The insights and techniques from Stephen Wolfram's A New Kind of. Science  —namely that simple systems can generate complexity, that. A New Kind of Science is a best-selling, controversial book by Stephen Wolfram, published by .. "A Mathematician Looks at Wolfram's New Kind of Science" ( PDF). Notices of the AMS. 50 (2): – ^ Jump up to: Drysdale, David. " Review of. It has been ten years since Stephen Wolfram published his magnum opus A. New Kind of Science . It is worth re-examining the book and its.
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The latest on exploring the computational universe, with free online access to Stephen Wolfram's classic page breakthrough book. A New Kind of Science describes a vast array of remarkable new discoveries made by thinking in This document is from soundofheaven.info Copyright. PDF | On Jan 1, , S Wolfram and others published A New Kind of Science.
Land use effects on weather of, Landau, Lev D. In a sense, many of Wolfram's ideas are based on understanding the scientific process—including the human mind—as operating within the same universe it studies, rather than being outside it. Hermann K. Wolfram calls these systems simple programs and argues that the scientific philosophy and methods appropriate for the study of simple programs are relevant to other fields of science. The remarkable feature of simple programs is that a significant percentage of them are capable of producing great complexity. James M. Another feature of simple programs is that, according to the book, making them more complicated seems to have little effect on their overall complexity.
USA, and chaos theory, and complex ODE, and experimental math, and fluid turbulence, in Preface, xiii Lorenz equations as giving strange attractor, and history of chaos theory, and Lissajous figures, and weather prediction, Los Alamos and history of CAs, and my work on CAs, xiii, Lossless data compression, Lossy data compression, Lotka, Alfred J.
Ada Byron K. England, and universality, Low-level languages and practical computing, Edouard A. Russia, and sequence equations, and undecidable word problems, Malacology study of molluscs , Mallow leaves, Mammoth ivory, Man see Humans Management of machines that think, Management science and Boolean networks, and defining complexity, and history of complexity, Mandelbrot, Benoit B.
Sweden, and randomness, Martingales gambling systems , Marxen, Heiner Germany, and Turing machines, Masers, natural, Masking of sounds, visual with textures, Mass of elementary particles, equality of inertial and gravitational, in relativity theory, in Schwarzschild solution, in ultimate theory of physics, Massey, James L.
Mathematica, relations vs. Method of lines for PDEs, Methodology of computer experiments, and definition of math, development of my, 21 of math in science, for studying sequences, in this book, Metric in differential geometry, for Lorentzian spaces, for numerical data, Riemann tensor expansion of, in space of CA rules, in space of CA states, in unified field theory, volume density from, Metric spaces networks as, Metric tensors, Metrics for complexity of software, Michelson, Albert A.
USA, and experimental math, and Michelson-Morley experiment, Michelson-Morley experiment, Microcanonical ensemble for 2D Ising model, Microcosm, Microorganisms random motion of, Microprocessors randomness instructions in, Microsoft Windows and creation of this book, Microspine pattern from, Microwave background radiation see Cosmic microwave background Middle A frequency of, Middle Ages animism in, concept of microcosm in, understanding of nature in, Middle-square method, for molecular dynamics, Midwest field patterns in, Mie scattering as exactly soluble, Military camouflage, Military cryptography, and shift registers, , Military drill use of rules in, Military GPS P-code , Military secrets and history of complexity, 49 Military SETI, Military vehicles use of randomness by, Millen, Jonathan K.
USA, and origin of life, Miller-Rabin algorithm for PrimeQ , Millipedes locomotion patterns of, Mimesis, Mind see also Brain see also Thinking Mind-body problem, Minds of extraterrestrials, and free will, in inanimate objects, and theories of communication, Mineralogy and forms of crystals, Minimal surfaces computing forms of, and deformable packings, vs. Einstein equations, and general study of form, and radiolarians, USA, and discreteness of space, in Preface, xiii and register machines, , and simple Turing machines, , , and tag systems, and universal Turing machine, , , ' Miracles and ultimate theory of physics, Mirror as amplifier, Mises, Ludwig E.
Momentum basic mechanism for, Momentum conservation in 2D cellular automata, in cellular automaton fluids, in Einstein equations, in network evolution, in physics, Monadic pure predicate logic, Monads models for space with, Monasteries ornamental art from, Monocotyledons plants branching in, symmetries in, Monoids axioms for, enumeration of, and generalized additivity, and multiway systems, vs.
