decades early with Haze Motes and Wise Blood (). If she were alive today, a 40th Anniversary Edition of the novel, complete with a marketing package. Flannery O'Connor, Wise Blood, New York: Harcourt, Brace, Christopher MacGowan PDF. CHAPTER PDF. FULL BOOK PDF. PDF. Wise Blood, Flannery O'Connor's astonishing and haunting first novel, is a classic of twentieth-century literature. Focused on the story of Hazel Motes.
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Title: Wise Blood. Date of first publication: Author: Flannery O'Connor ( ). Date first posted: Dec. 29, Date last updated: Dec. 29, He meets Enoch Emery, a young man with "wise blood," who leads him to a mummified holy child, and whose PDF (tablet), soundofheaven.info , Wise Blood. The book is often looked down upon. Walter Sullivan finds the characters in Wise Blood "too thin" and "too fauch alike." He also sees.
Random House, Moreover, O'Connor sent virtually everything she wrote including every draft of Wise Blood to Caroline Gordon for editorial approval. Liebs, Chester H. The Waste Land. Christian dogma as "an instrument for penetrating reality" MM The subject matter of the book was apparently suggested to Gogol as early as by his friend Alexander Pushkin, Russia's foremost literary figure of the time.
To the poet Robert Lowell, she wrote: The family was in Milledgeville, Georgia, at the time, the hometown of her mother's family, where they had moved to take advantage of job opportunities during the Depression. O'Connor completed high school and college in town, showing a talent for drawing cartoons and a penchant for mordant commentary on the social rigors of growing up.
She wrote to "A": This pride in the tin leg comes from an old scar. I was, in my early days, forced to take dancing to throw me into the company of other children and to make me graceful. Nothing I hated worse than the company of other children and I vowed I'd see them all in Introduction hell before I would make thefirstgraceful move.
The lessons went on for a number of years but I won. In a certain sense. For several months in late and early , she worked at Yaddo on her novel, Wise Blood, which had won the Rinehart-Iowa Fiction Award in From her letters in these early years of professional writing, it seems that O'Connor was determined to make that life in New York.
After a falling out with Rinehart, which was committed to publish the novel, O'Connor took the manuscript to Harcourt Brace. While awaiting publication, in the winter of , she came down with the symptoms later diagnosed as lupus. She returned to Milledgeville and, except for short trips away from home, lived there for the rest of her life.
I am doing fairly well these days, though I am practically baldheaded on top and have a watermelon face. I think that this is going to be permanent. HB 55 No one denies the significance of systemic lupus erythematosus SLE on O'Connor's life and work; few hazard a guess at what the particular pathology of the disease and the treatment did to O'Connor's fiction.
In most critical statements, we seldom get beyond the obvious: One of those meanings must have impressed O'Connor, who was a connoisseur of irony: When she learned that she had SLE, the most virulent form of a spectrum of lupus conditions, O'Connor must also have learned that she had a 40 percent chance of surviving three years after the diagnosis.
She must also have known that she was in for a particularly painful and disfiguring disease. Her first symptoms were the fatigue and arthralgia aching in the joints common to SLE. She had also to worry about the characteristic butterfly lesions across New Essays on Wise Blood the bridge of the nose and cheeks, and additional sores on the arms, back, neck, and other parts exposed to light. Like AIDS, which it resembles in some general ways, SLE makes a public spectacle of its victims, turning the body into a vivid display of illness.
The figuring on Parker's back, in the last story O'Connor was to work on before she died, might owe something to the Kaposi sarcoma-like lesions some lupus sufferers have endured. There was also hair loss caused by the disease and by some forms of treatment , problems with blood chemistry, kidney problems and the possibility of renal failure this was to be, in fact, the immediate cause of death in August , and the specter of psychiatric and psychological problems.
The treatment - in the first years of O'Connor's life with lupus - could be as bad as the disease itself. The state of the art in the early s called for treatment with ACTH adrenocorticotrophic hormone, derived from the pituitary glands of pigs.
The side effects of ACTH, a steroid, were unwelcome: At one time or another in her life with lupus, O'Connor suffered all of these pains. She wrote to "A" about her acquaintance with crutches: I am learning to walk on crutches and I feel like a large stiff anthropoid ape who has no cause to be thinking about St. Thomas [Aquinas] or Aristotle. HB One thinks of the paternal wise blood of which Enoch Emery boasts; it also led him into an apesuit.
Six months later, x-rays revealed what appeared to be permanent loss of bone in the hip joint. I'm informed that it's crutches for me from now on out. Putting a cap on it [the bone] won't be possible because the bone is diseased. So, so much for that. I will henceforth be a structure with flying buttresses. HB ; ellipsis in original Although there was remission in , after a trip to Lourdes post hoc, propter hoc O'Connor did not decide , she continued 6 Introduction to suffer bone problems: Like that of many AIDS sufferers, O'Connor's suffering was acute and acutely public; her body wore its disease for all to see.
She could hope for no happiness through the body. For many critics within the consensus, to argue that O'Connor's use of the body means the flesh in general, and is part of her religious vision, seems only part of the issue.
The new essay here, by Patricia Yaeger, explores the condition of the female adult body as one of the preconditions of meaning in Wise Blood - without the religious or metaphorical escape hatch. Flannery O'Connor died in an Atlanta hospital on August 4, ; she was thirty-nine. In the thirty years since her death, her life and work have fueled an industry that rivals that of William Faulkner.
When the Library of America published her Complete Works , she became the first woman and only the second resident of this century Faulkner had preceded her to be so publicly canonized.
There are now several dozen booklength studies of her work in print - as yet there is no biography - and several hundred articles. National and international conferences meet to discuss her work. No Southern writer possibly no other American writer of this century is the subject of so many masters theses and doctoral dissertations. And, of course, there is the collectible merchandise. If we know so much, why do we need more? Isn't Wise Blood, the first of O'Connor's two novels, so well known that a good percentage of literate Americans, reading of the "reluctant atheist" who did penance by filling his shoes with rocks, could accurately identify the protagonist of the novel, Hazel Motes?
The problem is precisely that familiarity. There has been so much criticism of O'Connor and of Wise Blood in so relatively brief a time as literary reputations go that the orthodox line is narrow, deep, and resistant to revision. This volume of four "new essays" exists to open new ways of seeing and understanding the novel, and the critical establishment that guards the meaning.
We assume that you have read the novel, so we engage in no plot synopsis. To begin otherwise than with Catholic "vision" is to be, as John Hawkes intimated, of the Devil's party.
