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Simplified methods on building construction by max fajardo pdf

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Max Fajardo Simplified Methods on Building Construction - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. FIle. Download Max Fajardo Simplified Methods on Building Construction. SimplifiedMethodson BUILDING CONSTRUCTION MAX 8. soundofheaven.infoR. B.S. Architecture,NationalUniversity;Passedthe.

Project Construction Management. The kind of sheeting and bracing to be used in shoring or under. The spirals shall be protected from distortion due to h. Roughing Up Tools.. Metal' Pile To resist curvature bending and column action for the por- tions not receiving lateral support from the ground when freely standing in air, water or a very liquid mud. Cross Peen Hammer- Is a cross head hammer where one is shaped I ike a wedge used for various striking need in masonry work.

The shifting from English to Metric System needs time for adjustments and revision of most if not all of the technical books and manuals of instructions. The different steel bar manufacturers must be compelled to strictly follow a standard of measurement of steel bars through a more specific order. Guideline must be provided in the manufac 6 ture of standard steel bars for protection of the public from un- scrupulous manufacturers and suppliers.

Wire strand 2. Single wire 3. High strength bar 90 The wire strand are of even wire types where the center wire is enclosed rigidly by hexagonal outer wires with a pitch of 12 to 16 times the nominal diameter of the strand. The diameter of the strand ranges from 1! Prestressing wire ranges from. N - for Billet A- for Axle Rail sign- for rail steel Additional marking for identifying high strength steel bars: Hooks are not effective in adding compression resistance of reinforcement.

Every bar be continued to at least a distance to the effective depth of the beam or 12 bar diameter whichever is larger. Tension bars may be spliced through: Compression bars may be spliced by: Where beam reinforcement are placed in two or more layers, the clear distances between layers must be.

In walls and slabs other than concrete joist construction, the pri ncipal reinforcement shall be spaced not farther apart than three times the wall or slab thickness nor-more than 18 inches or 45cm. The clear distance between pretensioning steel at each end of the member shall be not less than four times the diameter of individual wires nor three the diameter of the 5.

The clear spacing between spirals shall not exceed 3 inches 7. Spiral splices shall be48 b4ar diameter minimum but not less than 12 inches 30 em. Lateral ties shalf be at least no.

For bar bundles the minimum cover shall equal the equivalent of the bundle but should not be more than 2 inches 5 em. Slabs, walls, joists: Wall panels: Minimum cover in tnches em.

Principal reinforcements. Cast against and permanently exposed to earth 3 8. Wall panels, slabs and joists. Reinforcement 16 mm.

The Code specifies that: Not more than two bars shall be bundled in one plane 2. Typical bundle shape are triangular, square or L-shaped pattern. Bars larger than No. Cracks are minimized through the use of deformed steel bars. A larger number of small bars is more effective in mini- mizing crack width than a smaller number of large bars having the same total cross-sectional area.

The ACI building code requirements for reinforced concrete Specifies; 98 1. If No. If bars are to be bent, they shall meet the bending requirements of AS.

TM 3. Bar and rod mats for concrete reinforcement shall be the dipped type conforming with the Specifications for ASTM A Welded deformed wire fabric for concrete reinforcement shall conform to the specification for of ASTM A Welded intersection shall be spaced not farther apart than 40 em in the direction of the principal reinforcement. A Lately the Board of Standard has agreed to standardize the manu- facture of steel bar diameters as follows: Jesus Christ on his remarkable sermon before the multitude of people said: And the rain descend, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon the house: The Greeks t: Marble being abundant in Greece becomes the chief construction materials extensively used in their articulate temples, carvings and statues.

The Romal i Builders, introduced various foundation type to the ce nditions. Wood piles were used. The introduction of the Griltage Footing resolves the problem of foundation weight in the year when it was first introduced.

The advent of Reinforced Concrete in the early part of superceded all these kind of footings due to the ad- vantages it offers in al.. Foundations Foundation. Foundation is fur- ther defined as the substructure wh1ch is usually placed below the surface of the ground that transmits the load of the building to the under-lying soil or rock.