USA, and 2D cellular automata, Moore neighborhood for 2D cellular automata , , Moorish Islamic art, Moral responsibility, Moral theories and free will, Moray eel pigmentation pattern of, Mordell conjecture, Mordell equation, Morning glory leaves, Morphisms in category theory, of words, see also Substitution systems Morphogenesis in biology , , undecidability in models of, Morphogenesis of landscapes , Morphogens, Morphology of biological systems, history of, mathematical, Morphometrics, Morrison, Philip USA, and SETI, Morse, H.
Mosses growth of, Motion absolute, of class 4 structures, concept of in physics, Motivation Occam's razor for, and thinking, Motor skills memory for, Mountains patterns of, Mouse motion miles of in creating this book, xiv as source of randomness, Movie effects and substitution systems, MP3 sound compression, Mu-law sound encoding, mu operator in general recursion , , Muchnik, Albert A.
Russia, and intermediate degrees, Mud and spontaneous generation, Mug circular reflector caustics from, Mules as not self-reproducing, Mullins, William W. USA, and firing squad problem, Myhill-Nerode theorem minimal finite automata , , ' Mysticism and combinatorics, and non-Western thinking, and universal objects, Mythology as models, and origin of complexity, n-body problem gravitational, n Log[n] algorithms and associative evolution, in automaton minimization, in evaluating powers, in Fourier transforms, Sweden, in Preface, xiii and universal CAs, Normal algorithms sequential substitution systems , Normal coordinates and Riemann tensor, Normal distribution see Gaussian distributions.
Normal forms in multiway systems, see also Canonical forms Normal modes of nested systems, Normal numbers, and concatenation sequences, and defining randomness, Normal ordering in quantum field theory , Norms of tensors, Nose human , Not in multivalued logic, and satisfiability, table for, theorems involving, words in languages for, Notation for chemical compounds, in logic, mathematical, for numbers, for operators, for symbolic expressions, used in this book, Notes musical , , Noughts-and-crosses tic-tac-toe , Nouns in human languages, in mathematical notation, Novikov, Petr S.
William Sweden, and fluid flow past spheres, Oster, George F. England, and 2D Turing machines, , Paterson worms as precursors to my work, Path independence see Confluence Path integrals history of, in quantum field theory, for quantum gravity, and random networks, and statistical mechanics, Path metric spaces networks as, Paths representing substitution systems, Paths in multiway systems convergence of, independence on, and non-determinism, Paths in symbolic systems dependence on, Pattern-avoiding sequences, as extraterrestrial signals, vs.
Ramsey theory, Pattern formation in biology, history of, and history of complexity, in physics, from randomness, see also Cellular automata, etc. USA, and axioms for logic, and Nand, and theories of communication, Pell equation, and equation for Power, properties of, and quadratic Diophantine equations, Pendulum attractor for, Penny Matching game, Penrose, Lionel S.
England, and mechanical self-reproduction, Penrose, Roger England, and discreteness of space, and Penrose tiles, , and polyomino tilings, in Preface, xiii and spin networks, Penrose tilings, cellular automata on, , diffraction patterns of, see also Quasicrystals Pentagons in deformable packings, and Fibonacci numbers, and GoldenRatio, as inducing curvature, lattices from, see also Five-fold symmetry Pentodes and Nand operation, Perception, atomic-scale, auditory, in biological evolution, and branching in time, and extraterrestrial intelligence, and familiarity of features, higher forms of, and Principle of Computational Equivalence, and recognizing meaning, relations to NP completeness, of time in universe, traditional idealization of, USA, and neural networks, , and universality, Pixels in bitmaps, displays made from, 46 and printing of this book, PKZIP compression program , Planar Feynman diagrams and QCD, and quantum gravity, and random networks, Planar networks, , Planarity vs.
Italy, and spin networks, Popcorn segregation of sizes in, Popper, Karl R. Mojzesz Poland. Principle of Relativity character of as principle. Turing machines. Hilary W. Srinivasa A. William J. Random initial conditions. John England. David M. Tullio E. Frederick USA. Henry G.
Frigyes Hungary. William E. Bernhard Germany. Lewis F. Scissors game. Ripples on ocean surfaces. Herbert E. Raphael M. Rudy v. Arturo Mexico. Julia B. Yurii Moldova. Klaus F. Alan USA. Rule 12 conserved quantities in. Ulam systems.