O'Connor never allowed a grain of doubt on this issue. Early in , in response to a letter of appreciation for Wise Blood, O'Connor wrote: My background and my inclinations are both Catholic and I think this is very apparent in the book. Something is usually said about Kafka in connection with Wise Blood but I have never succeeded in making my way through The Castle or The Trial and wouldn't pretend to know anything about Kafka.
HB 68 She knew enough, though, to tease her mother: Regina is getting very literary. He wrote a book about a man that turns into a roach. HB 33 There was less teasing about Catholicism. There were those who believed, or claimed to, and they could be manhandled. But there was always, beyond and untouched by the world, the truth.
O'Connor wrote to "A": I think most people come to the Church by means the Church does not allow, else there would be no need their getting to her at all.
However, this is true inside as well, as the operation of the Church is entirely set up for the sinner; which creates much misunderstanding among the smug. HB 93 And: But I can never agree with you that the Incarnation, or any truth, has to satisfy emotionally to be right and I would not agree that for the natural man the Incarnation does not satisfy emotionally.
There is a question whether faith can or is supposed to be emotionally satisfying. I must say that the thought of everyone lolling about in an emotionally satisfying faith is repug8 Introduction nant to me. I believe that we are ultimately directed God ward but that this journey is often impeded by emotion.
To see Christ as God and man is probably no more difficult today than it has always been, even if today there seem to be more reasons to doubt. For you it may be a matter of not being able to accept what you call a suspension of the laws of the flesh and the physical, but for my part I think that when I know what the laws of the flesh and the physical really are, then I will know what God is.
We know them as we see them, not as God sees them. For me it is the virgin birth, the Incarnation, the resurrection which are the true laws of the flesh and the physical. Death, decay, destruction are the suspension of these laws.
HB This lengthy passage makes clear one important grounding for the religious vision of O'Connor: The "true laws of the flesh and the physical," in her vision, were precisely those that seemed to the unredeemed eye to be wishful and spiritual: The "actual" or "everyday" existed: But it existed as a set of signs only, indicative of a Divine Presence: O'Connor operated, as many critics maintain, on the anagogical level not the historical. O'Connor's type of belief was to remain constant throughout her life and her work.
Even under the assaults of lupus and the equally devastating treatment, she maintained that the "glorified body" of the resurrection was the real body, not the sorry flesh one carted through history. This view could, to some critics, make O'Connor seem hard or mean, but she herself rested serenely in possession of the truth. She felt no allegiance to the cause of human beings trying to make life better for themselves.
In , for example, she wrote to "A" on the subject of the Church's stand against birth control: The Church's stand on birth control is the most absolutely spiritual of all her stands and with all of us being materialists at heart, there is little wonder that it causes unease. I wish various fathers [i. I will rejoice in the day when they say: This is right, whether we all rot on top of each other or not, dear children, as we certainly may.
Either practice restraint or be prepared for crowding. HB ; ellipsis in original New Essays on Wise Blood Very early on, the critics took up the challenge of O'Connor's stern faith and made it the passageway to the understanding of her fiction. Robert Drake, in Flannery O'Connor: A Critical Essay , writes that O'Connor has come to call the wicked to repentance, especially "modern intellectuals" who have foresworn Christianity and its traditional values Wise Blood, Drake asserts, is just such an emphatic call; if it falls short of perfection, it is only because it is deficient in art: The spirit, in other words, is willing, but the artistic flesh is weak.
This stubborn tradition of seeing O'Connor's work, especially the first novel, as theologically exceptional - entitled to a truth status over and above that which we accord "mere" literature has overpowered nearly every other approach. Voice of the Peacock links O'Connor's technique and meaning to the narrative traditions of the Christian Bible; the blindness and sight tropes of Wise Blood are directly linked, for example, with similar tropes in the New Testament 4.
Feeley's reading carries the added authority of Caroline Gordon, who acted as O'Connor's chief literary guru during the latter's life and wrote a foreword to Voice of the Peacock. Gordon, addressing the charge that O'Connor used too much violence in her plots and too many freaks in her casts of characters, claims that she did so "because they [the freaks] have been deprived of the blood of Christ" x. Technique and meaning, profane and sacred, are merged in the criticism of O'Connor.
John R. May's The Pruning Word: The Parables of Flannery O'Con- nor claims the privilege of the sacred for O'Connor's work - and for those who participate in the criticism of it, as long as they do so with good hearts. O'Connor, May contends, always knew the truth, but critics have had to work by a process of dialectic toward a vital consensus that coincides with the author's vision.
The critical process May describes is similar to that by which the Bible is progressively interpreted toward the divine truth. In both cases, O'Connor and the Bible, "validity in interpretation" can be guaranteed because the text under study is divinely inspired: Nor can we: The habit of reading O'Connor as a chosen religious voice, of course, makes some attempt to include the traditional literary aspects of her work: Suns become consecrated hosts; blind characters represent or feign unredemption; repetitions in patterns of three echo biblical calls to the prophet or Peter's denial of Christ.
The mechanics of her writing are many, but they can be reduced to one, and the religious vision runs through it. Perhaps this fervent style of reading O'Connor reaches its apogee in John F. Desmond's Risen Sons: Flannery O'Connor's Vision of History Here is his premise: Moreover, I assume her metaphysics, historical vision, and artistic technique all derive specifically from her belief in Christ's Incarnation and Redemption of human history — a belief which, ideally, made her historical sense and her artistic sense inseparable within the creative act.
How this unity can be seen developing and operating in her stories will be the main burden of my study. Probably more than any other American writer of her generation, she managed to create a coherent wholeness of vision and form. If there is a vulnerable text, one like Wise Blood for example, in which the desired unity is 11 New Essays on Wise Blood marred by ambivalence or ambiguity in the referential matrix, then the work is marked down to immaturity Wise Blood and its author were not always so exalted, or was the religious meaning so triumphant.
When the novel was originally published ; a tenth anniversary edition with O'Connor's brief prefatory note was issued in - the latter text is the one we usually read , not everyone was floored. O'Connor was a little-known Southern writer vying for attention with William Faulkner, the recent Nobel laureate; Erskine Caldwell, who had patented freaks from Georgia; and Truman Capote, poster-child for the Southern Gothic.
Reviews did not seem to promise such eminence for Wise Blood. Isaac Rosenfeld, no cordial friend to Southern books he had confessed in his review of Eudora Welty's novel Delta Wedding  that he couldn't finish reading it , seems to have read O'Connor without the scales falling from his eyes.