Footing Footing is that portion of the foundation of. In short, footing is the lower portion of the foundation structure. Fomdation Bed -refers to the soil or rock directly beneath the footing. UN Footings are classified into two types, the wall and column footings. Walt footings is a strip of reinforced concrete wider than the wall which distributes the load to the soil.

Column footing on the otherhand, is also classified into the following types: Isolated or Independent footing 2. Combined footing 3. Continuous footing 4. Raft or Mat footing 5. Pile footing or foundation 6. A steel percentage equals to 0.

Square Block Footing b. Square Slope Footing c. Square Stepped Footing. O 8 2 1 8 - 1 1 1 8 - 9 The reinforcement for square footing is usually placed in the direction parallel to both sides spaced uniformly and perpendicular with each other.

Pdf simplified methods on fajardo building construction by max

A square column with a general dimension of 12" x 12" is to support an axial load of , lb. Figure li'" 2. Referring to the Table 6 -1; under soil pressure fs. Since the reinforcement is two-way, another 14 pes.

The footing will then be as follows; It Pt5. To determine the dimension of the concrete footing and the size of the reinforcement Including its spacing. To determine the load that could be carried by a foot- ing of a given dimension and reinforcement.

Solve for its equivalent in Metric System using the following convertion factor: Under this situation, bined footing or strip footing is employed to avoid tncroachment to an property and at the same time satisfy the bearing capacity requirement of the foundation.

Consequently, footing reinforcementS are spaced closely to the center of the column than the outer portion. Rectangular b.

It is either: Inverted Slab Footing b. This type of footing occupies the entire area beneath the structure and carry the wall and the column loads. When a building is too heavy that individual or combined footing would cover about 'h of the building area, the Raft' footing is likely to be economical. The Raft footing is either made of an inverted slab provided with a.

MDUT ,. Piles were Jikewise found near the lake of Lucerne and New Guinea, construction which where built about A. The Campanile of Venice after its destruction have been found oUt to be resting on wood pHes which according to history has been driven os.

Pier- refers to a large cross-sectional dimension, each capable of transmitting the entire load from a single column down to a stable stratum. Type and size 2. Shape as to the cross-section 3. Materials As to the kind of materials: Timber pile 2. Concrete pile 3. As friction pile utilizing its full length. As soil compactor. As end-bearing columns 5. As stabiHzers of banks 6. As better piles 7. As a dolphin 8. As sheeting Unless batter piles are intended to be effective in serving any one of these functions, they should not be used, otherwise dri- ving piles without any purpose will be an exercise in futi.

To resist crushing under vertical load 2. To resist crushing during the process of driving. Timber piles are not susceptible to withstand high stresses due to hard driving that requires a desirable penetration on a highly resistant layer. In driving piles, it is very important to select the right type of hammer and the number of blows to prevent breakage and create damage on the pile head, piles driven by steam hammer at 15, ft.

To resist handling stresses. To resist horizontal and eccentric forces that will cause bending when applied on it. To resist curvature bending and column action for the por- tions not receiving lateral support from the ground when freely standing in air, water or a very liquid mud. Pile Selection In selecting the use and types of piles the following factors are considered: Availability of supply 8.

Carrying capacity 2. Expected life span 9. Proximity of structure 3. Deterioration condition Cost 4. Types of underground 5. Method of placing 6. Length of piles 7. Characteristic of structure and ,loading Economic comparison should be based on the cost of the entire foundation instead on the cost of the pile alone.

Vitruvius in his writing described the Roman builders to have been using timber piles in their foundation work as early as 58 A. It shows that even the early builders during the Roman Empire dispensation have recognized the importance of providing a structure with a strong foundation.

The discovery of cement by the Romans associated by the demand for a massive structures have prompted the early builders to study the nature and behavior of soil in carrying a massive load. It is during this stage that timber piles were introduced in making foundation. With the advent of power equipment used in building construction, pile driving would not be difficult as that of the Romans way of driving piles crudely through manpower.

Length of Pile Min. When the piles is not exactly round, the average mea- surement may be used. The butt diameters for the same length of pile shall be uniform as possible. No strip of inner bark remaining on pile shall be over 2 em. Timber piles are said to be durable when driven below the normal water level, on the otherhand, the life span of timber pile above water!