Moses I. John Scott Scotland. Leonard M. Ferdinand de Switzerland. Bertrand A. Maxim Russia. Carl E. Myron S. James USA. Terrence J. Erwin R. Robert F. Ernst Germany. Karl Germany. Jean-Armand de France. Johannes C. Jeffrey O. Claude E. Henry M. Herbert A. Robert S.
Brian Canada. Michael I. Waclaw Poland. Peter W. John C. Thoralf Norway. Yakov G. Einstein equations. Stephen USA. Kirill A. Alvy Ray. Cyril S. Raymond M. Gaussian distribution in. Charles E.
Ray J. Lorentzian spaces. Othmar J. Paul R. George G. Square lattices cellular automata on. Peter S. Howard E. Richard G. Nicholas V. Karl F. Matthew P. Symbolic programming in Mathematica. Chao USA. Wanda M. Nikola USA. D'Arcy W. William see Kelvin Threads between particles. Axel Norway. Transfer matrices.
Leonard H. TimeConstraint and avoiding undecidability. Alan M. Edward B. Stanislaw M. NP completeness. Balthazar Netherlands. Alfred J. Johannes G. Harold C. Conrad H. Thomas E. Joseph L. Mordechaj Poland. Edward England. Crayton C. Ivan M.. Blaise de France.
Sergei M. Helge Sweden. Hermann K. Norbert USA. Terry A. Kurt A. In a review of NKS , the Nobel laureate and elementary particle physicist Steven Weinberg wrote, "Wolfram himself is a lapsed elementary particle physicist, and I suppose he can't resist trying to apply his experience with digital computer programs to the laws of nature.
This has led him to the view also considered in a paper by Richard Feynman that nature is discrete rather than continuous. He suggests that space consists of a set of isolated points, like cells in a cellular automaton, and that even time flows in discrete steps.
Following an idea of Edward Fredkin, he concludes that the universe itself would then be an automaton, like a giant computer. It's possible, but I can't see any motivation for these speculations, except that this is the sort of system that Wolfram and others have become used to in their work on computers.
So might a carpenter, looking at the moon, suppose that it is made of wood.
Wolfram's claim that natural selection is not the fundamental cause of complexity in biology has led non-scientist journalist Chris Lavers to state that Wolfram does not understand the theory of evolution.
NKS has been heavily criticized as not being original or important enough to justify its title and claims. The authoritative manner in which NKS presents a vast number of examples and arguments has been criticized as leading the reader to believe that each of these ideas was original to Wolfram;  in particular, one of the most substantial new technical results presented in the book, that the rule cellular automaton is Turing complete , was not proven by Wolfram, but by his research assistant, Matthew Cook.
However, the notes section at the end of his book acknowledges many of the discoveries made by these other scientists citing their names together with historical facts, although not in the form of a traditional bibliography section. Additionally, the idea that very simple rules often generate great complexity is already an established idea in science, particularly in chaos theory and complex systems. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Publishers Weekly. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Software Engineering. IEEE Press. Communications of the ACM. A Year View—Stephen Wolfram". Retrieved Archived from the original on 15 May Alumni—Paul-Jean Letourneau". Journal of Integer Sequences. Planar Trivalent Network Computation. Lecture Notes in Computer Science.
Complex Systems. Never Mind". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 May Archived from the original on 27 May The Economist. Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence Blog. The Bactra Review. American Mathematical Monthly. How top scientists view Wolfram" PDF. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 14 August Stephen Wolfram Blog. Retrieved 4 April Computing in Science and Engineering: Notices of the AMS. Science News. Quantum Information and Computation.
Journal de Physique. Wheeler , , "Information, physics, quantum: The search for links" in W. Zurek ed. Complexity, Entropy, and the Physics of Information.
Redwood City, CA: CERN Courier. The New York Review of Books. The Guardian. Retrieved from " https: Hidden categories: Wolfram argues that the computational realities of the universe make science hard for fundamental reasons. But he also argues that by understanding the importance of these realities, we can learn to use them in our favor.
For instance, instead of reverse engineering our theories from observation, we can enumerate systems and then try to match them to the behaviors we observe. A major theme of NKS is investigating the structure of the possibility space. Wolfram argues that science is far too ad hoc, in part because the models used are too complicated and unnecessarily organized around the limited primitives of traditional mathematics.
Wolfram advocates using models whose variations are enumerable and whose consequences are straightforward to compute and analyze.
