ECONOMIC L±n FOCUS Bulletin of the Ethiopian Economic Association (EEA) a ^×Ñì@KS VOL. 6 NO. 4 February R:Y bx!T×eÃ bz!H XTM. SPECIAL ARTICLE VISION The Right to Sight A Global Initiative to Eliminate Avoidable Blindness Louis Pizzarello, MD; Adenike Abiose, FRCOphth; . To achieve this, the Vision identifies six interwoven pillars, including purpose, our Vision constitutes a bond that holds Rwandans as a.
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PDF | An estimated 45 million people around the world are blind. Most of them have lost their sight to diseases that are treatable or preventable. VISION – working to eliminate avoidable blindness. 53 The global initiative known as 'VISION the Right to Sight' is an established partnership . The mission of the VISION Global Initiative is to eliminate the main causes of all preventable and treatable blindness as a public health issue by the year.
Expansion Areas Economic Association for its effort itself with another system by Level One minimum lease-payment in organizing this Vision boasting of its ability to have rate in square meters Birr ; Forum and providing us all with the created conditions in which its Level Five minimum lease-payment opportunity to say whatever it is that we had to say. Publication WHA A key strategy support- Tuvalu, Vanuatu, and Western Sa- individual. The authors have no relevant fi- Meeting. Those judicial Ethiopia WPE and those of the to echo their vows in toto.
Even efficient judicial system. And I do of any person suspected of cases that have been brought to a not think the promulgation of such having obtained the money court of law and are under litigation laws by the Government on account through corruption and have can be suspended and property of its inability to do so is the the same attached by an order mortgaged with the banks sold desirable way of doing things.
So has it 2. These are: Although the constitutional the eighth line of the Article. Because the bank happens matters of corruption. On the basis other provisions pertaining to rights to be the plaintiff, the judge, and the of these Proclamations, the to property and individual freedom auctioneer, all in one, it can, if it so Commission has the power to [tacitly] recognize this principle. This is not much to wonder about, Everyone has the right to for it constitutes the conventional privacy.
This right shall The reason given in the preambles investigative process. Commissioner has the power to: If the accused prefers to remain guilty according to law.
Covenant on Civil and Political 4. The court may order the Rights. Persons arrested shall not be interception of correspondence compelled to make confessions by telephone, telecommunications The provision stating that the or admissions which could be and electronic devices as well as property of a person accused of used in evidence against them.
Any of the International Covenant on expected of the accused. The person who legally and in good Civil and Political Rights, which Prosecutor must be able to prove the faith acquires and owns the property Ethiopia has ratified and guilt of the accused beyond any of another person through purchase incorporated as part of its own laws. If the Prosecutor or by any other means of exchange fails in this endeavor, he will be has full right to that property.
This The other critical problem regarding forced to drop the case and the principle is a fundamental property the production of evidence concerns accused shall be set free. Let alone right that has been in existence and the provisions of Proclamation No. According to these evidence is found to be in doubt, the Civil Code. If this new law goes provisions: This is a principle set down take into possession any property The other critical problem regarding for the protection of the rights of through gift, exchange, or sale or the production of evidence concerns citizens, taking into consideration receive money from another person, the provisions of Proclamation No.
My dear anti-corruption. According to these constitutional right of any person to kinsfolk!
Do you really believe this provisions: Would 1. If a person accused [of guilty and other similar issues. For his legal means of income, the this is so because the Prosecutor consuming choma fatty raw meat? For living in a 2. Such beautiful house? For owning a four- accumulated by the accused has procedure is a challenge to Article wheel drive? Sub-Article 2 of Article failed in his obligation to pay tax the basis of the provisions 26 reads: By contrast, the present law Everyone has the right to the provision of the Civil Procedure does not recognize this procedure.
The Income Tax So, when it comes to payment of correspondence, including Proclamation that had been in place taxes, the plaintiff, the judge and the postal letters, and from until the issuance of the executor of judgment is the same communications made by new Income Tax Proclamation in body empowered to collect taxes. The That such a procedure narrows, in telecommunications and new Law has changed this many respects, the scope of the electronic devices. Proclamation that completely annuls the right to bail.
