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Admiralty manual seamanship pdf

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6 days ago [PDF Document] soundofheaven.info Br 67 Admiralty Manual Of Seamanship Pdf ae5b4ee BR. 67 Seamanship BR Anchor Tonnage. Page 1. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Admiralty manual of seamanship /​ [issued by the Ministry of Defence, Directorate of Naval Warfare]. Other Authors. Great Britain. Navy Department; Great.


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The current author of The Admiralty Manual of Seamanship is Vic Vance, a retired Royal the UK and entered the Royal Navy as a Junior Seaman in Admiralty Manual of Seamanship (BR67). Year: Language: english. Author : Ministry of Defence. Genre: 3rd Edition. Edition: They are by no means a definitive reference manual with BR 67(1) Admiralty Manual of Seamanship ()(Volume 1). BR 67 (2) Admiralty.

In the event of movement they are to be re-leased and consideration must be given for backing up with an additional preventer i. The lower part between the castles was called the waist Fig I. If such weather is forecast it is advisable to put to sea or seek a sheltered anchor berth. No centreline bollards are fitted but an additional Blake slip is fitted just abaft the hawsepipe and slightly to port of the centreline. When the anchor is weighed the upward pull of the cable should break the flukes out of the bottom. Miscellaneous Cable Deck Equipment a. Locks Fig

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The time now is: Today Handbooks, manuals. Dictionary of Nautical Words and Terms - T. Layton, G. Modern warships rarely use two anchors certain warships are fitted with only one anchor that can be deployed because the likelihood of the cables twisting as the ship swings with wind and tide, and the risk of damage to bow domes outweigh the advantages of the reduction in sea room and increased holding power that two anchors provide see note.

However, ships with two anchors may on occasions use both to ride out a gale. In such circumstances the anchors are let go so that the ship lies with an angle between the cables of less than 20 degrees Fig In a single-anchor warship, provided there is sufficient sea room, veering more cable may check a dragging anchor. If this tactic is unsuccessful the main engines should be started and the ship manoeuvred slowly ahead to take the strain off the anchor and cable.

As a final resort the ship must put to sea. Drills and procedures for anchoring are described later in the Chapter. In the past, to prevent turns forming in the cables of a ship riding at two anchors, a swivel, known as a mooring swivel, was inserted between the two cables. This procedure was discontinued because on occasions it strained and damaged the cables. BR 67 b. Securing to a Buoy.

In ports and most large harbours a ship can also be secured to the bottom by unshackling one of her cables from its anchor and shackling the cable to a mooring buoy, which in turn is secured to the bottom by its own permanently laid groundwork of mooring anchors and mooring chain. Many modern ships are supplied with Man Made Fibre bridles for securing to a buoy. Drills and procedures are described later in this chapter. Mediterranean Moor. With this type of mooring ships are obliged to berth at right angles to a jetty, with their sterns secured to the jetty by berthing lines and their anchor s laid out ahead.

It can only be employed where there is a negligible range of tide, and it is commonly used in Mediterranean ports; for this reason it is called the Mediterranean or Med moor. Ships Anchors a. Bower Anchor. A ships main anchors are called her bower anchors. They are used for anchoring the ship and are stowed one on each bow, or one on the bow and one in a centreline hawsepipe.

Certain ships carry only one bower anchor, which is stowed in a bow hawsepipe. Sheet Anchor. A sheet anchor was traditionally an extra anchor carried for safetys sake to back up the main anchor or anchors. In ships fitted with a bow dome the main anchor is stowed in a centreline hawsepipe and the bow fitted anchor is referred to as the sheet anchor, for use only in an emergency because of the possibility of damage to the dome if it is deployed.

Stream Anchor. This anchor, which is used by some ships principally RFAs as a stern anchor, is stowed in a stern hawsepipe.

Pdf admiralty manual seamanship

Parts of an Anchor Fig shows a modern anchor used in the Royal Navy. It should be noted that the flukes can move through an angle of 35 degrees each side of the shank. How an Anchor Holds Fig shows how an anchor beds itself in the bottom after it has been let go and the strain comes on the cable. The anchor lies flat on the bottom until the pull of the ship on the cable drags the anchor along the bottom; the tripping palms then tilt the flukes, which then dig themselves in.

