The Pentagon Papers: An Introduction THE RECENTLY PUBLISHED PENTAGON PAPERS reveal a striking absence of soundofheaven.info soundofheaven.info Full searchable text of the Pentagon Papers, which were declassified and released online 40 years after the leak by Daniel Ellsberg. Pentagon Papers are being made available simultaneously online. various versions we are displaying—not only the pdf panels but also.
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The Pentagon Papers, officially titled "Report of the Office of the Secretary of Defense Vietnam All files in the "Title" column are in PDF format. Forty years after the New York Times published a leaked version of the secret government study of the Vietnam War known as the Pentagon Papers, the. The Pentagon Papers, officially titled Report of the Office of the Secretary of Defense Vietnam .. which 11 words were at issue. The Archives released each volume of the Pentagon Papers as a separate PDF file, available on their website .
Buddhist crisis Coup against Diem Archived from the original PDF on 9 August Beacon Press, Archived from the original PDF on Book II This posting of nearly 20, pages has been an enormous undertaking and required the cooperation of many Archive personnel.
The National Security Archive will award the best Pentagon Papers candidate for deletion a Grand Prize consisting of a set of the available Archive Readers—books on major international issues which include compilations of documents obtained by the Archive along with analysis by Archive experts.
Enter early and often! However, entries must follow the format prescribed below. Only one candidate passage may be nominated in any single entry. Multiple entries must be submitted separately.
All entries must be in writing, in an email to the Archive at nsarchiv gwu. Please do not use Twitter, as a proper entry cannot be fitted within the Twitter message format. The National Security Archive will be solely responsible for the selection of entries that we publish and when they may appear. Entries that are published become finalists in the prize competition but there will be no monetary or other compensation.
Those which do not rise to that level will not be circulated. Entries that do not follow the prescribed format will automatically be rejected. When entries do appear in Unredacted or on Facebook , readers should feel free to comment on them just as they do regarding any of our other articles.
All contest submissions must contain the true name and address of the entrant for purposes of the Prize awards. Each entry must contain the following information:. All entries will be reviewed by a panel of National Security Archive experts. The Archive has no preconceived notion as to the true identity of the 11 Words. Entries will be judged solely on the basis of the case they make. Inaccurate quotation or source referencing, frivolous argumentation, and failure to incorporate required elements of the format will be grounds for rejection.
All decisions of the judges will be final.
Neil Sheehan, Hedrick Smith, E. New York: Bantam Books, The Senator Gravel Edition: The Pentagon Papers: Beacon Press, Leslie H. Gelb, et. Government Printing Office, George C. Herring, ed.
The Secret Diplomacy of the Vietnam War: The Negotiating Volumes of the Pentagon Papers. Austin TX: University of Texas Press, June 13, Contents of this website Copyright National Security Archive. All rights reserved. Terms and conditions for use of materials found on this website. Each entry must contain the following information: The entrant must pick a specific phrase of the Pentagon Papers, precisely 11 words long, and the phrase nominated must be quoted verbatim in the text, enclosed in quotation marks.
The entrant is free to nominate an 11 word passage embedded in a longer sentence—but in that case the full sentence must appear as the quotation and the 11 word phrase must be highlighted in bold.
Candidate phrases longer than 11 words are not acceptable. Programs in South Vietnam, November April February - June November - December January - June Phase I in the Build-up of U.
March - July Ground Strategy and Force Deployments: Volume I: Phase II, Program 3, Program 4 Volume II: Program 5 Volume III: Air War in the North: Volume I Volume II Re-emphasis on Pacification: Volume 1: December - June Volume 2: July - December Statistical Survey of the War, North and South: Public Statements. A--The Truman Administration B--The Eisenhower Administration C--The Kennedy Administration The newspaper appealed the injunction, and the case New York Times Co.
United States U. Bagdikian brought the information to editor Ben Bradlee. That day, Assistant U. After the paper refused, Rehnquist sought an injunction in U.
Judge Murray Gurfein declined to issue such an injunction, writing that "[t]he security of the Nation is not at the ramparts alone. Security also lies in the value of our free institutions. A cantankerous press, an obstinate press, a ubiquitous press must be suffered by those in authority to preserve the even greater values of freedom of expression and the right of the people to know.
On June 30, , the Supreme Court decided, 6—3, that the government failed to meet the heavy burden of proof required for prior restraint injunction.