The It is true that, in any system of As is well known from experience, previous Proclamation providing for government, the power to determine there might emerge many issues special procedure and rules of the amount of tax and to ensure its that could benefit the alleged debtor evidence on anti-corruption had collection is vested in the at times of litigations pertaining to nothing to say about bail.
The no right to bail. Under the new law, both the previous and the new laws, Constitution, which stipulates: Birr provision itself has its own payers receive notices of payment, ,of what is demanded of conditions. The revenue collecting authority shall be fate of the tax payer who had not Without prejudice to the issues of final and enforceable.
The new law, made any profit in the year payment crimes committed in relation to tax too, has a similar provision. Basically, if the person Vol. If the landholder who published in the Negarit Gazeta. There are of whether or not the person should legality. One such issue is the denial have cleared the land; it should many issues in the Civil Procedure of the right to bail under this rather be limited to the question of Code that can come to light during Proclamation.
The other is the demanding compensation or to the the implementation of decisions. If the appellant still is not should suffice, as the details are far satisfied with the decision, he can, too many to deal with here. Proclamation Commission or, depending on particular situations, to bodies I do not think it is open to argument What I am going to raise here about established for the purpose within that the different laws that we the Proclamation is limited to the the jurisdiction of City or Regional looked into so far provide good powers the Law has vested in governments.
And all this is deprivation of land holding rights. If it has paid is adequate. Such procedure other laws whose validity can be been determined that the holding of puts into question the relevance of tested against this criterion, I do not the land is illegal, the administrative the provisions related to reckon there would be anyone who agency can, without any additional landholding security that have been would bet with me that the laws that condition, implement the decision stipulated in the Constitution and we have looked into above have no to remove the landholder by using the Lease Proclamation themselves.
In The question, then, is: Is this how such a case, there appears to be no we are going to attract investment? The question that should follow is: Different legal given a hearing. The relevant authority can Vol.
The protected, on the one hand, while, constitutional laws and, sometimes, members of the Council execute on the other, the distinct differences benefits others.
Even then, when the be respected and, accordingly, reach power-sharing among government Council finds that any issue or mutual consensus to establish a branches and the accompanying complaint involves constitutional federal system of governance checking mechanisms, which states dispute, or finds that it needs serving their common interests.
The Supreme the Federation has taken decisions for the establishment of a federal Court of the United States of on the issues of identity of some form of administration. America is one such court to be social groups, I have no evidence, Nevertheless, it is difficult to cited as a good example. While such courts are staffed such cases?
Would it really ensure polity. The issue involved differs with judges knowledgeable in constitutionality if did so, etc.? I, according to the particular historical Constitutional matters and with for my part at least think the issue is and concrete situations in which the many years of experience behind something that needs deliberation different peoples find themselves.
A third group Blacks and the Whites, as also of countries have such cases among the Blacks themselves and One fundamental reason why a reviewed by courts specially within the White communities, too, Federal system of governance is assigned for this purpose.
Although the peoples Courts. Such cases are presented to those who find a federal system have their own identities that make the House of Federation through the preferable, I am not so dogmatic as Vol.
This establishment of the member there are other alternatives. If one common will of the peoples is Regional States during the should insist that the federal expressed or manifested through: Even at that me, has recognized this from the structure; rights to full regional moment, too, it has been clearly early days of its establishment.
This could be distribution of wealth; and, finally, But to one who has followed up the one way to go about it, but, again, it a system of centralized governance process of this formation, the is not the sole alternative available that ensures the balanced implementation of the Law had not to us.
Selale speak the same Language as present federal system of Just about a year after the issuance the Oromo of Borana, there are governance? According Peoples had come together and Goha Tsion in terms of to Article 47 of the same agreed to form the present Southern geographical location, culture, Constitution, it is nine Regional Regional State. I similarly States that constitute the Federation. So, when one thinks of a subsequent establishment of the governance can come about in federal form of government, one Transitional Government of either of two ways.
