(Updated ) 25 VMware Interview Questions & Answers (FREE PDF download) to help you hire only vSphere admins with the best skills & experience for. If you're looking for VMware Interview Questions for Experienced or Freshers, you are at right place. There are lot of opportunities from many reputed companies. Our experts providing VMware interview questions & Answers/Faqs can develop your carrier & knowledge to find the right job in a good MNC's.
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Hypervisor is a program that enables multiple operating systems to share a single hardware host. Each operating system has the host's processor, memory and. vmware interview questions and answers , vmware interview questions , vmware troubleshooting interview questions and answers. Vmware Interview Questions and Answers - Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx) , PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. vmware questions.
Can you please share Interview questions or guide what to Prepare For. True Or False. Search for: Heartbeat will be sent every 1 second. Remove the affected host from the cluster. In HA, VMs will be re-started and powered-on on another host in case of a host failure, while in FT there is no downtime because the second copy will be activated in case of host failure.
Essentials plus. Enterprise and Enterprise Plus Licensing 3. Below steps are are taken from my blog posts Troubleshooting HA. VMware HA cluster chooses the first 5 hosts that joins the cluster as primary nodes and all others hosts are automatically selected as secondar nodes. What is the maximum number of hosts per HA cluster? Maximum number of hosts in the HA cluster is Check the networks are properly configured and named exactly as other hosts in the cluster. Goto cluster settings and uncheck the vmware HA in to turnoff the HA in that cluster and re-enable the vmware HA to get the agent installed.
For further troubleshooting. Check HA related ports are open in firewall to allow for the communication Incoming port: Check the DNS is configured properly 3. Check for some network issues 2. Alternative solution for 3 step is. Remove the affected host from the cluster. In addition u can also try to restart vpxa and management agent in the Host.
Removing ESX host from the cluster will not be allowed untill that host is put into maintenance mode. When the ESX host loses its ability to exchange heartbeat via management network between the other hosts in the HA cluster. This behavior can be changed with the help of HA advanced options. If the ping fails. By default. Let's say we can add the default gateway of SC1 as first value and gateway of SC2 as the additional one using the below value. ESX hosts uses heartbeats to communicate among other hosts in the cluster.
If a ESX host in the cluster didn't received heartbeat for for 13 seconds from any other hosts in the cluster.
VM's power off operation will be executed. VMWare HA use to ping default gateway as the isolation address if it stops receiving heartbeat.
The host considered it as isolated and host will ping the configured isolation address default gateway by default. Power off — All the VMs are powered off. We can add an additional values in case if we are using redundant service console both belongs to different subnet. How to add additional isolation address for redundancy? If the shutdown via VMWare tools not happened within 5 minutes.
How Host Isolation is detected? In HA cluster. What is Host Isolation? VMware HA has a mechanism to detect a host is isolated from rest of hosts in the cluster. Heartbeat will be sent every 1 second. As per "VMware Availability Guide". What are the 2 types of settings available for admission control? Do not power on VMs that violate availability constraints Disable: There are 3 different types of Admission control policy available.
VCenter Server uses admission control to ensure that sufficient resources are available in a cluster to provide failover protection and to ensure that virtual machine resource reservations are respected. Add the line "das. Goto to advanced options of HA 3. Right Click your HA cluster 2. How the HA Slots are Calculated? What is SLOT?
As per VMWare's Definition. Highest memory reservation and highest CPU reservation of the VM in your cluster determines the slot size for the cluster. Minimum is 1 and the maximum is 4. Prior vSphere 4. Host failures cluster tolerates Percentage of cluster resources reserved as fail over spare capacity Specify a fail over host How the Host Failures cluster tolerates admission control policy works?
Select the maximum number of host failures that you can afford for or to guarantee fail over. In the Host Failures cluster tolerates admission control policy.