J level even if treated with creosote under pressure will only last for a duration of about 40 years. Tirriber piles penetrated by salt water are subject to deterioration caused by marine organism called Teredo and limnoria. Wood piles under attack by marine borer maybe terminated within a few years under extreme favorable condition of which no amount of chemical treatment could cure in any manner.

The methods of wood protect ion depends upon the local con- ditions, types of expected economic life of the structure, severity of service, e!

The two methods applied in eliminating or reducing wood attack are: Poisoning the wood by creosote through pressure treatment. Mechanical protection. Untreated wood piles is capable of resisting decay indefinitely if driven below the normal water table. CreosOte treatment protects the outer surface of wood through penetration of the chemical that ranges from 20 to 25 mm. Piles shall retain preservative in at least the amount given in the following table. Driving of pi les involves some considerations which some of them are enumerated as follows: The timber pile to be used shall be free from sharp, short or reverse because crooked piles with sharp bend will only create trouble during t he process of driving.

See t o it that the taper of the pile should be uniform from the butt to t he tip. The butt of the pile should be square or chamfered to fit in the pile cap. The t ip of the pile is either pointed or squared. Pointed t ips sometimes cause the pile to drive out of vertical position that in most cases square tip is preferred. Timber pile shall be driven by the right type of hammer because it cannot resist high stresses due to hard drivinglthat is required to penetrate highly resistant layer of soil.

Simplified Methods on Building Construction

Timber piles could not be driven against a very high soil resistance without damage and are rarely specified to receive driving load in excess of 30 tons kilonewton but usually restricted to 25 tons KN or less. The tip of the timber pile which coul d be easily damaged is protected by t he use of steel shoes, on the otherhand the butt is also provided with an ample protection by the use of cushion block. Pile cushion should be attached at the hammer base in order to reduce the impact stresses and at the same instance pro- long the life span of the hammer.

The hammer i s rat ed based upon the energy per blow where the rated energy is the product of the weight of the ram and the height of the fall less the friction energy loss on the ram guide. Driving dif fers greatly in the manner in which they deliver energy to the anvil or hammer cushion. The hamer cushion are of two different types, the soft and the hard type.

The soft type is sometimes made of wood and asbestos which are very common although there are other types being developed. The hard type cushion contains alternating disks of aluminum and micarta which is considered to be efficient in i ts performance after l15 several use while others which are of low quality such as wood chips or coiled steer cable are rarely specif ied.

The pile cushion elements does not only protect t he top of the pile as well as the hammer from t he high stresses but also deliver significant influence on the wave stresses that is being developed in the process of pile driving such as: It affects the driving characteristics of the pile b. The depth to whi ch it can be driven c.

The load carrying capacity The selection of the type and dimension of cushion block that. To assure a maximum driving force in the pile equal to the maximum capacity of the pile without overstressing the pile. As much as possibl e to transmit the maximum energy of the hammer to the pile. The lack of control and selection. Driving sequence of pil e shall be given attention for it might affect the penetration of the pile into the ground.

The central piles in a group shall not be left until the last has been driyen to a definite depth, otherwise, this might be dangerous to cause damages to th.

Over driving indicates bending of piles, hammer bouncing, cutting of driving plate into the pile and separation of wood along the annual growth rings which causes head brooming. Careless driving procedure such as unusually hard compaction of the cushion, block tilting of the head cap, non axial blows and uneven pile head causes damage to the pile.

The head failure due to impact of driving could be prevented by banding before drivi. Silt and soft mud Sand and Gravel. Cast-in-place 2. Precast piles prestressed a. Uncased piles - eliminate the metal casing or shell which i n- variably reduces the cost.

The methods of construction are as follows: An open end pipe is driven into t he ground, clean it out then f ill the hole with concrete and finally, the pipe is withdrawn.

Heavy drive is dragged into the ground by dropping a ham- mer directly on plug of fresh concrete. The pipe is removed pro- gressively as additional concrete mixture is rammed inside the pipe. Pumping concrete under continous pressure through a hol- low shaft of an auger, the hole is drilled by an auger which i s then pulled out f rom the ground. Consequently concrete is then pumped into the shaft. Pipe piles usually has a diameter of 25 t o 75 em. J J;K,,.

Precast pile reduces tension cracking caused by handling and driving. This type of piles are resistant to deterioration even when used above the normal water table. The presence of high concentration of magnesium or sulphate salts in the water may cause deterioration of the ieinforcement in the piles through cracks, or thin protective c;on- rete covering. Covering will spall-off as rust continues to develop.

S TLES. Deterioration above the ground is caused by weather and air borne destructive elements. Underground deterioration is not common unless water contains destructive alkali, acid or salt.

Deterioration in sea water is caused by mechanical and chemical action 4. Damage due to handling and driving of the concrete pile. Defects in the manufacture of concrete pile. NT The. The first modern steam pile driving machine was invented and introduced by Nasmyth in designed as a drop I hammer for wood piles which was then modified into a handle I single acting hammer.

At present, piles are driven into the ground I by means of a hammer or a vibratory generator. The hammer I t operates between a pair of parallel guide suspended from a standard i lifting crane.

The bottom of the guides connected at the base of 1 the crane boom by means of a horizontal member called spotter. Drop hammer or impact hammer 2. Air or Steam hammer a. Single acting hammer b. Double acti ng hammer 3. Differential acting hammer 4.

Diesel hammer Drop Hammer - usually falling on the fresh concrete as in the installation of franki pile Figure Air or su-n Hammer - operates by litting.

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If the fall is due to gravity alone the hammer is classified as Single Acting. If air or steam pressure supports the downward fall, the ham- mer is said to be DoW,Ie Acting or differential depending upon t he detail of the construction. Open ended b. The weight of the ram including its height of' fall plus other informations regarding the different types of drivng equipment are shown on Table Ol' r.

Load in tons 25 - The effect of too close pile spacing are: Creation of large horizontal pressures in driving particularly on a relatively uncompressible underground layer which sometimes cause damage to t he piles being.

The carrying capacity of the soil where the group of piles acts may be less than the whole sum of the fractional capacities of the soil that encloses the individual piles if too closely spaced to each other. The effect of wider spacing of piles:. Wider spacing has the tendency of readily permit- ting the latter piles in group to penetrate the same depth of the first pile which in effect gives uniform bearing and settle- ment. Wider spacing of piles reduce heaving and tension damage including the possibility of crushing the outer surface of the piles.

The value of the group may be increased and the piles serves efficiently if spacing is increased. Piles intended to serve a marine structure which are exposed to receive wave action should be spaced at a minimum of 5 times its diameter apart to 'reduce countercurrent, whirlpool and abrasion. Spudding is also applied by raising and lowering the piles with heavy precast piles every after little driving progress.

There are several methods applied in placing piles such as; 1. By driving 7. Washing O! Jetting 8. Sand pumping 3. Boring 9. Blowing out 4. Ramming Coring 5. Jacking Drilling 6. Pulling Down Explosive ,: Deflec- tion of piles during the process of driving maybe brought about by the following: In soft clay, piles tend to bend toward previously installed close-by piles due to the soil softening from remoulding during the driving.

Bowing of the jet pipe caused by the weight of the hose that causes piles in jetting group to penetrate out of plumb. The lower portion of a batter piles sometimes tend to sag and cau.

Soil bearing capacity failure including partial failure or creep. Failure or deflection of the foundation structure. Shear distortion of the soil 4. Compression of the soil. Subsidence due to mines or caves beneath the surface 2. Subsidence due to underground erosion 3.

Landslide and creep of the underground 4. Vibration and shock of loose cohesionless soils 5. Lowering of the water table 6. Soil shrinkage by dessication or exhaustion or increase of soli mixture 7. Lack of lateral support in excavations 8. Heave or swell - slow movement due to horizontal dis- placement of soil vein or stratum 9. The failure of the pile foundation may result from any of the following causes: Lack of adequate boring 2. Inaccurate soil classification 3.

Inadequate driving formula wrong data 5. Improper size of hammer cause insufficient penetration, too light or damaged if too heavy 6. Misinterpretation of load 7.

Max Fajardo Simplified Methods on Building Construction - soundofheaven.info

Damaged of encased piles 8. Buckling of piles 9. Breaking of piles Vibration that cause'lateral or vertical movement Flowing strata caused by adjacent excavation or bank sloughing Tension failure of concrete pile for lack of reinforcement Eccentricity due to bowing or falling out of plumb Decay due to lower ground water level Insect and marine borer attack and corrosion Disintegration of concrete due to poor quality of concrete or reactive aggregate Collapse of the thin shell of the piles Overweight due to earthfill.

Early repair such as encasement or replacement 2. Removal of partial load 3. With the advent of reinforced concrete at the early part of , grillage footing became obsolete.

Almost all constructions are now dominated by the use of the new materials.

Pdf by max simplified on fajardo methods building construction

The Engineer who has to make the design must have a reasonably accurate conception of the physical pro-- perties and arrangement of the underlaying soil. The most suitable method under a wide variety of soil conditions is by drilling a hole into the ground and extracting samples for identification or testing.

The investigation of the underlaying materials as to its consistency or relative density of the deposit could be made by penetration test or other methods which do not require sampling. The two varieties of hand auger commonly used for soil investigations are the helical auger and the I wan or post hole auger.

A portable power driven helical augers are available from 8 to 30 em. Water is forced down through the wash pipe by means of a high velocity pump to rinse the fragments of soil through the annular space between the tube and the wash pipe.

This method is similar to the process of installing an underground water pump where the pipe is cleaned by wash pipe and water. Auger with 6 or 8 em. The rotary boring dia- meter ranges from 5 em. Static Penetration test is preferred for cohesive soil while Dynamic penetration test is good for very hard deposits. Both give satisfactory result for cohesionless soil. Standard penetration test is the most widely used in the United States; it is done by dropping a 60 kg. Another method of soil testing by means of a cone penetrometer is by driving a drop hammer into the ground with constant height of fall, the number of blows per 30 em.

The vane is pushed into the soil and then twisted until the soil is ruptured in a cylindrical form, shear strength is com- puted from the maximum moment needed to rapture the soil and the dimension of the soil cylinder. To determine the safe bearing capacity of the soil, It maybe tested by loading an area not less than. Such load shall be sustained by the soil until no a jdltional settlement takes place for a period of not less than 48 hours in order that such desired bearing.

Examination of sub-soil conditions may be required when deemed necessary. Dug to the dep1 r of soi'l to be tested usually the proposed footing level. The pit width should be at least 5 times the plate width. The square plate with a general d.

Place the load on top of the plate by a platform loaded with concrete blocks, cement or jacking with a calibrated hydra- ulic jack against a beam properly anchored down the earth. Measure the settlement by the level instrument or by a micrometer dial gage mounted on a support independent of the loading system. The load test result express only the short term loading of the model and not necessarily the long term loading of a full sized footing.

Extrapolation is necessary in order to be able to use the data for design. The local Building Code authorities should be consulted of the allowable bearing capacities to be adopted in design. In the absence of such information, boring or load test is necessary. Treated lumber is also used as wooden post in the absence of hardwood lumber. After dressing the wood post, the bottom portion is evenly cut with the atd of the steel square. A charcoal or chalk mark is established along the face length of the post connecting the opposite end.

This marking will serve as the reference line for checking its vertical position. From the bottom of the post, indicate -the distance where the girder and girts will be attached and make the necessary dap before its erection.

The post could be erected manually with the aid of 2 x 3 lumber braces or by the use of rope and pulley anchored on a jump-pole. Check the vertical position of the post on two sides by the aid of plumb-bob. With the use of boring tools. OOm 5. Logs or tree trunk supportales may be utilized as post in its indigenous traditional type of construction, provided, that they are of the sizes and spacing capable to sustain vertical loading equivalent to the loading capacity of the posts and spacing as pro- vided for on Table Bent post could be corrected in the process of construction, but no att6mpt should be made to correct the bent unless proper bracing and adequate support be made first, otherwise, the found- ation pedestal might break-up during the operation.

