesses at speeds limited only by his hardware resources. Given enough time, a captured password database will fall. As processing speeds of CPUs have increased, brute force attacks have become a real threat.

Further developments like GPGPU password cracking and rainbow tables have provided similar advantages for attackers. GPGPU cracking, for example, can produce more than ,, passwords per second, even on lower end gaming hardware. Now purpose-built FPGA cards, like those used by security agencies, offer ten times that performance at a minuscule fraction of GPU power draw.

A password database alone doesn't stand a chance against such methods when it is a real target of interest. In the past, MFA systems typically relied upon two-factor authentication. Increasingly, vendors are using the label "multifactor" to describe any authentication scheme that requires more than one identity credential. Future Biometrics Research and Developments 9. With essentially infinite variability, individualized custom DNA sequences can be created and embedded into a range of host carriers such as ink, varnish, thread, laminates and metal coatings.

Highly secure, robust, durable and cost-effective, SigNature DNA markers can be used as a forensic complement to barcodes, watermarks, holograms, RFIDs, microdots or any other security platform. As Dugan says, while criticisms of wearables like smartwatches include suggestions that young people won't want to wear them - something Tim Cook commented on - it's much more likely that the demographic would want to use a digital tattoo 9.

The result is the switch toggling on and off, and creating an bit ECG-like signal. Conclusion Biometrics is more secured and safer than a simple password. In case of identical twins many biometrics fail to distinguish them as separate person, but fingerprint still can distinguish.

In recent technology more than one biometric feature is also being used in a combination to have more robust identifying system. Several research projects have shown that multimodal biometrics e. Biometrics refers to metrics related to human characteristics. Biometrics authentication is used in computer science as a form of identification and access control.

It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance. Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. Currently Biometrics is one of the biggest tendencies in human identification. Biometrics is claimed to be better than current and established authentication methods, such as Personal identification numbers PINs , Passwords, Smart cards.

Key advantages of using a biometric feature are: The first ideas of biometrics appeared many years ago. In general, it is very difficult to say that biometrics appeared it this place at this time.

The ideas to use parts of human body and even the ways to use these ideas appeared all over the world. First evidences of biometrics appeared in Babylonians used the same very way to sign business transactions which were in the form of clay tablets.

Wikipedia, cited One of the administrators, during the construction of great pyramid of Khufu, tried to systemize the process of providing food to workers. He recorded all information about the worker name, age, work unit, position, occupation, etc. But after the fact that many workers cheated him, the administrator began to record the physical and behavioral characteristics. In 14th century in China biometric authentication was rather popular among merchants.

Technology of early biometrics was rather simple: It is interesting to point out that in spite of its simplicity this way of biometric authentication is still in use and is the most popular. He was the first who tried to categorize fingerprint patents. In sir William James Herschel, a British officer in India, was the first European who used his fingerprints for identification.

Believing that fingerprints were unique, Herschel used them to sign documents. He used not only palm prints and footprints but also body movements and all kinds of marks on the body. His ideas, known as Bertillonage, became popular in American and British police forces and helped to minimize to circle of suspects. The most interesting fact: Darwin could not help Fauld but forwarded his letter to Sir Francis Galton.

The correspondence between Faulds and Galton was not very intensive, but nevertheless they produced very similar classification systems. Consider that Faulds was the first European who insisted on the meaning of fingerprints in the identification of criminals. It should be pointed out that he offered to use fingerprints from all 10 fingers. Mark Twain is considered to be the first writer who used biometric in his works. His relationships with people around him were rather intensive.

But knowledge of the young lawyer helped to save life and freedom of a person who was wrongly accused of murder. Further, biometrics began more and more popular: S for criminals.

Some defected of Bertillon system was found due to two men, identical twins. According to Bertillon system they had the same measurements and could not differentiate them. Louis Police Departments used fingerprints. S Army used fingerprints. S Navy used fingerprints. S Marine Corps used fingerprints. In s automated fingerprint identification system was created. Also this time is also known as the starting point of face recognition. Bledsoe is the father of face recognition. It was he who insisted to locate eyes, nose, mouth, ears to the photographer.