He saw no reason to make a distinction between "religious striving" in the characters and simple "mania. O'Connor was unperturbed HB Lewis, in an omnibus review for Hudson Review, saved two paragraphs for Wise Blood at the end of his piece, suggesting that Kafka not Christ was the influential power behind the novel , O'Connor, as we have seen, volleyed the Kafka shot right back. Oliver LaFarge in Saturday Review found Hazel "so repulsive that one cannot become interested in him" No one can be right all the time.
Just a few years later the battle for O'Connor's reputation and for the soul of modern literature had swung to her partisans. Powers, Caroline Gordon took on the competition one at a time. Capote's "freaks," she argued, were merely items in a "case history," not players in a'serious study of literature and religion; Capote lacked "moral judg12 Introduction ment.
His lack of acquaintance with Christian doctrine, Gordon pointed out, "renders his technique infirm"; she called A Fable to the bar The persistence of this argument can be seen in the repetition of it in Desmond's Risen Sons thirty years later. Those who, as Frederick Crews has observed, wish to take O'Connor without her full complement of theology might be doomed to failure.
But that does not stop us from trying. Two recent critical works exemplify the ongoing engagement with O'Connor's theological vision. But Gentry nevertheless tries to secularize this view by reconciling it with Mikhail Bakhtin's theory of dialogism. He sees this as necessary because the end of the fiction the truth of the Christian message seems at odds with some of the means the grotesques — with whom, Gentry accurately supposes, few of us would eagerly identify. Bakhtin's theory enables Gentry to claim that the grotesques are actually positive inasmuch as individually they outdo the grotesquerie en masse.
Taulkinham, for example, capital of the grotesque-as-modern in Wise Blood, serves as the negative grotesque against which Hazel works out his salvation by forcing himself and others to become aware of his grotesqueness. Flood is our surrogate in this process of recognition and conversion. For Brinkmeyer, the "problem" is less aesthetic being unwilling, as Gentry asserts, to see oneself as a grotesque in need of redemption as it is sociopolitical: O'Connor's seeming heroes Hazel Motes, for example seem too "fundamentalist" and redneck to garner our support.
According to Brinkmeyer, O'Connor rises above this problem in Wise Blood by shifting point of view from the omniscient to Mrs. Flood at the conclusion of the novel. In this volume of essays, Brinkmeyer continues the quest to reconcile O'Connor's sacramental vision with the demands of the secular. She packaged a couple of conference talks to settle the question, but that has not satisfied our appetite for the answer.
A couple of points seem to surface over and over: Which does the most for her fiction, her Catholic faith or her regional identity? Who is trying to enlist her into the Southern ranks and what is at stake at the time? Did she actually mean all those snide things she said about the South in her letters? When Wise Blood was first published, to be a Southern writer was to be a connoisseur of freaks and an addict of violence, the more bizarre the better.
Faulkner was in one critical forum a world-class American modernist of universal value; in another he was still the author of Sanctuary, the perpetrator of the infamous rape by corncob. John W. Aldridge, looking for trouble, attacked the young Southern literary establishment of the early s, and O'Connor along with it, in an essay called "The Writer in the University. She was, in Aldridge's view, "decidedly minor," with one novel and one collection of short stories in print at the time 8.
She was nothing more than a confection designed by a literary coterie for a specific market: Her fiction has to do, in the main, with simple Southern peasant folk set against rustic Southern backgrounds, and for the academic Northern intellectual what is Southern and rustic is synonymous with all that is original, serious, and true in American letters. In a sense, Miss O'Connor does for the academic intellectuals what Truman Capote does for the pseudointellectuals of the flossy New York fashion-magazine world - she provides them with tone or chic, a little sprinkling of fake magnolia blossoms.
Rubin, Jr. Rubin argued that there is substance where Aldridge sees only 14 Introduction special-interest maneuvering.
In fact, Rubin claims, the fiction is strongest when and where it leans least on religion and most on region. Rubin's O'Connor gets the social reality of the South that Caldwell fakes, but she also goes her senior one better by replacing his antiliterary "social consciousness" with a moral conscience. Rubin has continued this line of interpretation for several decades now.
In his view O'Connor's best work manifests the typically Southern view of human personal and social imperfectibility, the sense of evil and of the transcendent that mark the mind of the South, the sense of place from which all Southern writers draw their energy and vision.
He ranks her just behind William Faulkner. But it is dangerous to assume too much about O'Connor's allegiance to the South, through its community or through its literary traditions. She was often asked the question and had prepared formal comments by way of answers. It would be a mistake, for example, to fit O'Connor's work snugly within the traditional Southern ideology as the Agrarians have become identified with it.
Melvin J. Friedman's introduction to Critical Essays on Flannery O'Connor , for example, probably overestimates the evidence when he claims that O'Connor "is essentially an Agrarian sensibility, nurtured on such anti-industrial, antiscientific texts as the I'll Take My Stand" 1. O'Connor, by her own account, did not read the Agrarian manifesto until , the last year of her life, and knew at first look that, as a program for social and political action, it was "futile of course" HB In she wrote that she was pleased to see "the Agrarian business" applied to her own work HB , but that is not the same as being "nurtured" on it.
She was nurtured on New Criticism, and professed ignorance of the Southern ideological debates as a way of avoiding being dragged into them. All of this is not to say that the conservative, traditional bent of the Agrarian position is not compatible with her own stands on several issues.
It was. It was this conservatism that, probably, prompted her to make what today we might consider insensitive and demeaning references to her black neighbors HB 66 , and to make her famous or infamous remark, in It was, and is, a stumbling block for some readers of O'Connor, this apparent obliviousness to the racial turmoil through which she lived.
Crews formulates the problem better, and more succinctly, than anyone else But he gives O'Connor perhaps less credit for taking a stand than she deserves: Being drawn into political and social controversies was one thing. Being conscripted into the party of Southern literature was another, about which O'Connor was perhaps less ambivalent.
She tried to maintain a balance between being a Catholic writer and being a regional writer, with the weight of the balance on the side of religion. The forces of Southern literature were formidable. There was Faulkner looming over everyone who came after him like Michelangelo looming over the late Italian Renaissance.
O'Connor was evasive: For more public consumption she called Faulkner "the Dixie Limited" emphasis added. She knew the myth of the Southern writer, as Faulkner had come to create and embody it, and she did not want to get so close as to be compared or judged by it. Instead, she peppered away at the myth, dodged comparison, and set sly charges in strategically chosen spots.
One young male Southern writer piqued her attention as a "Southern Young Man of Parts" when he came to Milledgeville to do some research for fiction that apparently never materialized: I think they all want to go to Harvard or Princeton so they can sit in a window and say I hate it I hate it but I have to go back. Or maybe they only learn to say it after they get up there. HB Not surprisingly, her own maneuverings have not stopped the critics from assessing her Southernness. Josephine Hendin, in The 16 Introduction World of Flannery O'Connor , concludes that O'Connor and her competitor Capote "have abandoned the South's most distinctive concerns" , which Hendin lists as a concern for history, a living scale of personal and social values, an attachment to place.
Miles Orvell's highly praised Invisible Parade: Clearly, Orvell, with the majority of O'Connor's critics, prefers the "larger" ethical-moral setting to the more immediate social-historical one.
The latter seems less rich in nuance than what he calls "a sense of the mystery of human life" Even as dedicated a sociologist as Robert Coles, in his Flannery O'Connor's South , finds an O'Connor who dwelt in a moral world more complex and ultimately more meaningful than the segregated South of the s and s.
The culmination of this reluctance, or refusal, to see O'Connor's work in its time is Marion Montgomery's Why Flannery O'Connor Stayed Home , a densely argued book that braids philosophical temperament and overheated New Criticism into a whip with which to beat "the age" for its alleged obtuseness and gnostic reliance on humanist values.
O'Connor, Montgomery informs us, was a fellow soldier in the losing battle against modernity, but she buried her polemic in metaphor I have a heart of pure steel.
It is time to deflect the main current if for no other reason than that it has incised a deep, narrow groove in our sense of O'Connor and her work, and we all stand in peril of being sucked into the vortex whether we want to leap or not.
Crews, aware of the fixedness of critical thinking on O'Connor, tends to skepticism of "trendsetters" in the newer criticism. I do not; I believe that we and the fiction have much to gain by declaring a moratorium on the old ways. Some the feminist, for example have lain dormant in extant criticism, waiting for the moment to ripen.
Others O'Connor herself waved off Freudian psychoanalytic, for another example and her partisans have continued the embargo.
The dead hand of the New Criticism has gripped the interpreters of the fiction from its grave. Josephine Hendin's earlier work seems to have been positioned in orthodox O'Connor studies as the creature of excess.
Frederick Asals, for example, identifies his own "ferocious dissent" from Hendin's view as the "stimulus" for his own work, Flannery O'Connor: The Imagination of Extremity Hendin had located poles of tension within O'Connor's work, and had tacitly expanded the confines of the work to include some but not all of the conditions of the author's life situation: Hendin's case is made on the basis that the existential circumstances of O'Connor's life preceded and shaped the allegedly essential, the religious.
Because of those circumstances, Flannery O'Connor was subject to "violent and destructive impulses" 16 that she could not direct against the original targets herself, her mother, her society , and so turned upon surrogates in her fiction. Disease, Hendin argues, only drove the contradictions more deeply into O'Connor's psyche, making the eruptions more violent. Hendin, consequently, sees O'Connor's gallery of freaks, including Hazel Motes, not as figures for the unredeemed of mankind but as projections of the author's complex, conflicted selfimage.
The body in her fiction is an oppressor or trap; no good can come of it, or to it. From Hazel Motes on, her protagonists rage to escape the body or to defeat it; it is, Hendin claims, "a trap 18 Introduction more profound than. Hendin sees O'Connor gravitating more and more closely into an orbit with the Misfit: The O'Connor mainstream still resists such reading of the life into the work, although there have been some approaches.
Dorothy Walters's foundational study admits the obvious, that O'Connor's father's death from lupus and the daughter's own illness constituted an "obvious source of a pervasive concern of her writing: Walters, however, one step down the track, backs up, opting instead for a generic key to the fiction.
The "question" at issue is not the one posed overtly by O'Connor: Rather, the question is one that involves the reader and her response: How shall we take this view of human nature and human life? Many of O'Connor's defenders find her morose view bracing, and therefore consider Stephens's question banal.
But, after decades of indoctrination on Wise Blood, for example, it is useful to return to a view of the novel as presenting "the most remorselessly squalid picture of human life" Stephens even goes so far as to suggest that O'Connor burlesques herself in Sabbath Lily's stories and her grotesque parody of motherhood in embracing the musty mummy brought to her by Enoch.
Stephens sees no relief: Stephens speculates that O'Connor's illness must have had a lot to do with the shape of her fiction, but she ultimately declines to guess which factors in the author's life might have led her from "normal" to "so fierce and forbidding a mode of fiction" 89, A few years later, Carol Schloss, in Flannery O'Connor's Dark Comedies , also broaches the topic of biographical sources for fiction, but also declines to make anything like a conclusion The record of O'Connor criticism in essays rather than in books and monographs is somewhat more full of un- or antiorthodox views.
This deeply embedded source of energy and shaping power is the parent-child encounter, about which O'Connor was, Kahane implies, strongly ambivalent: There is, then, a sadistic quality to the [O'Connor] narrator, who acts as an archaic superego, a primitive internalized image of the parent forcing the characters through the triadic ritual of sin, humiliation and redemption by wit as well as by plot structure.
More traditionalist critics object, as does Crews , to what they see as an arbitrary and subversive substitution for the author's often-stated intent.
But holders of this position too quickly forget that O'Connor was far from being a naive reader of Freud Lacan's predecessor ; she could be quite cagey in her own manipulations of the Freudian vocabulary see her story "The Comforts of Home". As to Sigmund, I am against him tooth and toenail but crafty: Within his limitations I am ready to admit certain uses for him.
HB There is always a level of self-conscious parody and deflection in O'Connor's fiction, Mellard argues, and the Lacanian approach, 20 Introduction which he extends in the present essay, is the best way to see O'Connor fiction whole and steady.
Theoretical approaches to O'Connor have also, recently, moved in the direction of gender. Whether O'Connor would have made a feminist is an open question; her statements on and about the matter are not conclusive. Hendin's early and later work and proposes an O'Connor deeply motivated by a desire to escape the trap of the Southern daughter syndrome. And a more antique form of feminism was claimed by Martha Stephens, who saw O'Connor as a short story writer by fiat of gender, a novelist reluctantly: She would have despaired at the very idea of attempting the complicated, sprawling, abundant novel that her southern male compatriots were writing - Wolfe, somewhat before her time of course, Faulkner, Styron, and Warren.
Nothing was more foreign to her than that; and like many women writers, her impulse, one feels, when she confronted such works must have been to pitch in and clear them out and straighten them up. Skillfully weaving O'Connor's letters, essays, and fiction, Westling places O'Connor persuasively within a tradition of woman's writing that includes her immediate Southern sisters Welty and McCullers and the longer tradition of writing by women.
As you might gather from most of the preceding discussion, the historical context of O'Connor's work has been the least-explored critical territory. If your premise is that O'Connor quite rightly sought to rise above her "here-and-now" for religious reasons, then the here-and-now becomes irrelevant without argument.
But O'Connor was not oblivious to the world around her; in fact she confessed quite early to an addiction to "a few sideline researches into the ways of the vulgar" HB To her the vulgar included everything from stories of Roy Rogers's horse in church 21 New Essays on Wise Blood to political gossip and the movies of W.
In other words, it would be a mistake to read her work as if all it had to offer was single-channel communication with the Omnipotent. Lance Bacon's essay in this volume, a taste of his book on O'Connor, is the first substantial critical work to restore O'Connor to the full, rich context of her time and place. But the state of our critical understanding of any O'Connor story, Wise Blood included, begins on a level of subtlety that has been in part created by the flourishing industry in O'Connor studies.
Perhaps you have had coffee in one of her mugs, or seen John Huston's film of Wise Blood, or read the novel in a reading group. In this general introduction to the four new essays in criticism that follow, my purpose has been to outline the "old" ways of critical thinking and to persuade you to read or reread Wise Blood with the "new" in mind. We never come upon literature without preparation, even though often that preparation is unknown to us.
At a certain moment in the history of reading certain works, the accumulated "understanding" of the text outpaces the text. We have arrived at such a moment in the reading of Wise Blood.
We can't go back to the beginning. I've tried to warn you about the history of reading Wise Blood, with the hope that the information might make your reading of the novel more interesting if it can no longer be if it ever could have been unmediated.
Understanding Lupus. New York: Charles Scribners Sons, Aldridge, John W.
Port Washington, N. Kennikat Press, Asals, Frederick. Flannery O'Connor: The Imagination of Extremity. University of Georgia Press, Brinkmeyer, Robert.
Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, Brooks, Cleanth, and Robert Penn Warren. Understanding Fiction. Crofts and Company, This is the first edition; there were many subsequent editions O'Connor might have used.
Flannery O'Connor. Southern Illinois University Press, Cash, W. The Mind of the South. Alfred A. Knopf, Coles, Robert. Flannery O'Connor's South. Crews, Frederick. The Critics Bear It Away: American Fiction and the Academy. Random House, Desmond, John F. Risen Sons: Flannery O'Connor's Vision of History. Drake, Robert. A Critical Essay. William P. Eerdmans, Feeley, Kathleen, S. Voice of the Peacock.
New Brunswick, N. Rutgers University Press, Foreword by Caroline Gordon. Friedman, Melvin J. Critical Essays on Flannery O'Connor. Hall, Gentry, Marshall Bruce. Flannery O'Connor's Religion of the Grotesque. University Press of Mississippi, Gordon, Caroline. Gordon, Caroline, and Allen Tate. The House of Fiction. Charles Scribner's Sons, A second edition, published in , included a short story by O'Connor.
Gossett, Louise Y. Hawkes, John. Hendin, Josephine. The World of Flannery O'Connor. Indiana University Press, Vulnerable People: A View of American Fiction since Oxford University Press, Hyman, Stanley Edgar.
University of Minnesota Press, Kahane, Claire. Lewis, R. May, John R. The Pruning Word: The Parables ofFlannery O'Connor. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, Mellard, James M. Freud, Lacan, and the Unconscious.
Montgomery, Marion. Sherwood Sugden, The Habit of Being. Sally Fitzgerald. Wise Blood. Orvell, Miles. Invisible Parade: The Fiction of Flannery O'Connor. Temple University Press, See also the reissue of Orvell's book: An Introduction. Orvell's preface to the latter book is particularly interesting as the testimony of a critic who has been in O'Connor studies for two decades and weathered many attacks. Rosenfeld, Isaac. Rubin, Louis D. Sewanee Review 63 A Note on Literary Fashions. Schloss, Carol.
Flannery O'Connor's Dark Comedies: The Limits of Inference. Schur, Peter H. Simons, John W. Stephens, Martha. The Question ofFlannery O'Connor. Towers, Robert. Twelve Southerners.
I'll Take My Stand. Walters, Dorothy. Twayne, Westling, Louise. Sacred Groves and Ravaged Gardens: More precisely, her legs appeared by themselves in the advertisement, which placed the limbs "on a Pedestal.
To the mind of the modern girl, legs, like busts, are power points which she has been taught to tailor, but as parts of the success kit rather than erotically or sensuously. As such, her legs are not intimately associated with her taste or with her unique self but are merely display objects like the grill work on a car.
In short, "the smartly turned-out girl walks and behaves like a being who sees herself as a slick object rather than is aware of herself as a person" McLuhan 98, In one of McLuhan's readers created a female character with a detachable leg. Like McLuhan's "modern girl," who uses her legs as "date-baited power levers for the management of the male audience" 98 , Joy-Hulga knows that her wooden leg impresses the Bible salesman she plans to seduce. When Manley Pointer steals her leg, however, she succumbs to the "cultural dynamics" identified by McLuhan - the dynamics of "replaceable parts" Manipulated by a salesman, Joy-Hulga loses her sense of self.
The loss may be a blessing in disguise, if it forces her to seek an identity based on something other than "Nothing" CS , but the salesman is hardly motivated by a desire to increase her self-awareness. To him, Joy-Hulga is just another victim.
Like the advertisers criticized in The Mechanical Bride, Pointer has made a career of reducing women to body parts. The triumph of the salesman, and the damage to selfhood, concerned O'Connor deeply. Indeed, the figure of the salesman makes frequent appearances in the fiction she produced from the late s to the early s.
The father, who calls himself "a prophet of life insurance" VBA 59 , is not the only salesman in the novel. A manufacturer's representative also shows up, selling Southern Copper Parts and dispensing professional advice. A profession guided by the philosophy of the copper flue salesman would seem to repel any thoughtful person, but even aspiring intellectuals take sales jobs in O'Connor's fiction.
The protagonists of two stories from find themselves in this situation: Julian would rather be a 26 A Fondness for Supermarkets writer, and Calhoun works as a salesman during the summer months "so that for the other nine months he could afford to meet life naturally and bring his real self - the rebel-artist-mystic - to birth" CS Calhoun, in particular, understands the connection between sales and individual identity.
During the summer, "the orgy of selling" completely transforms his personality. The relation between salesmanship and selfhood receives its fullest treatment in the novel O'Connor published one year after McLuhan published The Mechanical Bride. Her depiction is satirical, and the target of her satire is much larger than the urban South, which provides the setting for the novel. Wise Blood represents her critique of American consumer culture, whose period of greatest expansion coincided with her literary career.
Responding to a editorial in Life magazine, O'Connor rejected the idea that the "unparalleled prosperity" of the United States in the decade following World War II compelled American novelists to write fiction "that really represented this country. O'Connor left such "affirmative" gestures to the advertising agencies MM In Wise Blood, she inverts the meaning then attached to material prosperity.
The signs of consumer society that appear throughout the novel hardly justify national celebration. They suggest, instead, the growing power of the advertisers - the increasing influence that corporate capitalism would exert over individual identity. In a interview she maintained that Southerners were losing their "regional sense" primarily "because everybody wants the good things of life, like supermarkets.
O'Connor has long been recognized as a defender of Southern identity and a recorder of the "fading manners" that had distinguished the South from "the rest of the country" MM 27 New Essays on Wise Blood But her regional loyalty has distracted readers from her participation in a nationwide debate regarding the status of individualism under corporate capitalism.
Southerners were not the only Americans who feared a nationally homogeneous culture, or who feared for the survival of individuality in such a culture. Whyte, author of The Organization Man Her fiction reflects the widespread tendency to perceive conformity as a defining characteristic of postwar America. The paradigm encouraged hyperbole on the part of American intellectuals, to whom the Soviet Union represented mass society at its worst.
In a symposium published by Partisan Review, Louis Kronenberger treated Soviet totalitarianism and American "mass culture" as parallel threats to individuality.
They asked the contributors: In The Mechanical Bride, McLuhan proposed another strategy for dealing with consumer culture, "a method for reversing the process" by which "commercial education" brought about "public helplessness. Why not assist the public to observe consciously the drama which is intended to operate upon 28 A Fondness for Supermarkets it unconsciously? O'Connor expresses the same anxiety in Wise Blood, inundating her characters with commercial appeals.
The window displays in the downtown business district captivate shoppers: The stores in Taulkinham stayed open on Thursday nights so that people could have an extra opportunity to see what was for sale" WB In this commercial setting, the man who sells potato peelers has built an "altar" to his product, a pyramid of green cardboard boxes atop a card table WB When Hazel visits the city park in which Enoch Emery works, Enoch takes him to a hot dog stand whose very structure advertises a product.
Inside the stand, "there was a large advertisement for ice cream, showing a cow dressed up like a housewife" WB Even the rural countryside, which Enoch and Hazel have left for the city, contains advertising messages. Beyond their scenic function, the techniques of advertising and marketing featured in the novel have significance for individual identity.
O'Connor first suggests this by placing Enoch in front of a product display that dwarfs him. She sets Enoch against a Walgreen's window, "against a background of alarm clocks, toilet waters, candies, sanitary pads, fountain pens, and pocket flashlights, displayed in all colors to twice his height" WB Enoch is the character most closely identified with consumerism, the character whose "fondness for Supermarkets" leads him "to spend an hour or so in one every afternoon.
At home he spends time looking at the commercial illustrations that hang on his walls: As a consumer Enoch exemplifies the "public helplessness" that McLuhan hoped to remedy by analyzing advertising. Enoch is pathetically vulnerable to advertising messages. Outside a movie theater, he sees "a large illustration of a monster stuffing a young woman into an incinerator. I ain't going in no picture show like that, he said, giving it a nervous look.
I'm going home. I ain't going to wait around in no picture show. I ain't got the money to buy a ticket, he said, taking out his purse again. I ain't even going to count thisyer change. It ain't but forty-three cent here, he said, that ain't enough. A sign said the price of a ticket for adults was forty-five cents, balcony, thirty-five.
I ain't going to sit in no balcony, he said, buying a thirty-five cent ticket. I ain't going in, he said. Two doors flew open and he found himself moving down a long red foyer and then up a darker tunnel and then up a higher, still darker tunnel. WB Enoch ends up watching a triple feature. He might blame his "wise blood" for making him act against his will, but the movie poster is the immediate impetus. Clearly, Enoch is motivated by an internal compulsion he does not understand.
He feels he is "always having to do something that something else wanted him to do," and this inner drive places even his purchases beyond his control; since the "new jesus" requires a "tabernacle," Enoch has "to spend all his money on drapes and gilt" for its decoration WB , , , At the same time, however, the external stimulus of advertising determines the particular manner in which his internal compulsion will be expressed.
He suddenly understands how he will be "rewarded" for following the dictates of his blood WB , and his recompense, he thinks, will involve an advertising gimmick. The promotional tour consists of a man in an apesuit shaking hands with moviegoers. Impressed by the example of Gonga, who can attract a crowd of young fans, Enoch longs for the same kind of public attention: Enoch hopes to realize the promise conveyed by the advertising he has seen, the promise of personal distinction.
The statement yokes together contradictory desires: It is the contradiction that McLuhan located at "the center of the drama of a consumer economy. Enoch misses the irony to which McLuhan directed attention - the irony of basing personal distinction on the commercial imagery used to promote consumption.
By appropriating that imagery, Enoch believes, he can emerge "as an entirely new man, with an even better personality than he had now" WB Specifically, Enoch hopes to gain distinction by stealing the promotional gimmick, the apesuit, and wearing it himself. Helpless to resist the appeal of a movie poster, he is likewise vulnerable to the ways in which advertising validates personal identity or withholds validation. Enoch will change "the way I am" to fit the model of individual distinction that he has seen in front of the movie theater: This role model has suggested that Enoch's own identity, grounded in his own experience, is unimportant.
Enoch greets Gonga by identifying himself and recounting the facts of his life. I work at the city 31 New Essays on Wise Blood zoo. I'm only eighteen year old but I already work for the city.
Impelled by the "envy" he feels when he watches other moviegoers line up to meet Gonga WB , Enoch overpowers the man in the apesuit. Then, "burning with the intensest kind of happiness," he digs a hole and buries his clothes; the narrator suggests an analogy with "burying his former self" WB Donning the apesuit, Enoch anticipates a new and improved self.
The narrative, however, shows only the loss of individual identity. Enoch will be obscured, not improved, by the commercial image. He disappears, leg by leg, arm by arm, into the apesuit: He becomes a two-headed, then a oneheaded "it" WB The appropriation of commercial imagery does not bring Enoch the distinction he expects. Dressed as Gonga, he extends his hand to a man and a woman.
They do not shake his hand; instead, they flee from the "hideous" gorilla WB Critical readings of this scene usually interpret Enoch's transformation as a descent from the human into the bestial - an illustration of O'Connor's "grotesque" diminution of human stature Allen , ; Burns But his transformation into a gorilla has less to do with animal nature than with consumer culture. In Wise Blood, forms of advertising and marketing envelop the self, submerging it in a world of salable objects.
The scene that takes place at the Waigreen's drugstore foreshadows Enoch's submersion in the commercial image of Gonga. O'Connor describes a young woman who has become an inextricable element of a commercial display: The fountain counter was pink and green marble linoleum and behind it there was a red-headed waitress in a lime-colored uniform and a pink apron.
She had green eyes set in pink and they resembled a picture behind her of a Lime-Cherry Surprise, a special that day for ten cents. WB The description suggests more than the suppression of personality within the commercial setting. The waitress can take off the uniform and the apron after work, but her eyes will remain green 32 A Fondness for Supermarkets and pink. Her identity has been assimilated into the presentation of the product, the fountain drink she pushes so aggressively: The idea that a salesperson would have to identify herself with the product being sold found expression in the contemporary critique of consumerism.
Wright Mills explored the idea in White Collar, a sociological study published a year before Wise Blood. The situation of the waitress in Wise Blood is analogous, then, to the situation of a salesgirl described by Mills: In the normal course of her work, because her personality becomes the instrument of an alien purpose, the salesgirl becomes self-alienated.
Solace Layfield is the more prominent figure of self-alienation in the novel. The sales strategy most important to the plot is his impersonation of Hazel Motes. After Hazel refuses to work with Hoover Shoats and turn the Church Without Christ into a moneymaking venture, Hoover hires Solace and turns him into a sales instrument.
O'Connor makes her par- ticular Catholic strain of religious didacticism more explicit by showing all of the grotesque characters of Taulkinham engaged in what she considers to be false religious practices or beliefs. From Onniejay Holy a. Hoover Shoats , who preaches for financial gain, to Asa Hawks, whose belief was not strong enough to blind himself forJesus's sake even though he still pretends that he did do so , O'Connor's cast of characters represents a pantheon of practitioners of what Kierkegaard called "bad faith.
Flood wants to care for and later marry Hazel out of desire for his government check and her own convoluted sense of charity, yet she does not understand Hazel's redemption-seeking askesis.
O'Connor importantly casts Mrs. Flood's lack of understanding as non-Catho- lic by having her make disparaging remarks about the possibility of Hazel's being "a agent of the pope" or having "some connection with something funny" Liv- ing up to its name, all of Taulkinham is "talking" about religion, but no one-including Hazel until his Paul-like conversion-is engaging in true belief.
The biichka by which Chichikov travels and the "rat-colored" car that Hazel uses as home, pulpit, and instrument of vengeance both serve to keep the pro- tagonists on the road, literally and figuratively. Moreover, both are symbolically associated with forms of "bad" or misplaced faith. Hazel's Essex functions on a much more particularized level-being the symbol of Hazel's personal bad faith-than Chichikov's carriage, which Gogol eventually uses as part of a meta- phorical indictment of the haste with which he believes all Russia seeks to leave behind its spiritual past in pursuit of other diversions.
For him, the Essex is not only a symbol of Haze's belief standing in forJesus as the ob- ject of his unquestioning faith but also the means of asserting a sense of control over the world: While he is in the driver's seat he can control his fate, and start fresh when- ever he pleases" However, as Hazel is trying to leave Taulkinham to "start fresh," his car is destroyed by a highway patrolman in an oddly benevolent epi- sode.
This event triggers Hazel's submission to penitence in the forms of his blinding and other starkly ascetic acts, and also begins his redemption. Like Paul, he gains the ability to see in a religious sense his blinded eyes "hold more" af- ter having his bad faith destroyed on the road. The fact that destruction of the car is necessary for Hazel's redemption also points out the subversive nature of O'Connor's satire, since the car symbolizes not only Hazel's faithlessness but if Ragen and other cultural theorists are to be believed also represents a growing norm of American life in the early s.
The hints of Chichikov's possible redemption also occur on the road and involve the vehicle with which he is associated. While fleeing from his meeting with Nozdryov perhaps the most unlikeable of all the landowners , his bricchka collides with an elegant larger carriage and he finds himself in direct contact with the beautiful young daughter of the local governor.
She is described as follows: The lovely oval of her face was rounded like a fresh egg; and like this also, when, fresh and newly laid, it is held against the light Chichikov's reaction "our hero gazed at her for several minutes without paying the slightest heed to the confusion which had arisen between the horses and the coachmen"  resembles a sort of rapture and his recognition of the true beauty of the young woman stands in clear con- trast to the artificial and tacky attempts at beauty made by the older women of the town.
For Zeldin, citing Gogol's love for painted ikons, this recognition has a parallel in Gogol's own beliefs about the interrelation between art and religion: Another RoadsideEpiphany 63 "Truth and beauty are not relative terms Gogol's religion, unlike that of say, Tolstoy, remained always firmly rooted in the beliefs and practices of his particular ritualistic church, with its emphasis on the beautiful nature of the divine" The genuine beauty and incorruptibility of the young girl she ignores his su- perficial attempts at party conversation when they meet again at the governor's ball is in contrast with the grotesque ugliness and false promise of redemption presented to Hazel by Sabbath Hawks in Wise Blood.
The fact that Chichikov can be significantly moved by the recognition of true beauty unlike the others in the town indicates that he has the ability to choose the correct road' 0 -the one that leads to God, as Gogol calls it in the penultimate chapter: What crooked, obscure, narrow, impassable roads, which lead one far out of one's way, has not humanity selected, in its endeavor to attain to eternal truth; while directly before it, the straight road, the true road, leading to the magnificent temple, to the chambers appointed by the King, lay directly before it!
It is broader and more luxurious than all the other roads; it is illumined by the sun, and lighted all night by long fires; but people have flowed past it in profound darkness. This metaphoric use of the word "road" in the midst of a passage in which Chichikov is riding down the lit- eral road in his brichkamakes the connection between the two almost inescapable.
Like St. Paul whose first name Chichikov shares and like Hazel, he has had the "scales lifted from his eyes" by aviolent interruption of hisjourney along the road. Furthermore, in the final paragraph of the first volume Gogol equates the car- riage or more precisely, the team of three horses-the troika-that pulls his carriage in which Chichikov sits with all Russia "is it not thus, like the bold troika which cannot be overtaken, that thou art dashing along, Russia?
The fact that the "fervors" are described as diversionary paths suggests that Dead Souls is intended as a normative satire, since diversion from something implies that the thing from which one has been diverted is the standard.
At the end of the book, it is not only Chichikovwho needs to recognize again his ability to see the beauty of the "straight road, the true road," but all of Russia. Lastly, both authors take great pains to separate their protagonists from the remainder of the world around them.
In both cases, only the hero is given a de- tailed history, thereby making him the only character that transcends typology. Accordingly, the rest of the characters seem to be dehumanized, especiallywhen the authors describe them in metaphorical language that reinforces this status.
Weisenburger, building on William R. As for the rest, in them the vehicle operates on the tenor in such a way as to give it an upwards boost" He cites a number of examples of both kinds of metaphorical confusion of reality, most notably that of Hazel's grandfather an itinerant preacher, who is compared twice with a wasp , Asa Hawks's face de- scribed as being like a "grinning mandrill" and the zoo attendant who has a 'jutting shale-textured face" Wise Blood The "rat-colored" car, Enoch's lit- eral transformation into a gorilla, and the description of Enoch's washstand as "st[anding] on bird legs six inches high" 67 are only some of the many other examples of the sort of ontologically mixed metaphors used in the novel.
O'Connor's work is full of "grotesque exaggeration and nightmarish colorings" Brinkmeyer that serve to reduce everything around Hazel to a liminal existence between humanity and inhumanity, an existence which lies between life and death in spiritual terms since animals are not believed to possess souls. As long as Hazel denies the power of Christ, he too exists in this state.
Once he repents, though, he receives according to O'Connor's Catholic beliefs eternal spiritual life through his full acceptance and imitation of Christ's redemptive physical death. Catholic dogma recognizes no paradox in this sort of blending of the animate and inanimate, since the soul is immortal and the body only tran- sitory.
A similar process of "deformation of being, as if the text were furnished wall to wall with simulacra" Weisenburger 52 occurs in DeadSouls, most notably in association with but hardly limited to the character of Sobakevich.
His name, derived from the word sobaka "dog" , begins this process and he is further animalized through explicit comparisons: To complete this resemblance, his coatwas exactly the color of a bear's fur Furthermore, not only does Sobakevich resemble something nonhuman, but nonhuman things re- semble Sobakevich: Gogol's title, DeadSouls, as numer- ous critics have pointed out, is an apt description theological problems notwithstandingl 2 of the state of most of the characters depicted in the book- they are at the same time alive like the immortal soul and dead.
Only Chichikov and Plyushkin receive any significant explication of their prior lives, and Chichikov's comes only in the final chapter as he is escaping from the suspicious townspeople. Plyushkin seems as though he might have had the potential for redemption at one point, but his overwhelming focus on material things has made him as good as dead to the possibility of overcoming the "meanness, pet- tiness, [and] baseness" to which he can now "descend" Like a beautiful ikon, she is not God, but she is a representation of the beauty and life that flows from God in Russian Orthodox dogma.
A true believer would not worship the worldly ikon, but rather the divine represented by it. Neither Gogol nor O'Connor is a Manichean a heretical position in the Orthodox church as well as the Catho- lic , but both recognize the possibility of losing sight of the Word-ly because of the worldly.
Both employ satire in order to provide a corrective prescription.
For O'Connor, the distractions of the material world are the cause of the various forms of bad faith that result from anything short of a "total commitment to Christ" Brinkmeyer , like the harsh asceticism practiced by Hazel at the end of WiseBlood. This position is fully consistent with her own fundamental Catholi- cism, even though it represents a standard no longer adhered to by society on the whole.
Similarly, in Dead Souls, the "fervors" of the secondary characters are examples of the "crooked, obscure, narrow, impassable roads" that lead awayfrom the truth represented by the moral standards that the Orthodox church had ingrained into Russian society over the course of the previous nine centuries.
At latest, this must have been early , since she won the Rinehart-Iowa Fiction Award for a partially completed version of the book in that year.
Other evidence indicates that she may have begun work on some of the episodes as much as two years earlier. Likewise, DeadSouls and Wise Bloodboth went through six to seven years of composition and approximately a decade of post-pub- lication explanation, culminating in the death of each author.
O'Connor certainly didn't model her life on Gogol's, however, and their premature deaths in no way stem from simi- lar causes.
Gogol cer- tainly was not the firstwriter to use the comic grotesque to treat religious material such a technique was common to English morality plays, for example , so the certainty with which Fitzgerald makes this claim likely either stems from her unrecorded personal con- versations with O'Connor or supposition. The popularity of existentialism at least as attributed to Sartre and Camus in Americawas at or near its heightwhen O'Connor made her comments about the degree to which Christ had become "meaningless" to her audience.
Eta kniga ne to, chto on khochet 'That book is not thatwhich he wants" or, more literally and awkwardly, 'That book is not the right one that he wants". Still, Hapgood's translation is very likely the one in which O'Connorwas introduced to Dead Souls and bears using for that reason if no other. Generally, this is accurate, although the diminutive form of Mikhail "Misha" is more commonly used to refer to bears in this way.
Louisi- ana State UP, Fanger, Donald. The CreationofNikolai Gogol. Harvard University Press, Fitzgerald, Sally. New York: Signet, Another Roadside Epiphanzy 67 Fusso, Susanne. An Anatomy ofDisorderin Gogol. Stanford UPs, Gippius, V. Robert A. Duke UP, Gogol, Nikolai. Isabel F.
Crowell, Lawson, Lewis A. Friedman and Lewis A. Fordham UP, Maguire, Robert A. Gogolfrom the Twentieth Century: Rob- ert A. Princeton UP, Nabokov, Vladimir. Nikolai GogoL New York: New Directions, O'Connor, Flannery. Sally Fitzgerald. Farrar, Mystery andManners. SallyFitzgerald andRobertFitzgerald. Three byFlanneryO'Connor. Putney, Chris. Lang, Ragen, Brian Abel. A Wreck on the Road to Damascus: Loyola UP, Weisenburger, Steven. Fables of Subversion: Satire and the American Novel, Ath- ens: Un of Georgia P, Woodward,James B.
Nikolai Gogol's QuestforBeauty: AnExplorationinto His Works. Re- gents P of Kansas, Southern Quarterly 40 no4 Summ WN: Further reproduction of this article in violation of the copyright is prohibited. To contact the publisher: Copyright The H. Wilson Company. All rights reserved.
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