The usual failure of this nature is the crushing of the pedestal brought about by the twisting of the wrought iron post strap. Reinforced concrete column appears to be cheaper and durable. Commercial lumber nowadays are taken from young trees thereby producing inferior quality of lumber. Hardwood is scarce and could hardly be found in big lumber or sawmills.

Wooden post is susceptible to decay brought about by moisture insect, worms, termites and the like. Columns are classified according to the types of reinforcement used: Tied Column 2.

Spiral Column 3. Composite Column 4. Combined Column 5. Lally Column! The vertical. The spacing of the ties shall not exceed 16 longitudinal bar diameter, 48 tie bar diameter or the least dimension of the column". Likewise, 12 mm steel bar shall be used as lateral ties for column with longitudinal reinforc'3ment having a diameter from 36 to 57 mm including those longitudinal bun- dled bars. Should not be more than 16 times the diameter of the longitudinal or main reinforcing bar.

Should not be more than 48 times the diameter of the lateral ties.

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Not more than the shortest dimension side of the column. To find the spacing of lateral ties required for a tied column, the following illustration is presented: Determine the spacing of the lateral ties for a tied column as shown on Figure 8 - 3. The Code further states: Find the. Solve for the minimum area of the vertical re- inforcement. Convert this area to the size and number of steel bars by the aid of Table 5 -I.

Area of 4 pes No. Table shows that: English 10 pes No. From the result of the above illustration, it appears that the minimum steel bars that could be placed in a 25 x 30 em. Likewise, the maximum reinforcing bars that could be placed therein are ei'ther 10 pes 28 mm or 8 pes 32 mm diameter.

The above example shows how to determine the least and the most number of bars that could be placed in a tied column. Bundled Bars - Difficul ties had been encountered in placing concrete inside the forms congested with steel bars.

A col umn that is heavily loaded with reinforcement has this serious problem when large number of steel bars are positioned and held individual- ly by lateral t ies. Statisticelly, most of the technocrats and laymen coosumers have inadequate knowledge of how to dJstlnguish the difference in thickness of G. This is a matter of interest that one should kndW in buying G. Be it accidentally or Intentionally done, it is to the disadvantage of the buyer In terms of cost and quality of the materials.

The only way by which one could be sure of the right quaHty required is by 'weight measure of the sheets which is presented in the following Table. It would be logical to pay higher and obtain the right gauge than pay lower without knowing that a th inner and poorer quality. Corrupted G. Figure 1 Among the metal roofing enumerated, galvanized iron sheet is the most popular and commonly specified considering the advan- tages that it offers to the builders and homeowners.

The standard commercial size width is 32". Longer spans are also available through special order and arrangement. Corrugated G. The popularity of galvanized roofing is brought about by the ad- vantages it offers such as cost.

Plain G. Sheets are fastened to the purlins either by: Rivetting 2. Nailing Riveting: The G. In the process of the final riveting, two tinsmiths do the job, one underneath the roof and the other on top of the roof who does the punching setting in the lead washers on the rivets followed by the G. The straps are then nailed on the purl ins for final anchorage of the roofing sheets. Figure Nailing - Fastening of G. Rigidity - The entire roofing acts as one solid covering on top the roof frame with all parts connected by rivets and washers.

Expensive - due to the various accessories involved aside from the high cost of labor 2. Difficulty of repair or replacement of defective parts which include dismantling of the ceiling underneath to give access to the tinsmithing activities. Statistically, ' roof damage caused by typhoon are mostly of the rivetted types. Any portion of the roof tha. Other parts of the roof structure are affected that usually results to a total destruction of the entire roof including the roof framework.

Economical because only nail and washers are involved. Roofing sheets blown up by wind will not be totally damaged and could be returned to its original position immediately after the calamity.

DisadvantageS -: Loose nalls allow roof-play and movement which usually invite water to penetrate into the holes. This usually happens if nails missed the purlins and not corrected at once.

Nails or Rivets shall be spaced at every other corruga- tion along the gutter line, end lapping joints, ridge, hip and valley rolls. Other's at every after two corrugations.

Nails shall be driven enough to hold the sheet firm to the purlins. Always provide with string along the gutter Iine where to start th e laying of roofing sheets to avoid misallignment of corrugation of the. Figure 12 Lapping: End Lappmg which ranges from 20 em to 30 em de- pending upon the slope of the roof and the number of sheet in a longitudinal row.

As previously mentioned, the side lapping is also affected by the above factors but the plan and specifi- cations shall govern. Different menufacturers of corrugated G. It is therefore suggested that In specifying or buying roofing sheets always specify one brand throughout to avoid misalignment of corrugations and unfitted end joints of the roof.

Quantity may vary a.

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Gutter 6. Anchor Strap 2. Flashing 7. Downspout 8. Roofing 3. Ridge rolf 9. Water Proofing-sheating 4. Hip Roll 5.

Valley Roll Roof Gutter: Roof gutter using galvanized sheet usually specify gauge No. Gutter is either concealed or exposed type In various forms and designs.

Max Fajardo Simplified Methods on Building Construction

It runs level in appearance but should be sloped at 5 mm per meter run for effective drainage. Flashing makes intersections and other exposed parts of the house watertight. It provides a smooth boarder line giving beauty to the structure considering the unlimited variety of designs. Ridge and hip rolls are unlikely to leak because of the slope that water tends to slide down. Because of its prominency in the structure, it is important to have it well done.

Valley Roll It is always concealed underneath between the intersecting angles of the roof. The design is limited to a semi-circular. This portion of the roof needs careful attentcon as the gutter to avoid overflow or leak of water that create trouble and embarassment. Figure 7 Downspout: Downspout conveys the water from the gutter down to the storm drain. Spout is either circular, square or rectangular cross section or othl:!

The size and location of the downspout is sometimes o matter of hit and miss discretion of the builder. The most common size of G. For residential work allow 6 square centimeters downspout for every 10 square meter roof area with a minimun spacing of 6 meters apart and a maximum distance of 15 meters. Comments and Observation: In the field of actual construction work, it will be noted that after the roof tinsmithing job, there are so many wastes of scrap G.

These are the result of indiscriminate and careless cutting of plain G. These waste could have been avoided if the cutting process were done from the largest to the smallest piece of the accessories. The procedures and manner of cutting G. Prepare and cut into actuat sizes the gutter, hip valley and ridge roll in accordance with the plan including the number of pieces needed.

Install them to their positions. Layout the corrugated roof and make the necessary diagonal cutting if there is any along the hip and valley roll. Prepare and cut the flashing into 1ctual sizes and have it moulded to its design form. Include in this preparation the cut for the proposed downspout. All the excesses from the above cuttingshal l be made into small straps for riveting. Should it be inadequate, additional cutting could be made out from the stock of plain G.

This will avoid excess or scrap galvanized sheet after the tinsmithing job. Copper bearing steel Gauge 24 Gauge 2. Tin Tierne Plate Gauge 4. Titanium Copper Gauge 26 5. Standing Seam - The minimum slope should be 15 em.

A good pitch of the roof is advisable to prevent accumulation of water and dirt in shallow puddles. Flat Seam: The roofing sheets are fastened to the sheating board by cleats providing 3 pieces for every sheet. Two pieces along the larger side and one on the shorter side. Fasten two pieces of 2. The cross beams are locked together and soaked well with solder.

The cleats are then locked into the seam and fastened to the roof with nails to each cleats. The tin sheets are laid on a tongue and groove sheating or underface board, well seasoned. A new tin sheet should not be laid over otd tin sheet, rotten shingles or tar roof. The sheets of this type of roofing are assembled together in long length at the top. The cross seams are locked together and are well-soldered. The sheets are laid and fastened with cleats spaced at 30 em apart.

One edge of the sheet is turned-up to 3 em at right angle and the cleats are installed. The adjoining edge of the next coarse is turned up 4 em and locked together: Solder should sweat into all seams and joints.

Roof sheets should be painted underneath before it is laid on the roof sheating board. After laying, clean the surface then apply. The second coat may be applied after two weeks followed by a third coat after one year.

Figure Batten Roofing: Is made of plain sheets laid on a tongue and groove board, well- seasoned, thoroughly over-lap and j oint to each other. Figure 12 - 10 The different types of clay tile roofings art: Span ish Type 2. Straight Barrel Mission Type 3. Roman Type 4. Greek Type 5.