The first is that should also take into consideration Ethiopia, in accordance with whereby political units that were administrative conveniences and Proclamation No. One can say that this their differences. The second way is Adama Nazereth to traverse a Proclamation was the Law forming that whereby communities that were distance of over six-hundred the basis of the establishment of the previously under one unitary State kilometers to go to Bahir Dar?
Prior to that, a once-centralized State structure. Since, as we have federal structure of governance, Constitution under the Government seen above, the Ethiopian because it is a system that attempts of Emperor Haile Selassie I and the Federalism moved along the line of to accommodate differences within Constitution on the basis of devolving centralized power down the framework of a common which the then Military to the Regional level, it falls under Vol.
When we look at the Wollega, Gambella, etc. Are all Regions treading one another. Every human effort there are many questions that invite the tracks of development equally in and vision emanates from the right debate. Because of time constraint, I an equitable manner? Let alone we humanity has and believes it must shall skip the details and focus on Ethiopians resenting each other, no have over land. It is this right to and the issues pertaining to the one people can begrudge another close link with land that forms the implementation of the principles of people for what it has.
To speak out basis of national identity, the federalism. And to the Regions and keeping the two in death if not applied properly. Let us governments, land forms the basis balance, at least in principle. We are seeing with a special regard.
It some indications here at home, too. It is my conviction that Care must be taken from the outset, When we take this fact as a Federalism and partisan party lest the prophetic warning of the launching ground, since this politics do not go together.
And this, if our Ethiopia that we say about the land question tainted. Even when we limit must take the path of development now, it is with the belief or vision ourselves to looking at the situation that we have envisioned for her in that the Ethiopian peasantry would, following the elections, of the Year E.
But why? Should we citation from John Locke. Are the paths taken by God and his reason the livelihood of the rural the Federal and Regional commanded man to subdue populations when the economy Governments really a bed of roses? The Ethiopian behind the key positions are really own, his labour. He that, in Constitution now tells us that land is up to?
Are all the clashes we annexed to it something upon Vol. It therefore accordingly, rent land from subject to sale or any other form of meets the criterion by which the Regional Governments for a exchange. It is a matter of historical value of property is measured. What specified period of time. How much benefit is allay their fear of tenure insecurity.
Well, as we have heard it said that there in making land not saleable or Peasants primarily use land for one thing leads to another, I took a exchangeable for all eternity to purposes only of agriculture. And trip on memory lane to one of the come? Then, the articulate announcer and revisited unsaleable or nonexchangeable. But Proclamation provides that farmers the March 4, issue of Addis has the curse of beggary that the can bequeath their holdings, but Zemen. The way I members of their families have the The title of the announcement was look at it the situation has only right to inheritance.
The look at the problem squarely in the Proclamation further stipulates that The [Land] Proclamation is face. Government to declare the High. Moreover, the only person that is dawning of the Day, the considered a family member is he Elimination of Darkness, the When it comes to the subsequent, who lives as a dependent of the Restoration of Land to the subsidiary laws, the major land use farmer who bequeathee.
What all Tiller, the Annulment of laws promulgated at the level of the this consequently boils down to is Tenancy, the Establishment of Federal Government are that, first of all, a peasant cannot a System free from Looting Proclamation No. Other than this, people who Because the Proclamation has no Vol.
The Proclamation those Proclamations and five institutions or individuals with their stipulates that land can be given to Investment Regulations and holdings as collateral, one can say individuals, outside of the lease Amendments to those Regulations that there are no mechanisms laid system, for purposes of building have been issued since ? Consequently, the chances for them services.
Although much can be to develop their land through the said about the details of the VIII. Payment for any lease- We can say a lot more about laws hold is to be determined by and their legality, about the rule of All in all, if the land tenure system Regional Governments. For law and the protection of human continues the way it is, I think it example, the minimum rate of land- rights, about legality and economic will only make of the peasant a lease payment for Addis Ababa, as development by drawing on the permanent tiller for ages to come.
The population of the October 8, gives a good comparing them with the concrete reality around us. Had it not been Country is increasing at an alarming indication of the direction in which for the limited scope of the forum, rate. The professionals and experts our urban land tenure system is time constraint and the limitation of tell us that the present population moving. The city of Addis Ababa my own capability, I think much will increase two-fold twenty-five has been divided into three zones more than what has been presented years from now.