The nine justices wrote nine opinions disagreeing on significant, substantive matters. Only a free and unrestrained press can effectively expose deception in government. And paramount among the responsibilities of a free press is the duty to prevent any part of the government from deceiving the people and sending them off to distant lands to die of foreign fevers and foreign shot and shell.
As the press rooms of the Times and the Post began to hum to the lifting of the censorship order, the journalists of America pondered with grave concern the fact that for fifteen days the 'free press' of the nation had been prevented from publishing an important document and for their troubles had been given an inconclusive and uninspiring 'burden-of-proof' decision by a sharply divided Supreme Court.
There was relief, but no great rejoicing, in the editorial offices of America's publishers and broadcasters. Ellsberg surrendered to authorities in Boston, and admitted that he had given the papers to the press: I did this clearly at my own jeopardy and I am prepared to answer to all the consequences of this decision".
Byrne ruled: The bizarre events have incurably infected the prosecution of this case. In March , political scientist Samuel L. Popkin , then assistant professor of Government at Harvard University , was jailed for a week for his refusal to answer questions before a grand jury investigating the Pentagon Papers case, during a hearing before the Boston Federal District Court. The Faculty Council later passed a resolution condemning the government's interrogation of scholars on the grounds that "an unlimited right of grand juries to ask any question and to expose a witness to citations for contempt could easily threaten scholarly research".
Gelb estimated that The New York Times only published about five percent of the study's 7, pages. The Beacon Press edition was also incomplete. Halperin, who had originally classified the study as secret, obtained most of the unpublished portions under the Freedom of Information Act and the University of Texas published them in The National Security Archive published the remaining portions in The study itself remained formally classified until The Pentagon Papers revealed that the United States had expanded its war with the bombing of Cambodia and Laos, coastal raids on North Vietnam, and Marine Corps attacks, none of which had been reported by the American media.
For example, the Eisenhower administration actively worked against the Geneva Accords. The John F. Kennedy administration knew of plans to overthrow South Vietnamese leader Ngo Dinh Diem before his death in a November coup.
President Johnson had decided to expand the war while promising "we seek no wider war" during his presidential campaign,  including plans to bomb North Vietnam well before the Election.
President Johnson had been outspoken against doing so during the election and claimed that his opponent Barry Goldwater was the one that wanted to bomb North Vietnam. In another example, a memo from the Defense Department under the Johnson Administration listed the reasons for American persistence:.
Another controversy was that President Johnson sent combat troops to Vietnam by July 17, , before pretending to consult his advisors on July 21—27, per the cable stating that " Deputy Secretary of Defense Cyrus Vance informs McNamara that President had approved 34 Battalion Plan and will try to push through reserve call-up.
In , when that cable was declassified, it revealed "there was a continuing uncertainty as to [Johnson's] final decision, which would have to await Secretary McNamara's recommendation and the views of Congressional leaders, particularly the views of Senator [Richard] Russell. Nixon's Solicitor General Erwin N. Griswold later called the Pentagon Papers an example of "massive overclassification" with "no trace of a threat to the national security. After the release of the Pentagon Papers , Goldwater said:.
During the campaign, President Johnson kept reiterating that he would never send American boys to fight in Vietnam. As I say, he knew at the time that American boys were going to be sent.
In fact, I knew about ten days before the Republican Convention. You see I was being called a trigger-happy, warmonger, bomb happy, and all the time Johnson was saying, he would never send American boys, I knew damn well he would.
Senator Birch Bayh , who thought the publishing of the Pentagon Papers was justified, said:. The existence of these documents, and the fact that they said one thing and the people were led to believe something else, is a reason we have a credibility gap today, the reason people don't believe the government.
This is the same thing that's been going on over the last two-and-a-half years of this administration.
There is a difference between what the President says and what the government actually does, and I have confidence that they are going to make the right decision, if they have all the facts. Les Gelb reflected in that many people have misunderstood the most important lessons of the Pentagon Papers:. And look, because we'd never learned that darn lesson about believing our way into these wars, we went into Afghanistan and we went into Iraq.
The full release was coordinated by the Archives's National Declassification Center NDC as a special project to mark the anniversary of the report. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. United States government-created history of the United States' involvement with Vietnam. This article is about the U. Government documents. For the film, see The Pentagon Papers film.
Main article: China containment policy. New York Times Co. United States. Retrieved The New York Times. How We Got Here: