Hildebert Wagner Sabine Bladt. Plant Drug Analysis. A Thin Layer Chromatography Atlas. Second Edition. With Colored Photographs by Veronika Rickl. Plant Drug Analysis - Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Plant Drug Analysis. A Thin Layer Chromatog- raphy Atlas. Second Edition. By H. Wagner and S. Bladt (Universität Mü nchen). Photographs by V. Rickl.
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Hildebert Wagner. Sabine Bladt. Plant Drug Analysis. AThin Layer Chromatography Atlas. Second Edition. With Colored Photographs by Veroriika Rick!. This second edition of Plant Drug Analysis includes nearly new color PDF · Flavonoid Drugs Including Ginkgo Biloba and Echinaceae Species. This second edition of Plant Drug Analysis includes more than updated color DRM-free; Included format: PDF; ebooks can be used on all reading devices.
Jork, W. Journal of Basic Microbiology Volume 26, Issue 2. Bibliographic information DOI https: CRC-Pre Keywords: Springer, fractions of the alkaloid constituent of opium papaverine, Berlin, Germany, , pp. Show all.
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Email or Customer ID. Anne Schibli. Nelu Grinberg Publisher: CRC Pre Keywords: Clarifies how thin-layer chromatography differs from. Joseph Sherma.
A Multidisciplinary Approach. Bernard Fried. Facilitating industrial adaptation through easy reference. Revised And Expanded Chromatographic Science.
This information is directed specifically at workers in the most active scientific fields. CRC-Pre Keywords: Hans F. John F. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Sherma Handbook of Thin Layer Chromatography. Identification essential oil by gc-ms - robert adam1. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Plant Drug Analysis: Glen Mangali. Erbapipa Erbario. Sisa Ruwan. The active constituents of coumarin drugs are benzo a-pyrones.
They can be classified in simple coumarins, furanocoumarins, Flavonoids and pyranocoumarins. Their compounds are very easily detected A large number of different flavonoids are known to occur in because they give characteristic fluorescent colors in UV light. Apigenin, genistein, hesperetin, ious medicinal plants coumarin, umbelliferone, aesculetin, scopoletin, psoralen, bergapten, methoxsalen, and angelicin are Figure 2. Densitogram of Citrus aurantium extract: Figure 3.
Densitogram of Ammi visnaga extract: A full list of the plant extracts Only the chromatographic results concerning flavonoid agly- studied and the characterized major constituents are given in cones that are characteristic and more easily determined than Table I. For furanochromones, better results were obtained with the The various flavonoid aglycones investigated with their hRf and eluent ethyl acetate—chloroform Figure 3 reports the the plants that contain these products are reported in Table I.
Thus, its nagin identified by comparison with authentic samples. Two eluents proved interesting: For example, apigenin and kaempferol However, for the unsubstituted compounds, flavone and fla- had an hRf lower than that of naringenin.
The same conclusion vanone do not frequently occur in nature. Thus, it was interesting was valid when a phenol or methoxy group was present as a sub- to compare their chromatographic comportment in the same stituent; for example, the hRf of quercetin was lower than that of eluent with substituted analog derivatives in order to estimate the kaempferol. The values of hRf are compared with apigenin. Concerning the flavone—isoflavone skeleton, the last type was a This method was then applied to different medicinal plant little less polar than the former.
This was in relation to a lower extracts Barosma betulina, Citrus aurantium var. Crataegus monogyna, Ginkgo biloba, Sophora japonica, and The same remarks formulated for flavonoid derivatives about Tilia cordata. Before chromatographic analysis, the extracts the increase of polarity with the supplementary phenolic or were hydrolyzed by 2M hydrochloric acid, then the corresponding methoxy group are valid in the furanochromone series khellin aglycones were extracted and characterization of these aglycones and visnagin.
The densitogram obtained from an extract of orange flower C. Quinoline Cinchona sp. Densitogram of Malva sylvestris extract: Tropolone Colchicum autumnale seed 6 Downloaded from https: They are present in plants as glyco- Anthocyanins present a therapeutic interest as angiovascular sides of hydroxylated 2-phenylbenzopyrilium salts. Cleavage by protectors and are used in natural foodstuff as coloring agents 9.