Goldstein, Harmon and Lesk developed the idea of face recognition in They used 21 specific subjective makers color of hair, thickness of lips. Also, at this very time appeared the first model of behavioral components of speech which was produced by Dr. Joseph Perkell.

Authentication pdf biometric

In his work he used X-rays. In this very year Standford Research Institute and National Physical Laboratory began to work on signature recognition. In the middle of 80th state Callifornia began to collect fingerprints for driver license applications.

Pdf biometric authentication

National Biometric, cited Types of Biometrics: Figure 1: Types of Biometrics 5. DNA is a chemical structure that forms chromosomes.

A gene is piece of a chromosome that dictates a particular trait. That chemical structure can be identified through laboratory analysis. In addition, some consider DNA collection to be personally invasive.

Iris recognition uses camera technology, with subtle infrared illumination reducing specular reflection from the convex cornea, to create images of the detail-rich, intricate structures of the iris. Converted into digital templates, these images provide mathematical representations of the iris that yield unambiguous positive identification of an individual.

Iris recognition efficacy is rarely impeded by glasses or contact lenses. Because of its speed of comparison, iris recognition is the only biometric technology well-suited for one-to-many identification. A key advantage of iris recognition is its stability, or template longevity, a single enrollment can last a lifetime. There are few advantages of using iris as biometric identification: It is an internal organ that is well protected against damage and wear by a highly transparent and sensitive membrane the cornea.

This distinguishes it from fingerprints, which can be difficult to recognize after years of certain types of manual labour. The iris is mostly flat, and its geometric configuration is only controlled by two complementary muscles the sphincter pupillae and dilator pupillae that control the diameter of the pupil.

This makes the iris shape far more predictable than, for instance, that of the face. The iris has a fine texture that—like fingerprints—is determined randomly during embryonic gestation.

Even genetically identical individuals have completely independent iris textures, whereas DNA genetic "fingerprinting" is not unique for the about 0. An iris scan is similar to taking a photograph and can be performed from about 10 cm to a few meters away. While there are some medical and surgical procedures that can affect the colour and overall shape of the iris, the fine texture remains remarkably stable over many decades.

Some iris identifications have succeeded over a period of about 30 years. But Iris scanning is a relatively new technology and is incompatible with the very substantial investment that the law enforcement and immigration authorities of some countries have already made into fingerprint recognition.

Iris recognition is very difficult to perform at a distance larger than a few meters and if the person to be identified is not cooperating by holding the head still and looking into the camera.

However, several academic institutions and biometric vendors are developing products that claim to be able to identify subjects at distances of up to 10 meters. As with other photographic biometric technologies, iris recognition is susceptible to poor image quality, with associated failure to enroll rates.

As with other identification infrastructure ID cards, etc. The human retina is a thin tissue composed of neural cells that is located in the posterior portion of the eye. Because of the complex structure of the capillaries that supply the retina with blood, each person's retina is unique.

The network of blood vessels in the retina is so complex that even identical twins do not share a similar pattern. Although retinal patterns may be altered in cases of diabetes, glaucoma or retinal degenerative disorders, the retina typically remains unchanged from birth until death.

Due to its unique and unchanging nature, the retina appears to be the most precise and reliable biometric. Advocates of retinal scanning have concluded that it is so accurate that its error rate is estimated to be only one in a million. Retinal scan is used to map the unique patterns of a person's retina. This beam of light traces a standardized path on the retina. Because retinal blood vessels are more absorbent of this light than the rest of the eye, the amount of reflection varies during the scan.

The pattern of variations is converted to computer code and stored in a database. Retinal scanners are typically used for authentication and identification purposes.

Identity of the subject is verified very quickly. Disadvantages include measurement accuracy can be affected by a disease such as cataracts, measurement accuracy can also be affected by severe astigmatism, canning procedure is perceived by some as invasive, not very user friendly, subject being scanned must be close to the camera optics, high equipment costs. One of the ways to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.

It is typically used in security systems. Face recognition can be considered to be same as photograph recognition, so it lacks in many areas. Even the automated system for face recognition has lacking as photographs are highly affected by camera angle, brightness, etc.