Famine and for this purpose: Central Business Zone political activities, election laws and now. Famine has become a problem Level One minimum lease-payment their implementation, the press and to do not only with unbearable rate in square meters Birr ; the right to freedom of expression, Level Five minimum lease-payment the contents of the Investment hunger but it is also posing a Proclamations, free business challenge to our national dignity.
I could only hope, at This is of course, unless you ask me 2. Intermediate Zone? Therefore, whether we like it rate in square meters Birr ; of ideas and opinions. In rate in square meters Birr Thanks are due to the Ethiopian former times, one system compared 3.
Expansion Areas Economic Association for its effort itself with another system by Level One minimum lease-payment in organizing this Vision boasting of its ability to have rate in square meters Birr ; Forum and providing us all with the created conditions in which its Level Five minimum lease-payment opportunity to say whatever it is that we had to say. For I Today, however, things seem to In all three zones, there is another have put something in the pot.
We the minimum and maximum rates. Could one really say that Ethiopia shall rise once again must be changed before it is too this tendency encourages A pinnacle of nationhood late, which is now! I would rather you High as the mountains we yourself answered this question. Rainaldo Duerksen.
The Right to Sight. Eighty percent of them live in the lesser-developed world in countries where chronic economic deprivation is ex- acerbated by the added challenge of failing vision. Without intervention, the number of individuals with blindness might reach 76 million by because of a number of factors, pri- marily the rapid aging of populations in most countries.
In response to this global need, the World process. The Right to Sight initiative in In addition, IAPB has an official In areas of the world where these focal dis- relationship with the WHO Program on eases have been controlled, glaucoma and Prevention of Blindness and Deafness diabetic retinopathy are included among the based in Geneva, Switzerland, and with the targeted conditions.
Just as importantly, VISION has provided the advocacy that is es- In each country, it is intended that a na- sential to raise sufficient resources and com- tional blindness prevention committee mitment to attain the goals of the initia- oversees the VISION agenda. At this tive. VISION is now 4 years into the time, national committees have been de- veloped in more than countries. COM Downloaded from www.
All rights reserved. Once a national plan has been lowing the implementation of a na- adopted by the government, a coor- The Africa region comprises all the tional blindness prevention program dinated effort can then proceed. Al- countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The Africa regional plan was choma, onchocerciasis, childhood will be updated on a 5-year basis. Cata- South Africa, in April Several courses have been chairman coordinates the activities shops have taken place, and several given to assist with the conversion of the VISION program in part- countries are at various stages of de- from intracapsular to extracapsular nership with the WHO staff.
The re- velopment of national plans for blind- surgery with intraocular lenses. Sev- gions vary widely in population, ness prevention.
In particular, 4 eral individuals have attended man- level of development, and targeted countries Nigeria, Democratic Re- agement courses to enhance the pro- eye diseases Table 2. Similar public of Congo, South Africa, and ductivity of existing programs. A variation can also be seen within a Ethiopia , representing half of the re- team has been trained in financial region.
Despite this diversity, re- gional population, have received spe- sustainability of cataract services. Major constraints to Long-standing programs have through a series of regionwide work- program implementation are lack of targeted onchocerciasis Onchocer- shops and 5-year plans of action have manpower and monetary resources. A pro- gram for training nonophthalmic 20 health care workers as refraction- 0 ists is being sponsored by the Inter- national Centre for Eyecare Educa- Individuals with blindness in the world with and without vision in Table 2.
At the disease the same time, critically deficient Education of the public about glaucoma and the need for its areas will be identified and a prior- detection and treatment ity list of needs will be created. Certain exist- ate and sustainable mechanisms for ern tip of Siberia, containing 50 ing centers have received support to supply of equipment, drugs, and countries across 16 time zones with develop eye care units from a num- consumables.
Since that time, a number of many; Orbis International, New regional meetings have taken place York, NY; Lions International, Oak Stretching from Morocco in the west and a regional implementation plan Brook, Ill; and Organization pour la to Pakistan in the east, this region is being crafted. Prevention de la Cecite, Paris, of million people has a diver- Target diseases vary by geog- France.