These compounds have been studied by TLC and characterized Therefore, we have achieved the chromatographic study by Table III. The separation was difficult because of it being Reagent necessary to modify eluents used for coumarins and flavonoids by adding methyl ethyl ketone to ethyl acetate for an increase in the Alkaloid hRf Source Color polarity and formic acid and 2M hydrochloric acid to stabilize the Aconitine 86 Aconitum napellus pink brown color of these compounds.
Based on this, a mixture of ethyl Anabasine 52 Nicotiana tabacum blue acetate—methyl ethyl ketone—formic acid—2M hydrochloric acid Ajmaline 7 Rauwolfia sp. Arecoline 79 Areca catechu violet brown Many different anthocyanins can be recognized by their dis- Atropine 19 Mydriatic Solanaceae violet blue Boldine 72 Peumus bolbus pink violet Brucine 28 Strychnos nux vomica violet brown Caffeine 43 Coffea sp. Densitogram of opium alkaloids by OPLC: Hydrastine 97 Hydrastis canadensis brown violet Lobeline 78 Lobelia inflata brown Lupanine 22 Lupinus sp.
Densitogram of Datura stramonium extract: However, it is important only ethyl acetate as the mobile phase. This is a significant to visualize the chromatogram immediately because the colors of improvement over those separations by both TLC and OPLC, the spots fade fairly rapidly after separation Table I. Such mixtures are not easy to employ in prepara- example. Table tary OH or OCH3 on the phenyl group present in the 2 position of II shows some representative reference compounds with their hRf the benzopyrylium skeleton increases the polarity i.
The densitograms were recorded following the chromatog- Alkaloids 23—25 raphy of plant extracts selected on the basis of their importance The most interesting results with OPLC was the discovery that because of: The densitogram of opium alkaloids Figure 5 shows an effi- cient separation that enables the identification of all the major Figure 7. Densitogram of Nicotiana tabacum extract: Figure 9.
Chromatogram of opium alkaloids and derivatives by AMD: Table IV. Densitogram of Thea sinensis extract: Methadone 87 96 37 pink violet 8 Downloaded from https: Their chromato- observation of fluorescence under UV illumination and also by graphic behavior is thus very different, which generally led derivation with iodoplatinate reagent, which is better than authors to use silica gel with complex eluents.
The separation of Strychnos nux vomica alkaloids on alu- In AMD 25,33 , opium alkaloids are studied as well as some minum oxide or silica gel 26 requires the use of complex eluents derivatives and analogs such as heroin, methadone, and containing three or more components, whereas by OPLC with the buprenorphine. A clean separation was obtained after 25 develop- ethyl acetate as eluent, brucine, and strychnine they are clearly ment steps with a gradient 1 consisting of methanol , acetone , ethyl acetate , ethyl acetate—methylene chloride The hRf and colors of opium alkaloids and analogs with iodoplatinate reagent are reported in Table IV.
Quaternary ammonium salts and alkaloids 34 In contrast with the ternary compounds, there are few publica- tions about quaternary alkaloids salts.
Aluminum oxide and cel- lulose are the stationary phases most frequently employed 35— Silica gel is also used, but in these instances it is neces- sary to employ water, acidic solutions, or other polar solvents as mobile phases 39— The slow advance of such eluents leads to spot diffusion and stretching, with the result that sample hRf values cannot be determined clearly and precisely.
OPLC could be the solution to these problems as reported by several authors 17, Figure Densitogram of Hydrastis Canadensis extract: Table V. Plant Extracts Studied and Compounds Obtained Plants Compounds Berberis vulgaris bark berberine Chelidonium majus flowering plant chelidonine, sanguinarine Jatrorrhiza palmate root palmatine Hydrastis canadensis root berberine, hydrastine, hydrastinine Rauwolfia serpentina root ajmaline, serpentine Figure HP-TLC of cannabinoids: L cannabis extract, 2 5?
L cannabis extract, 3 5? L D8-THC, 4 10? L D9-THC, 5 2? L cannabis resin, Table VI. L cannabis resin. Compounds hRf Choline chloride 45 Betaine 20 Carnitine hydrochloride 43 Trigonelline hydrochloride 48 Hydrastinine 17 Hydrastine hydrochloride 41 Berberine chloride 86 Palmatine chloride 80 Chelidonine 94 Sanguinarine chloride 51 Serpentine 95 Figure AMD of cannabinoids: L cannabis resin, 2 4?