VMware High Availability HA uses a mechanism called slots to calculate both the available and required resources in the cluster for a failing over virtual machines from a failed host to other hosts in the cluster. It influence the HA slot calculation. What is use of Host Monitoring status in HA cluster? Let's take an example. To avoid the above situation when performing scheduled activity which may cause ESX host to isolate. It will not receive heartbeat and also ping to the isolation address also failed.
I have written a post about how the HA slots are calculated. Why do you need this unwanted situation while performing scheduled maintenance window. Admission control will not allow to power on the virtual machine which violates the availability constraints. Maximum Bound value for HA memory slot size das. It calculates the Total resource requirement for all Powered-on Virtual Machines in the cluster and also calculates the total resource available in host for virtual machines.
In contrast to the "Host Failures cluster tolerates admission control policy". Instead This policy calculates the in the way below 1. It will not use slots.
If no reservation is specified at the VM level. We can define the specific percentage of total cluster resources are reserved for failover.
How the "Specify a failover host" admission control policy works? We can control the HA slot size manually by using the following values.
There are 4 options we can configure at HA advanced options related to slot size das. Minimum Bound value for HA memory slot size das. In the Percentage of cluster resources reserved as failover spare capacity admission control policy. How to Manually define the HA Slot size? What is VM Monitoring status? HA will usually monitors ESX hosts and reboot the virtual machine in the failed hosts in the other host in the cluster in case of host isolation but i need the HA to monitors for Virtual machine failures also.
DRS will not migrate or power on placement of virtual machines on the defined failover host. HA attempts to restart the virtual machines on the specified failover host. In the Specify a failover host" admission control policy. VM monitoring restarts the virtual machine if the vmware tools heartbeat didn't received with the specified time using Monitoring sensitivity.
We can define a specific host as a dedicated failover host. Posted in: High Availability. Thanks For Reading!!! All the Best. Whenisolation response is detected. In this Approach. VMware Fault Tolerance is a component of VMware vSphere and it provides continuous availability to applications by preventing downtime and data loss of Virtual machines in the event of ESX server failures.
The below checks as specified below will be performed as part of the compliance check. Validate that all the hosts in the cluster have the same build for Fault Tolerance Validate that the host hardware supports Fault Tolerance.
Validate that at least one shared datastore exists. One way from vSphere client is to run the cluster complaince check from profile compliance tab of your cluster. Validate that power management is supported on the host Validate that Fault Tolerance logging is enabled. Validate that VMotion is enabled. What is the name of the technology used by VMware FT? What is FT Logging Traffic?
FT logging is the one of option in VMkernel port setting which is similar to enable vmotion option in the vmkernel port. FT Enabled Virtual machine will appear in Dark Blue colour as compared to non-protected virtual machines. How do you configure or enable FT for the virtual machine? FT can be enabled only per virtual machine basis not at the cluster or ESX level.
The primary and secondary virtual machine resides on a different ESX hosts in the cluster. Whatever the events or actions performed by the primary VM will be transmitted via gigabit Ethernet network to be replayed by the secondary virtual machine using VLockstep technology.
MAc address but writes are only performed by the primary virtual machine. Eventhough both the primary and secondary virtual machines appear as a single entity and access a common disk. To take a look at the secondary VM. The primary and secondary virtual machines sends heartbeat between each other frequently with millisecond intervals to the check for the availability.
If either of the virtual machine loses the heartbeat.
When you enable Fault Tolerance for the virtual machine. Only Primary virtual machine will appear under the cluster and ESX host.
Go to Virtual Machines tab of the Cluster or Host. Feel free to send him a message here. VMware now offers a lot of trainings and Certificates for different job types: Server, Desktops, Cloud, Network, etc…. One final tip. With a Linux background you might also want to consider OpenStack training along with VMware training. Check out this post: I am new to Vmware. I am working in windows server support but I am VCP certified. I failed in many interviews on few basic questions.
If it was me in the interview this is how I would answer both questions. I would ask to use their white board and then I would get up and draw for them how the typical vSphere environment is designed. Second, I would cover how VMs are created and connected to the host.