English lnterloc. AHa oa.. If'b 0. C20 tftl'ft ,.. To those who have tried to make one have found it to be an art in itself. Many have tried but were frustrated, some made it successful, and others won't dare being afraid of the circumstances involved in case of error.

The Steel Square play s a major role in sta irway framing, know its functions and a satisfactory result will be obtained. Beluster - A small post supporting the handrail or a coping. Bal,ustnde- A series or row of balusters joined by a handrail Bearen -or coping as the parapet of a balcony. Close String- A staircase without open newel in a dog stairs. Cockel Stair- Is a term given to 'a winding staircase. Circular Stair - A staircase with steps wif"!

Curve out- A concave curve on the face of a front string. Measurementof Force.. Themechanicaladvantages,accuracy,speed andefficiencyderivedfromtheuseof therighttool s andequip-ment,haspromptedmantocontinuouslysearchfortherefine-mentofoldtoolsasidefromtheinventionandintroduction of newonesthatwouldprovidegreater efficiency andrefinement of work.

Comparatively, it could beseenfrom the structures andworks ,ofpastbuilders,thequality. Thesecouldbemainlyattributedtothekind oftoolsandorpowertoolsthatarebeingusedbythepresent contemporarybuilders Experiencedbuilderagrees,thattheefficiencyofthework inbuildingconstructioncouldbeaugmentedby25percentor morewiththeuseoftherightkindoftoolsasidefromtheim-proved quality of the work performed.

Byhiringanexperiencedworkerwhohasacompletesetof tools howeverhighhisdemandforpayismore advantageous and cheaperthanhiring abeginnerwithalowerratebutwithoutthe. Theefficiencyandqualityoftheworkparticularlyinbuild-ing construction depends upon three factors: Avai labi I ity andsufficiency of materials. Experienceandskilloftheworkersintheirrespective field. Completesetoftoolsandequipmentofgoodquality andstandard make.

Thedifferentkindsofconstructiontoolsmaybeclassified according to the different kinds of trade involved: Carpentry Tools 4. Painters Tools 2. Masonry Tools 5. Plumbing Tools 3. Tinsmithing Tools 6. Measuring Tools7. Sharp-edgedCutting Tools 2. Marking Tools8. SmoothFacingTools 3. Testing and Guiding Tools9. Boring orDrilling Tools 4. Fastening Tools Holding Tools 5.

RoughFacing Tools Sharpening Tools 6. Toothed Cutting Tools Theforerunnerinmaking thesekindsofwarrantedtoolsaretheStanleyandtheLufki ns Rule Co. Theincreasingpopularityandworldwideacceptanceofthe Metricmeasurehaspromptedthesecompaniesandothersto adoptandincorporatethemeterandcentimeterrulesinallthe measuringtoolsthattheyaremanufacturing. Therecentmeasu-ri ngtoolsappeartocontaintheinchesononeedgeandthe centimetersontheoppositesideofeitherthezig-zagorpush pull tape. However,al-thoughtheEnglishmeasuringtoolsarealreadyobsolete,they arestillpresentedinthistopicforhistoricalbackground.

How thepresenttoolsdevelopedthecorrelat ionbetweentheEnglish andtheMetr icmeasure,their equivalentvalues,how theyserved thepastgeneration andhowtheyusedtheinstrumen-tswhich couldbeofhelptotheeducationalbackgroundandadvance-ment of the present crop of builders. Thedi fferentkind,sofmeasuringtoolsthatarebeingused in building construction otherwise known as"Rules" are; 2 1.

Thetwo foot four f olding rule 2. The ExtensionRule 3. Zig-zagRule 4. Push-Pull tape rule 5. Slide Caliper rule 6. Marking Gauges Thetwo foot four folding rule- is generally usedin measuring shortdistances.

Itisusuallymadeupoffourfolds connected by threehingesspacedat6inc;hesor15emapartwhichcouldbe folded-up. Figure 1- 2 Zig-zagrule- Isavailabein 4ft. Therearethree types of joints available: Concealed 2. Riveted 3.