After a further amount of dragging the anchor embeds itself completely until it holds. For the anchor to maintain its hold the pull of the cable must always be horizontal where the cable emerges from the sea bed.

How a Modern Anchor Holds a. Amount of Cable Required. The cable must be long enough to ensure that a part of it near the anchor always remains in the sea bed. In firm ground, the anchor ring takes up a position just below the top of the sea bed and therefore the cable lies almost on the sea bed. The rest of the cable acts as a spring in preventing the anchor from being jerked when the ship is yawing from side to side or pitching.

The amount of cable required therefore depends on the depth of water, weight of cable, length of stay, weather, and the nature of the bottom. An approximate formula for forged steel cable is: Amount of cable to veer in shackles is one-and-a half times the square root of the depth of water in metres, and for copper based cable Aluminum bronze , which is heavier and larger than forged steel, the formula is: Amount of cable to veer in shackles is equal to the square root of the depth of water in metres.

Nature of Bottom and Anchor Design. Improvements in the design of Admiralty anchors in recent years have resulted in obtaining satisfactory holds in any kind of sea bed, because the improved anchors embed themselves deeper in the softer grounds during the final period of drag before they hold.

No anchor, no matter how well designed, will hold on rock, except by a fluke; nor will it hold if fouled by some extraneous material, picked up on the sea bed, which prevents the anchor operating correctly. Breaking out an Anchor. When the anchor is weighed the upward pull of the cable should break the flukes out of the bottom. If the flukes are very firmly bedded the cable can be held at short stay and the anchor broken out using the main engines. If the flukes are caught in a rock it may be necessary to part the cable and buoy the end for recovery, if practical, by another vessel.

Holding Pull of an Anchor.

The holding pull of an anchor is expressed as a ratio of holding pull and anchor weight, and varies, depending on type of anchor, from 3: The holding pull for each type of anchor is given below. Types of Anchor The bigger the vessel, the heavier must be her anchors. Anchors also vary in design and performance as well as in size.

The most common types in use in the fleet are illustrated in Fig They are: Admiralty Plan Anchor. In spite of its name, this anchor is much older than the Admiralty itself and was long considered by seaman to afford the greatest holding pull, ie 3 to 3 times its own weight.

The Admiralty Manual of Seamanship 12th edition published

It is used mainly for anchoring Danbuoys and markers, and occasionally as a boats anchor. When the anchor is let go the stock comes to rest horizontally on the bottom, and as the flukes are set at right-angles to the stock the lower fluke digs into the bottom and holds, its disadvantage is that, because the upper fluke sticks up from the bottom, the anchor may well be dislodged through being fouled by the bight of its cable as the boat swings to wind and tide; it is also dangerous if let go in shallow water, because a boat may impale herself on the upper fluke when the tide falls.

It cannot be stowed in a hawsepipe, and so it must be stowed on deck or slung in some position from which it can be let go. This type of anchor will soon no longer be in use in the service; however, it is still fitted in a few of the older surface ships and submarines, and as a stream anchor in some RFAs.

The maximum holding pull is about the same as that of the Admiralty Plan. The flukes pivot about a pin, which passes through the crown. As the anchor is dragged along the bottom the weight of the flukes and the effect of the tripping palm tilt both flukes downwards so that they dig into the bottom. AC Admiralty Class In the Admiralty instituted a series of tests aimed at improving the ratio between the holding pull and anchor weight.

These tests resulted in a major advance in anchor design and led to the development of the AC anchors.

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The AC 14, fitted in the majority of surface warships in the Royal Navy has a ratio of holding pull to anchor weight of AC 16A and 17 Anchors. The stowage of an anchor in a submarine has always been difficult, and with the introduction of high speed, heavy, nuclear powered vessels the requirement for an anchor which, when stowed, is flush with the hull and completely closes the hull opening has become important.

A further requirement is for the anchor to be worked blind, by remote control. The AC 16A was designed for stowage in the bottom of the hull. To ensure correct entry of the anchor into its stowage, the shank on entering the hawsepipe rotates to line up the flukes with the hull opening.

The rotation is effected by means of a guide pin in the upper end of the shank and a cam within the hawsepipe. The anchor will enter with the flukes vertical and in line with the shank and the crown completely closes the opening.

The remote controls include indicators which allow the position of the anchor to be checked during the securing evolution. The ratio of holding pull to anchor weight is approximately the same as for the AC 14 anchor. The AC 17 anchor, also designed for stowage in the bottom of the hull of a submarine, has a holding pull of about 7 times its own weight, but requires to be stowed with its shank vertical, or near vertical, and at right angles to the hull opening. The flukes are so balanced that they lie in line with the shank and can thus enter a comparatively narrow opening in the hull if the anchor is rotated to the correct position normally fore and aft prior to entry.

Rotation is effected by a ball and pin inserted between the cable and the anchor shackle; the pin connects with a guide cam within the hawsepipe. The crown of the anchor when stowed lies flush with the hull and completely closes the hull opening. Remote control and warning devices are fitted as for the AC 16A anchor.

Stocked Close-stowing Danforth Anchor. The stocked close-stowing anchor, fitted in some older minor war vessels, resembles a lightly built stockless anchor, both in appearance and method of operation, but it has a stock passing through the crown to prevent the anchor rolling when its flukes dig into the bottom.

The ratio between holding power and anchor weight increases as the size decreases. It fits neatly into the hawsepipe and can be secured as efficiently as a stockless anchor. CQR Anchor. The CQR anchor, so called because the letters sound like secure, is generally used only for small craft because it is difficult to stow in a hawsepipe.

The shank can pivot about the flukes so that when dragging along the bottom the flukes will always turn over and dig in. Like the Danforth, the ratio between holding pull and anchor weight increases as the size decreases.

Chain Cable a. A ships anchor cable is generally assumed to be made of chain although a cable is strictly speaking a strong thick rope. The bower cables of warships are made of studded chain; the studs are closed in the links by pressure and act to strengthen them and prevent the cable from kinking. Studded chain cable is supplied in lengths of A ships bower cable is usually made up of four half shackles and a number of shackles of cables.

The half shackles are usually inserted in pairs, one at the outboard end next to the anchor and the other midway between the outboard and inboard ends. In the future a shipss cable will be made up of full shackles apart from two half shackles at the outboard end. The half shackles are required when working cable during operations described later in this chapter.

Types of Chain Cable. There are basically three types of ships chain cable. Their composition and application in the Service is as follows: Manufactured from copper based material, usually referred to as aluminium bronze. It is supplied to mine countermeasure vessels, and the precise composition of the material is dictated by the magnetic signature constraint of the class of vessel.

A higher grade steel, and consequently stronger, than grade 2. It is supplied to capital ships. Size of Cable. The size always quoted for the anchor shackle, joining shackle or other cable gear is that of the cable with which the gear is intended to be used. Components of a Shackle of Chain Cable. The links forming each length of cable are of uniform size and are called common links Fig Shackles and half shackles of cable are usually joined with a lugless joining shackle certain auxiliary vessels are fitted with lugged joining shackles.

A length of chain cable will always contain an odd number of links to ensure that the joining shackle will pass around the cable holder or gypsy in the correct plane. Joining shackles, being slightly larger than the common links, should lie vertically as they pass round a cable holder or horizontally as they pass over the gypsy of a windlass. This will ensure they do not jam or strain. Marking of Cable. The shackles and joining shackles of a cable are numbered consecutively from its outer to its inner end, the first joining shackle being that which joins the first and second shackles together.

To assist in identifying the joining shackles when it is being worked, the cable is marked. Every joining shackle, except the one between two half shackles, is painted white. One link on each side of a joining shackle is also painted white and marked with a number of turns of seizing wire around the stud corresponding to the number of the joining shackle.

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These marked links are separated from the joining shackle by a number of unmarked links which serve to indicate the join between two particular shackles; for example, if the fourth link on each side of a joining shackle were so marked, it would indicate the join between the fourth and the fifth shackles. This marking system is illustrated in Fig 29, which shows the third joining shackle is on deck. Cable markings should be checked and remarked as necessary whenever weighing.

Cable Lockers. The cable lockers, which are usually on the lowest deck and may be sited so that one is abreast of or forward of the other, provide the stowage for the cables. Modern warships have self-stowing cable lockers so the descending cable will automatically stow itself clear for running out; they are constructed either in the form of a circular trunk or a square or rectangular locker.

Drainage arrangements are provided for the removal of water. Older warships have square lockers, with perforated steel plate sides to ventilate and drain the cable.

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If the locker is not self stowing it must be stowed by hand. The inboard end of the cable is secured to a cable clench at the bottom of the locker by a lugged joining shackle. The clench is tested to 20 percent above the proof load of the cable. Associated Anchor and Cable Equipment a. Joining Shackles. The shackles which join lengths of cable together may be either lugless or lugged; all warships cables are fitted with the lugless type, but some auxiliary vessels have the lugged type.

Joining shackles are also used in evolutions such as towing and buoywork. Both types are described below. A lugless joining shackle Fig I is of alloy steel and made in three parts, one of which is the stud. The two main parts are attached to the ends of the cable and then fitted together, and the stud then slides in place and locks the whole.

The stud is secured by hammering a tapered pin and lead pellet into the hole drilled diagonally through all three parts of the shackle.

The hole is tapered, and when the pin is driven right home a small conical recess called the dovetail chamber is left clear above its head. The lead pellet is hammered broad end first into this chamber so as to fill it completely and thereby keep the pin in place. To avoid danger from pieces of lead flying from the shackle during hammering goggles must be worn by personnel assembling the shackle.

Before inserting a new pellet the remains of the previous pellet must be scraped out of the chamber, otherwise the new pellet may work out; this is done by a small tool called a reamer.

When parting a lugless joining shackle a top swage must always be used between the hammer and shackle. It is shaped to the curvature of the shackle so that the machined surfaces of the shackle shall not be damaged. A lugged joining shackle Fig ii is a straight shackle whose bolt is secured by a tapered pin and a lead pellet. The pin fits into a tapered hole drilled through the bolt and one lug of the shackle.

Except for the anchor shackle all lugged shackles should be fitted into the cable with their lugs facing aft, so that they will not foul any projections on the deck as the cable runs out. Since the anchor shackle is already in the hawsepipe, there is no danger of fouling anything on the way out, but it may foul the stem or some projection on the ships side as the anchor is being hove in, so it should be fitted with its lugs facing outboard.

Securing-to-buoy Shackle Fig iii. The securing-to-buoy shackle is supplied for securing the ships bridle s to the buoy shackle or reducing link of a mooring buoy, and is therefore especially wide in the clear.

It can be used with either lugless or lugged joining shackles, and is tested to the proof load of its largest associated cable. The width of the shackle in the clear for cable of all sizes is given below in Table Table Securing-to-buoy shackles. Width in the clear for given sizes. Size of cable mm. Lugged Anchor Shackle Fig iv. A lugged anchor shackle is used to join the swivel piece at the outboard end of the cable to the ring of the anchor.

It is wider in the clear than the lugged joining shackle and its bolt is oval in cross-section whereas the bolt of the lugged joining shackle is egg-shaped in cross section.

Towing Shackle. Similar to, but longer than, the lugged anchor shackle, the towing shackle is designed to take the tongue of a towing slip. Joggle Shackle Fig v. The joggle shackle is long and slightly curved, and shaped to fit across a link of cable; it is used for attaching a wire rope to a bight of cable, or for securing the top two turns of a cable that has been turned up around bollards.

To remove or insert the bolt it must first be turned until the feathers are in line with the featherways cut in the lugs of the shackle. Table gives the size of shackle supplied for different sizes of cable: BR 67 f. Adaptor Piece Fig I. An adaptor piece consists of an intermediate link and an end link together and is used to adapt the end of the cable to accept a lugged shackle which will not pass through a common link.

Its principal use is for adapting the cable to accept the towing hawser. Swivel and link assemblies are fitted to prevent the chain cable from twisting when the ship is at anchor. A swivel piece is fitted at the outboard end of the chain cable for attachment to the anchor and inboard between the end of the chain cable and the cable locker.

The inboard swivel piece is always secured to the cable clench with a lugged joining shackle. Cable stoppers, usually known as slips, are provided to hold the cable prior to letting go an anchor, or to act as preventers when the ship is riding on the brake of the cable holder, or to hold the cable temporarily so that the inboard part of the cable can be handled, or to house the anchor securely in the hawsepipe.

A Blake slip Fig iv is a general purpose slip. Its primary use is holding the cable prior to letting go an anchor in the RN an anchor is always let go from the Blake slip. It can also be used as a preventer, or to hang the cable whilst working on its inboard part. It is tested to half the proof load of the cable.

The clench plate to which the Blake slip is secured is tested to 60 percent of the proof load of the cable. A Blake bottle screw slip Fig v differs from the Blake slip only in that a bottle screw is incorporated in the chain between the slip and the deck clench.

The bottle screw enables the anchor to be hove close home in its hawsepipe when secured for sea. Test details are as for the Blake slip. A riding slip is a Blake slip, normally shackled to a deck clench on the upper deck between the navel pipe and cable holder. It is put on the cable when the ship is at anchor or secured to a buoy, and acts as a preventer should the brake of the cable holder fail to hold the pull of the anchor.

In some ships the riding slip is replaced with a compressor or guillotine. Cable Deck Fittings The fittings described below are used in conjunction with anchors and cables and associated gear. Navel Pipes Fig i. Navel pipes are fitted forward of the cable holder, or incorporated in the base of a windlass, for the passage of the anchor cables to and from the cable lockers.

Their upper ends stand proud of the deck to ensure smooth working of the cable and prevent wash deck water finding its way below. Bonnets Fig i. A bonnet is a fixed or portable cover for a navel pipe or compressor, to stop water from flooding the cable locker.

The opening, which faces aft, is made reasonably watertight by a portable steel cover, slotted to slide down over one link of the cable. In ships fitted with a windlass the opening of the navel pipe at deck level should be fitted with a steel plate or PVC cover. Compressor Fig ii. Some ships with fixed bonnets have compressors fitted into the bonnets to take the place of riding slips. A compressor consists of a wedge of steel operated by a lever or handwheel; the wedge can be moved down across the mouth of the navel pipe until it nips a link of cable against the lip.

A portable cover fits over the mouth of the bonnet. Guillotine Fig iii. The guillotine, which can take the place of a riding slip or compressor in vessels fitted with a windlass, is commonly found in Merchant Navy ships, but is relatively rare in Royal Navy ships. Bullring Fig iv. In most destroyers and below, a bullring is fitted to give a fair lead for the head line, picking-up rope and ship-to-buoy bridle.

Hawsepipes Fig v. A hawsepipe is a steel tube which houses the anchor in its stowed position or gives a lead for the cable during anchor work. Most ships are fitted with port and starboard hawsepipes to house their bower anchors, but some have a third hawsepipe in the stem called a stem hawsepipe for giving a fairlead to the cable when the ship is secured to a buoy, or being towed.

Ships fitted with a bow dome have a stem hawsepipe for the main anchor and a starboard bow hawsepipe for the sheet anchor. Cable washing sprayers are fitted in the hawsepipes of modern warships and grills are provided at the inboard end for the safety of personnel.

Hawsepipe grills must be fitted and secured at all times unless cable is being worked. Fig shows a typical after capstan. A capstan in its simpler form has a barrel or rundle mounted on a vertical shaft which is driven by a hydraulic or electric motor and is used for working berthing lines and other ropes. The barrel is waisted, ie made smaller in diameter at its middle than at its top or bottom, with the object of checking the tendency of the turns of rope to work up or down and so form a riding turn as the capstan revolves.

Standing out at intervals from the barrel, and extending from top to bottom, are slight projections called whelps, which are cast with the barrel and help it to grip the rope. The same rules apply for a riding turn on a capstan as for a warping drum. If the turns of rope are reluctant to slip towards the middle of the barrel, slight surging of the rope will usually induce them to do so.

If surging has no effect upon the turns building up towards the top or bottom of the barrel then it is likely that too many turns have been taken round the barrel.

Onboard documentation must be checked to ascertain performance details of individual capstans. An After Capstan with Control Handle b. Combined Capstan and Cable Holder Fig A cable holder is designed solely for working cable and is an integral part of the capstan, which is mounted above the cable holder on the same shaft and is therefore driven by the same motor which can be either electric or hydraulic.

The cable holder consists of a sprocket with snugs to carry the links of cable. The sprocket can revolve freely on the shaft or be connected to its shaft by a dog clutch situated in the head of the sprocket.

When it is disconnected the rotation of the sprocket can be controlled by a band brake operated by a handwheel; when connected the sprocket will hold the cable. The capstan is mounted on a square-section shaft on which it can slide up or down. A number of dogs project at intervals round the bottom of the capstan barrel, and when the capstan is lowered on to the cable holder they engage in slots cut in the head of the cable holder sprocket, thereby locking the cable holder to the capstan.

When the capstan is raised by turning the handwheel the dogs are disengaged from their slots thereby freeing the cable holder. To connect the cable holder to the capstan the capstan motor is turned until the indicating mark on the bottom of the capstan barrel is in line with a corresponding mark on the head of the cable holder; the capstan is then lowered onto the cable holder by turning the handwheel on the crown of the capstan in the required direction, and the dogs then engage in their slots and lock the capstan and cable holder together.

Each cable holder is fitted with a simple band brake, which bears on the skirt of the sprocket and is operated by a handwheel. Rotation of the handwheel in a clockwise or counter clockwise direction applies or releases the brake at the cable holder sprocket Fig The motor of the combined capstan and cable holder is usually controlled either by a T-handle or a hand wheel.

An emergency stop button is located close to the controls. Cable Holder Band-brake c.

BR 67 Seamanship BR

Fig The chief difference between a windlass and a combined capstan and cable holder is that the windlass is mounted on a horizontal shaft whereas the other is mounted on a vertical shaft. Although its primary function is to work the bower cables, the windlass is also fitted with warping drums for working hawsers.

The motor of a windlass is usually situated directly abaft the windlass on the focsle deck, and for the normal requirement of anchor work both motor and windlass can be operated by one man. The shaft and warping drums are driven by the motor through gearing.

The two sprockets for taking the bower cables are mounted on the shaft outside the gear wheel, and are called gypsies; they are exactly similar to the sprocket of a cable holder, and the joining shackles must pass over them in the correct slew. Each gypsy can revolve freely on the shaft, or be clutched to the shaft.

To connect the gypsy to the shaft the motor is turned until the slots in the gypsy are in line with the dogs, and the wheel inside the warping drum is turned until the dogs engage in the gypsy, and the wheel is then locked. To disengage the gypsy the brake is applied and the wheel turned in the other direction until the warping drum dogs are clear of the gypsy slots, and the wheel is then locked. Each gypsy has a simple hand brake, operated by a handle.

The windlass is operated either by a hand lever, or a T-handle inserted in a deck fitting. An emergency stop is provided. The motors of windlasses and combined capstan and cable holders are designed to heave in both bower anchors simultaneously. Cable Deck Layouts In recent years the arrangement of anchor and cable equipment on the focsle of certain warships has been influenced by the introduction of bow dome sonars, and, in some cases, the need to reduce topweight.

The various arrangements found throughout the Fleet are as follows: Traditional Layout of Frigates and Above. Fig shows the traditional arrangement of equipment on the focsle of frigates and above for working the anchors and cables. From each hawsepipe each cable leads aft to its cable holder, then forward to its navel pipe, and down this pipe to the cable locker.

The cable holders each have a capstan drum fitted above them and these are driven in either direction by the capstan engine which is fitted in the compartment below. The capstan drums are permanently connected to the capstan engine but each cable holder can be mechanically connected to or disconnected from its capstan drum.

The Admiralty Manual of Seamanship 12th edition published

Cable can be hove in or veered under power by connecting up its cable holder and setting the capstan engine in motion in the required direction; or cable can be allowed to run out freely by disconnecting its cable holder. When both cables are being worked, this arrangement enables both of them to be hove in or veered simultaneously; it also allows either cable to run out freely while the other is hove in or veered under power.

Each cable holder is fitted with a band brake, operated by a handwheel just abaft the cable holder. This brake controls the speed at which the cable is allowed to run out when the cable holder is disconnected; it also holds the cable holder fast when the ship is riding at anchor or made fast to a buoy.

The cable can be stoppered ie held temporarily or secured by means of the slips.

Abaft each hawsepipe is the Blake screw slip, used for heaving the anchor close home in its hawsepipe. Abaft each screw slip is the Blake slip, used for holding the. BR 67 cable temporarily and letting go when coming to an anchor or when handling the inboard part of the cable. It may also be used as a preventer. Between the cable holder and the navel pipe is the riding slip which is put on the cable when the ship is at anchor, or secured to a buoy, and acts as a preventer should the brake of the cable holder fail to hold the pull of the cable.

A removable bonnet is clamped over each navel pipe to prevent water running down to the cable locker. Each cable is provided with two swivel pieces, one next to the anchor and one on the inboard end which is shackled to a cable clench at the bottom of the cable locker.

The focsle deck is strengthened and protected beneath the cable run by a strip of steel plating called a scotsman. In the stem is a centreline or stem hawsepipe through which the bridles are led when the ship makes fast to a buoy.

Centre-line bollards are provided for use with tugs and for securing a second bridle when the ship is made fast to a buoy. Eyeplates are fitted at each side of the port and starboard hawsepipes. The anchor strop, which acts as a preventer when the anchor is home in the hawsepipe and secured by the screw slip, is shackled to these eyeplates. In some ships the navel pipe bonnets are fixed and have compressors fitted to them. When screwed down, the compressor nips a link of cable and acts as a preventer.

This obviates the need for riding slips. When anchoring or secured to a buoy, the ship rides by the cable-holder brake with the riding slip or compressor acting as a preventer. The Blake slip is put on slack as an additional preventer. When ships are operating tugs close to berth, it is at the COs discretion when to have the anchors fully Acockbill.

As soon as tug operations are complete both anchors are to be made ready for letting go. Type 42 Destroyers. Type 42 Destroyers are fitted with only one bower anchor, on the starboard side Fig A spare anchor is supplied and is secured to the focsle screen.

From the hawsepipe the cable leads aft to one combined capstan and cable holder on the centreline and then forard to the navel pipe. The cable then passes down to a self stowing cable locker which is constructed in the form of a circular trunk. The inner end of the cable is fitted to a swivel piece and secured to a cable clench at the bottom of the locker. An anchor strop, a Blake bottle screw slip and a Blake slip are fitted between the hawsepipe and the cable holder, for working the chain cable.

No centreline bollards are fitted but an additional Blake slip is fitted just abaft the hawsepipe and slightly to port of the centreline. A bullring, to pass cable out over the bow, is fitted instead of a stem hawsepipe.

Type 22 Batch 2 and 3 and Type 23 Frigates. Type 23 and Type 22 batch 2 and 3 frigates are fitted with two bower anchors, one stowed in a centreline hawsepipe, and the other, known as the sheet anchor, on the starboard side Fig Because of the position of the bow dome in Type 22 Batch 3 and Type 23 frigates the sheet anchor is only for use in an emergency.

Other arrangements are generally as described for the traditional layout, although a single cruciform bollard staghorn replaces the centreline bollards, compressors are fitted in lieu of riding slips, and a bullring is fitted in addition to the centreline hawsepipe. Minor War Vessels. The focsle arrangement in these vessels is shown in Fig The capstans and cable holders are replaced by a windlass, which revolves on a horizontal shaft driven by a reversible electric engine situated just abaft it on the focsle deck.

Two gypsies, which take the place of cable holders, are mounted on the shaft and each is provided with a band brake. As with a cable holder, each gypsy can be connected to, or disconnected from, the shaft by a clutch. Warping drums, which take the place of a capstan, are keyed and usually clutched, one to each end of the shaft and revolve with it.

A Blake slip is fitted as in the traditional focsle layout, and the anchor is hove hard home in the hawsepipe by a Blake bottle screw slip. The ship rides by the windlass brake, with the Blake slip on as a preventer, when anchored or secured to a buoy. Merchant Ships. A merchant ships anchor and cable arrangements are generally very similar to those of a minor war vessel equipped with a windlass, except guillotines replace the Blake slips.

Miscellaneous Cable Deck Equipment a. Anchor Strop. An anchor strop Fig v is used as an additional preventer when securing the anchor for sea; it consists of a wire strop rove through the ring of the anchor and shackled to an eyeplate on each side of, and just abaft, the hawsepipe. It is to be a snug fit. Anchor Buoy. An anchor buoy is used when it is necessary to mark the position of the anchor when it is on the bottom; on such occasions it is streamed just before the anchor is let go.

It is particularly useful in crowded anchorages to enable other vessels to keep clear of your anchors and cables. A danbuoy float pellet, bearing the ships name in 50mm black lettering, is suitable for the purpose, although any similar float may be used. One end of the buoyrope 4mm-8mm polyester or polyamide is suitable is bent to the float and the other end secured to the anchor ring.

A floating line must not be used for a buoyrope as it may become a hazard to boats during low water.