Future activities will in- sity of climates, populations, and eye raphy: National vices in the eastern areas. Many coun- prevention programs are limited, and ness prevention programs in the vari- tries are part of the Global Eradication ophthalmic medications and equip- ous national plans. Intra- thalmologists in the eastern areas.
America region. With the exception of a few Canada. This pro- of technological standards. There are the Health Vision program in tocol is now being implemented in some issues of access to care in cer- the United States.
Bolivia has is widely available. A National Coa- intraregional communication and incorporated the treatment of reti- lition for Vision Health Toronto, cooperation. The coalition is working This region includes all of Central Financial support for all of with the national government to de- and South America with a popula- these programs has come from velop a strategy to deal with the in- tion of million.
In July , a regional work- and the Mirada Solidaria Founda- In the Caribbean, a highly suc- ing group was established to imple- tion, Bilbao, Spain. Cataract, glaucoma, diabetic zations including the Pan Ameri- ophthalmologists in blindness pre- retinopathy, refraction and low vi- can Health Organization, Washing- vention programs. Specific Association of Ophthalmology, Ar- ness prevention plans in all coun- targets have been set for each of these lington, Tex, both of whom have tries in the region.
Five subregional gical rate where needed. National VISION imple- recognition and treatment of reti- school-based screening will be start- mentation plans have been devel- nopathy of prematurity. Sight oped for Colombia and Bolivia. Target diseases include cata- This region covers 11 countries— The United States has devel- ract, childhood blindness, refrac- India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Indone- oped the Healthy Vision pro- tive error and low vision, and dia- sia, Timor Leste, Myanmar, Bhu- gram.
There are several tan, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Thailand, leading causes of vision loss in the limited foci of onchocerciasis, which and North Korea—with a com- country. Specific targets are being are being treated. Each year more bined population of 1. Fol- developed at this time for each of the than ophthalmologists and other lowing the regional launch of objectives, which include diabetic health professionals take part in VISION , an intercountry con- retinopathy, glaucoma, cataract, oc- training courses organized by the sultation convened in Jakarta, In- cupational eye injury, refractive er- London School of Tropical Medi- donesia, in February by the ror and low vision, vision rehabili- cine, London, England; the Interna- WHO South-East Asia Regional Of- tation, and childhood screening and tional Centre for Eye Health, Lon- fice.
National plans of action have treatment. These been developed in India and Nepal be the strategic plan for blindness courses encourage the participants and have received budgetary alloca- prevention for the next 10 years.
Sev- In the next 5 years, priorities projects, which are aimed at im- eral other countries are in the pro- will be: Korea and Frick and Foster10 calculate that suc- Target diseases are cataract, Mongolia plan declarations this year. This is nopathy, corneal infections, and Singapore, Solomon Islands, Tonga, defined as 1 year of blindness for an glaucoma. A key strategy support- Tuvalu, Vanuatu, and Western Sa- individual. This will have a dra- ing all of these programs will be hu- moa.
Using con- ophthalmic personnel and training gion. Manage- country, and national plans are in lion of economic gain if VISION ment training is being carried out at varying stages of formation in most is successful.
The costs of many the Lions Aravind Institute of Com- nations. With more with significant levels of trachoma, than participants, this gather- and they are involved with the Since its launch by Gro Brundt- ing helped to sensitize both oph- Global Eradication of Trachoma by land, MD, director general of the thalmologists and policy makers to initiative. Emphasis has been WHO in , VISION has re- the importance and the process of placed on development of midlevel ceived the endorsement of all of the developing eye care services for chil- ophthalmic workers.
The course de- supranational ophthalmic societies dren. A training course on pediat- veloped at Korat, Thailand, for such as well as many of the national or- ric eye surgery has been developed workers has had a great deal of in- ganizations. Resources have come at the L. Prasad Eye Institute in fluence on programs throughout the from sources as diverse as the state Hyderabad, India.
Teams consist- region. York, NY. However, new sources of eye care services in the region. Cen- care personnel in all countries.