And also the face of the person changes over the time, unlike fingerprint which remains same throughout the life span of a person.

Face recognition has been getting pretty good at full frontal faces and 20 degrees off, but as soon as you go towards profile, there've been problems. Another serious disadvantage is that many systems are less effective if facial expressions vary.

Even a big smile can render the system less effective. For instance: Tests have shown that with the addition of skin texture analysis, performance in recognizing faces can increase 20 to 25 percent. The role of a signature is not solely to provide evidence of the identity of the contracting party, but rather to additionally provide evidence of deliberation and informed consent.

Signatures can be easily falsified. With advanced signature capturing devices, signature recognition correctly became easier and more efficient. It can be either an online image i. The palm itself consists of principal lines, wrinkles secondary lines and ridges.

It differs to a fingerprint in that it also contains other information such as texture, indents and marks which can be used when comparing one palm to another. Palm prints can be used for criminal, forensic or commercial applications.

The main disadvantage of palm print is that the print hangs with time depending on the type of work the person is doing for a long duration of time.

Veins are blood vessels that carry blood to the heart. Each person's veins have unique physical and behavioral traits. Taking advantage of this, biometrics uses unique characteristics of the veins as a method to identify the user. Vein recognition systems mainly focus on the veins in the users hands. Each finger on human hand has veins connecting directly with the heart and it has its own physical traits. Compared to the other biometric systems, the user's veins are located inside the human body.

Therefore, the recognition system will capture images of the vein patterns inside of users' fingers by applying light transmission to each finger. For more details, the method works by passing near-infrared light through fingers, this way a camera can record vein patterns. Vein recognition systems are getting more attention from experts because it has many other functions which other biometrics technologies do not have.

It has a higher level of security which can protect information or access control much better.

The level of accuracy used in vein recognition systems is very impressive and reliable by the comparison of the recorded database to that of the current data.

Furthermore, it also has a low cost on installation and equipment. Also, unlike a face, the ear is a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. Gestures include movement of the hands, face, or other parts of the body. Gestures differ from physical nonverbal communication that does not communicate specific messages, such as purely expressive display or displays of joint attention.

Gestures let individuals to communicate a variety of feelings and thoughts, from contempt and hostility to approval and affection, often together with body language in addition to words when they speak. Gestures have been studied for centuries from different viewpoints.

Gesture recognition is a topic in computer science and language technology with the goal of interpreting human gestures via mathematical algorithms.

Gestures can originate from any bodily motion or state but commonly originate from the face or hand. Recent focuses include emotion recognition from the face and hand gesture recognition. Many approaches have been made using cameras and computer vision algorithms to interpret sign language.

Gesture recognition can be seen as a way for machines to begin to understand human body language and building a stronger bridge between machines and humans than primitive text user interfaces which still limit the majority of input to keyboard and mouse. Most animals use a variety of gaits. Human gait is the way locomotion is achieved using limbs.

Human gait is defined as bipedal, biphasic forward propulsion of center of gravity of human body, in which there is alternate sinuous movements of different segments of the body with least expenditure of energy.

Different gaits are characterized by differences in limb movement patterns, overall velocity, forces, kinetic and potential energy cycles, and changes in the contact with the surface ground, floor, etc. Gait analysis generally takes gender into consideration. Hand geometry readers measure a user's hand along many dimensions and compare those measurements to measurements stored in a file.

Viable hand geometry devices have been manufactured since the early s, making hand geometry the first biometric to find widespread computerized use. It remains popular; common applications include access control and time-and-attendance operations.

Since hand geometry is not thought to be as unique as fingerprints or irises, fingerprinting and iris recognition remain the preferred technology for high-security applications. Hand geometry is very reliable when combined with other forms of identification, such as personal identification numbers. In large populations, hand geometry is not suitable for so called One-to-many applications, in which a user is identified from his biometric without any other identification.

The ability to identify odors varies among people and decreases with age. Studies show there are sex differences in odor discrimination; women usually outperform males.

Humans can detect individuals Facial Thermograms that are blood-related kin mothers and children but not husbands and wives from olfaction. In humans, the formation of body odors is mainly caused by skin glands excretions and bacterial activity.