L cannabis extract, 4 4? L cannabis resin, and d-Tubocurarine 28 6 2? L D9-THC, 7 2? L cannabis extract, and 8 2? L D8-THC.
In salts because they are too polar. The use of silica gel was more order to obtain pure brucine, 20 mL of isopropanol was added to suitable than aluminum oxide in that the diffusion of spots was ethyl acetate.
Methanol was not used because its use damages the reduced, thus promoting a clean separation. Similarly, the impregnated polymer. With these analytical condi- loidal constituents of opium papaverine, noscapine, thebaine, tions a good separation of the quaternary alkaloids was obtained. Alkaloids from D. The advantages of semipreparative OPLC are quickness, repro- The most interesting result was the clean separation of quater- ducibility, and small consumption of developing solvent.
The dis- nary ammonium salts from crude vegetal extracts.
The spots advantage of scratching the plates off, as encountered in classical obtained were regular in form without diffusion or stretching.
TLC, was also avoided by the direct collection of eluting com- The densitogram of Hydrastis canadensis compounds Figure pounds. The alkaloids from Chelidonium majus, sanguinarine, and In OPLC with ethyl acetate as the mobile phase, D9-THC a psy- chelidonine were cleanly separated, and the hRf values were 51 chotropic phenolic compound and other cannabinoids from and 94, respectively. Cannabis sativa var. In this study only two by adding hexane [hexane—ethyl acetate The charac- very polar compounds were selected: In this instance a good ammonium salts and alkaloids characterized are given in Tables V separation of cannabinoids was obtained, particularly for CBN and VI.
The main aim of this study was to obtain pure com- and D9-THC from the resin of cannabis and from Indian hemp pounds from crude plant extract by coupling the chromatograph with TLC 48 , but with traditional TLC we obtained only three or to a collector.
Then, an opium extract that had a more com- of resin than in cannabis extracts.
Thus, this new technique can plex alkaloidal composition and finally Lupinus and Datura stra- give more information about the composition of various samples monium extracts were selected. The migration of the eluent was performed during the preparation of different samples by the examination of dif- the time required to obtain a start of the elution process.
Upon ferent proportions of cannabinoids Figure However, this technique is limited hRf Rf because the components of essential oils are volatile and thus a diffusion can be watched as an edge effect at the top of the plate.
Rg 67 10 Downloaded from https: With the AMD technique, the diffusion on the plate was For thymes, with OPLC good separation of the different chemo- reduced and the evaporation was also very limited.
Besides, the types constituents was obtained, particularly for the two phenol successive migrations took place under a nitrogen atmosphere, isomers thymol and carvacrol 49 An analysis of the chro- thus preventing oxidation.
Therefore, it was possible to study matograms shows that the quickness of the migration limits the essential oils that become degraded by heat and easily oxidizable. This is the reason why AMD could be useful for This technique provides good information by highlighting the the chromatography of essential oils, because with very small position of the different compounds included in the essential oils quantities of sample the resolution is satisfactory and thus it is of the seven chemotypes of thyme studied.
With the eluent possible to envisage a quantitative analysis by scanner densitom- hexane—ethyl acetate The mix- those currently reported by Pharmacopoeia. With this method it ture of thymol and carvacrol and other constituents of thyme and was possible to separate cleanly the two phenol isomers thymol wild thyme extracts were clearly separated without diffusion; and carvacrol with a classical binary eluent [hexane—ethyl acetate therefore, OPLC was an interesting method of analysis for these A single chromatographic plate permitted the analysis of approximately ten samples within 15 min as well as the easy identification of the different chemotypes of thymes.
With AMD, it was possible to satisfactorily separate thymol and carvacrol. This technique has the advantage of working with small quantities of samples. This method could be developed with a view to permit the identification of the typical compound of the chemotype and the quantitation of the different constituents of the essential oils studied. For seven chemotypes of thymes, results were obtained by clas- sical TLC and automated tank Desaga.