Wolfram argues that one of his achievements is in providing a coherent system of ideas that justifies computation as an organizing principle of science. For instance, he argues that the concept of computational irreducibility that some complex computations are not amenable to short-cuts and cannot be "reduced" , is ultimately the reason why computational models of nature must be considered in addition to traditional mathematical models. Likewise, his idea of intrinsic randomness generation—that natural systems can generate their own randomness, rather than using chaos theory or stochastic perturbations—implies that computational models do not need to include explicit randomness.
Based on his experimental results, Wolfram developed the principle of computational equivalence PCE: Most systems can attain this level. Systems, in principle, compute the same things as a computer. Computation is therefore simply a question of translating input and outputs from one system to another. Consequently, most systems are computationally equivalent.
Proposed examples of such systems are the workings of the human brain and the evolution of weather systems. The principle can be restated as follows: From this principle, Wolfram draws an array of concrete deductions which he argues reinforce his theory. Possibly the most important among these is an explanation as to why we experience randomness and complexity: Thus, complexity is not a special quality of systems, like for instance the concept of "heat," but simply a label for all systems whose computations are sophisticated.
Wolfram argues that understanding this makes possible the "normal science" of the NKS paradigm. At the deepest level, Wolfram argues that—like many of the most important scientific ideas—the principle of computational equivalence allows science to be more general by pointing out new ways in which humans are not "special"; that is, it has been claimed that the complexity of human intelligence makes us special, but the Principle asserts otherwise.
In a sense, many of Wolfram's ideas are based on understanding the scientific process—including the human mind—as operating within the same universe it studies, rather than being outside it. There are a number of specific results and ideas in the NKS book, and they can be organized into several themes. One common theme of examples and applications is demonstrating how little complexity it takes to achieve interesting behavior, and how the proper methodology can discover this behavior.
First, there are several cases where the NKS book introduces what was, during the book's composition, the simplest known system in some class that has a particular characteristic. Some examples include the first primitive recursive function that results in complexity, the smallest universal Turing Machine , and the shortest axiom for propositional calculus. In a similar vein, Wolfram also demonstrates many simple programs that exhibit phenomena like phase transitions , conserved quantities , continuum behavior, and thermodynamics that are familiar from traditional science.
Simple computational models of natural systems like shell growth , fluid turbulence , and phyllotaxis are a final category of applications that fall in this theme. Another common theme is taking facts about the computational universe as a whole and using them to reason about fields in a holistic way. For instance, Wolfram discusses how facts about the computational universe inform evolutionary theory , SETI , free will , computational complexity theory , and philosophical fields like ontology , epistemology , and even postmodernism.
Wolfram suggests that the theory of computational irreducibility may provide a resolution to the existence of free will in a nominally deterministic universe. He posits that the computational process in the brain of the being with free will is actually complex enough so that it cannot be captured in a simpler computation, due to the principle of computational irreducibility. Thus, while the process is indeed deterministic, there is no better way to determine the being's will than, in essence, to run the experiment and let the being exercise it.
The book also contains a vast number of individual results—both experimental and analytic—about what a particular automaton computes, or what its characteristics are, using some methods of analysis. The book contains a new technical result in describing the Turing completeness of the Rule cellular automaton.
Very small Turing machines can simulate Rule , which Wolfram demonstrates using a 2-state 5-symbol universal Turing machine. Wolfram conjectures that a particular 2-state 3-symbol Turing machine is universal. Every year, Wolfram and his group of instructors  organize a summer school.
In , the program was held at Curry College in Milton, Massachusetts. After 14 consecutive summer schools, more than people have participated, some of whom continued developing their 3-week research projects as their Master's or Ph. D theses. Others found that the work contained valuable insights and refreshing ideas. A tenet of NKS is that the simpler the system, the more likely a version of it will recur in a wide variety of more complicated contexts.
Therefore, NKS argues that systematically exploring the space of simple programs will lead to a base of reusable knowledge. However, many scientists believe that of all possible parameters, only some actually occur in the universe. For instance, of all possible permutations of the symbols making up an equation, most will be essentially meaningless. NKS has also been criticized for asserting that the behavior of simple systems is somehow representative of all systems.
A common criticism of NKS is that it does not follow established scientific methodology. For instance, NKS does not establish rigorous mathematical definitions,  nor does it attempt to prove theorems ; and most formulas and equations are written in Mathematica rather than standard notation.
NKS has been criticized for not providing specific results that would be immediately applicable to ongoing scientific research. Steven Weinberg has pointed out that no real world system has been explained using Wolfram's methods in a satisfactory fashion. The Principle of computational equivalence has been criticized for being vague, unmathematical, and for not making directly verifiable predictions.