As a beginner you would most likely not be designing the architecture but rather you would be following an existing design.
This is true unless there are issues going on and then you would be calling VMware support and working with them to troubleshoot errors on network, storage or host, which is why managers want someone to understand how a vSphere is configured. Build a lab and start getting hands on setting up ESXi. It can be done on old desktops with a free ESXi license.
You need to be able to explain this like you have done it a times because this is the basic role of most VMware jobs. Practice drawing what a basic vSphere configuration looks like. This is a very powerful interview tip so use it to impress the interview panel.
Be prepared because there will always be someone in the interview panel who wants to show off how smart they are so be ready to answer detailed technical questions about vSphere, storage and networking.
This is stuff you should know if you passed the VCP test. If you are good at scripting make sure you let them know about it. Then when they are done share your scripting or coding experience and how it fits into what they are doning. Thank you very much Joe.. I will prepare for it as you guide me.. If you have any sample Map of virtual infrastructure. Could you please send me? So that I can explain with help of map..
When I did a search I found a lot of images of diagrams and whiteboard sessions. You can also look on Youtube.
I wrote a post a while back to help beginners, start here: Udeny Discount. You can also check out my Free eBook. Can you please share Interview questions or guide what to Prepare For.
I need to understand how to clearly and practically explain with example, what must and should run on VMware HA and DRS cluster considering 5. Why do you mainly focus on information that could easily be found on Google instead of things that would actually be useful such as troubleshooting methods.
My preference is making sure I am hiring talent who can design and build a solid vSphere which by the way is not as easy as it sounds. So for me — finding someone with a solid grasp on design and construction is key to avoiding problems later.
First of all I would like to say that your post will be very helpful for my upcoming interviews. I always get frightened to face any interview because of this reasons.
Please help me by providing some probable questions types too. Day to day Ops to keep Windows and Linux servers running.
Which means watching for alerts for memory, cpu and disk space. And it can include patching the OS and updating VMtools. Handling problems that happen when VM disks fill up or a VM runs slow from not enough memory or cpu. Handling tickets to build new VMs, this is still a normal task in places that are not automated yet. Working with storage and networking staff to keep infrastructure from getting oversubscribed.
This is very important! Thank you so much for the precise and to the point answers. I will definitely follow the steps which you suggested. Hi Joe, I am also one of the VmWare Enthusiast, your comments are most useful to all beginners thanks a lot to given above views and suggestions. So any company will hire freshers or not? I have 2. And also it is important to do certification in VMware? Another idea is to build a home lab and start installing vSphere over and over.
You can use old PCs to do this. Sign up for a 2 week trial of vSphere at VMware. Ajeet, the key is to get hands on with ESXi and learn how it works and breaks. Something is always going wrong, usually because it was setup wrong and then someone has to figure out how to fix it.
It was really awesome the way you are responding and sharing knowledge to people. Happy to get know about this page. I appreciate for your efforts and come back to you for any queries from my side.
So requesting you to kindly share me some vShpere automation study URLs. What is promiscuous mode? I mean, the data will be broadcasted. What is the format for iSCSI addressing? IP Address What are the different types of memory management tricks available under ESX? What is vmmemctl? What is resource pool? What are the use of it? A resource pool is a logical abstraction for flexible management of resources. Resource pools can be grouped into hierarchies and used to hierarchically partition available CPU and memory resources.
Ask about how HA works. VMware HA provides high availability for virtual machines by pooling them and the hosts they reside on into a cluster.
Hosts in the cluster are monitored and in the event of a failure, the virtual machines on a failed host are restarted on alternate hosts. Is HA dependent on virtual center Only for Install What is the Maximum Host Failure allowed in a cluster 4 How does HA know to restart a VM from a dropped Host storage lock will be removed from the metadata How Many Fiber Channel targets on Install What is Vmotion ability to move running vm from one host to another What is virtual SMP — when and why should you give a vm multiple vCPUs — part of their answer whould be that best pracrtice is to start with a single vCPU because of you can run into perfomance issues do to CPU scheduling Ask what version of Linux kernel does ESX run if they are truly experienced they should say ESX is not Linux and does not use a Linux kernel — and give them an extra poijnt if they explain that the service console runs a modified version of Red Hat Ent 3 — Vpxa then pass those request to hostd management service on esx server.
When you connect to ESX server directly, you connect to hostd bypass vpxa. You can extend this to a trobleshoot case, where connect to esx see one thing and connect to VC see another. HA issues — because of dns problems, the hosts are unable to communicate together. After releasing the lock its powered on. When was the last time you called VM Support and what was the issue?
Licensing related issues. What was the most performance intensive production app that you supported in VMware and what were the some of the challenges that it posed? In exchange sharepoint demo project, getting lot of VLAN issues. How would you determine that a perf intensive app is a good candidate? Spefically what tools would you use to identify candidates.
Specifically inside those tools what metrics would you use? Please send me the answer if anyone knows about this; I will update the doc.
What is yor philosophy on how much of the data center can be virtualized? If the interviewer wants max virtualization, but the interviewee is not convinced that this is a good idea, this could be a deal breaker Please send me the answer if anyone knows about this; I will update the doc.
Just trying to figure out if the candidate is keeping up with this ever changing virtualization market Please send me the answer if anyone knows about this; I will update the doc.
I say this because networking is such an important part of VMware implementations and on going support.. What are notable files that represent a VM? This is created by the host automatically when powering on a VM and deleted default behavior when powering off a VM.
Swap files can remain and take up space if a host failed prior to shutting down a VM properly. Host Profiles What licensing is required for Host Profiles?
Available with vSphere Enterprise Plus edition. The easiest method is to create clusters that are homogeneous and maintain two different profiles for these two types of clusters. Can Host Profiles work when using the Cisco Nexus v? The Cisco Nexus v switch gives administrators finer-grained control of the networking beyond what Host Profiles can apply. What are host profiles? A set of best practiced configuration rules, which are can be applied to entire cluster or to an individual host.
So that all the hosts in sync with each other, this will avoid vmotion, drs and ha problems. What are the available Storage options for virtual machines? Raw device mappings, VMFS http: What are the differences between Virtual and Physical compatibility modes when mapping the Raw Devices to virtual machines?
You can configure RDM in two ways: Virtual compatibility mode—this mode fully virtualizes the mapped device, which appears to the guest operating system as a virtual disk file on a VMFS volume. Virtual mode provides such benefits of VMFS as advanced file locking for data protection and use of snapshots. Physical compatibility mode—this mode provides access to most hardware characteristics of the mapped device.
VMkernel passes all SCSI commands to the device, with one exception, thereby exposing all the physical characteristics of the underlying hardware. In this mode, the mapping is done as follows, when we create a mapping, the configuration stored in a file and that file is stored with the vm files in datastore. This file points to the raw device and makes it accessible to the vm. What are RDM Limitations? Physical mode RDMs, in particular, have some fairly significant limitations: For example, virtual mode RDMs can be used in virtual-to-virtual cluster across physical hosts.
Note that physical-to-virtual clusters across boxes, though, require physical mode RDMs. While virtual disks will work for the large majority of applications and workloads in a VI environment, the use of RDMs—either virtual mode RDMs or physical mode RDMs—can help eliminate potential compatibility issues or allow applications to run virtualized without any loss of functionality.
The first option is Disconnect. With Disconnect, the user remains logged on. Any programs that the user is running continue to run and no other users except for an Administrator can connect to this desktop.
If an administrator chooses, they may log into the desktop, but will automatically log the user out and force any programs the user was running to end. The second option is Disconnect and Log off. This option allows the user to log off and it allows other users to access this desktop.