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- 4th Australian and New Zealand edition. [Matching item] Psychology / Lorelle Burton ; Drew Westen ; Robin M Kowalski. [Matching item] Psychology: Australian and New Zealand edition / Drew Westen, Lorelle Burton, Robin Kowalski. All(psychological(processes(occur(through(the(interaction(of(cells(in(the( Philosophical(roots(of(Psychology:(is(human(action(the(product(of(free(will. Lorelle Burton; Drew Westen; Robin M Kowalski. Milton, Australia: John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd, Psychology -- Australia -- Textbooks.
Kowalski " ;. Montero, M. View all subjects. It will not be possible to explore all of this here, but some key dimensions of these questions can be identified, perhaps to identify some areas for more systematic investigation. All rights reserved. As a Clinical Psychologist, the epistemological basis of my work was enriched by my doctoral degree at the University of East London. The principal objective of the work of the psychologist in all these programmes is directed towards the promotion of healthy life styles and to avoid or reduce risk factors, to diagnose early and intervene early, to treat and minimise the impact of illness.
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The mother and child programme offers an example of how the psychologist works. Psychologists provide educative groups for pregnant mothers before, during and after the pregnancy and also provide education about the new born, carrying out promotional and preventive interventions. Moreover they attend to those pregnant mothers at high obstetric risk in order to help them cope with their health problems and make early diagnoses of delay in psychological development.
They also attend to the disorders of each age group, tailoring psychotherapy as required, diagnosing and attending to learning difficulties and providing information and advice to families that have a child with chronic illness, facilitating rehabilitation where needed. The principal objective of the work of the psychologist in all these programmes is directed towards the promotion of healthy life styles and to avoid or reduce risk factors, to diagnose early and intervene early, to treat and minimise the impact of illness.
Here it is evident that the health psychologist must work like a clinical psychologist. This model of working is not without problems but we constantly try to perfect it to achieve the best professional intervention and consequently a better quality of life and wellbeing for our population.
To be able to adequately deal with cases where gender violence against women is manifested in the marital relationship, the clinical psychologist must have sufficient knowledge about the phenomenon to allow them to identify it, to know its characteristics and to manage it.
Given that we live in a patriarchal world where relationships between men and women imply a subordinate role for the latter and this is assumed as natural, gender violence can often escape recognition even by professionals; but on many occasions it is the cause of female distress due to conflicts between what is assigned and what is assumed. Physical and sexual violence are relatively easily recognised due to their manifestations and harmfulness.
However, psychological violence, always implicit in the former, has various expressions not easily identified as such, and this can cause psychological problems of various degrees of severity. Psychologists are faced with different factors that undermine the appropriate training to identify the phenomena of gender violence. Firstly, despite the reality that gender imposes on every human being even from before birth, during the various cycles of primary, secondary and pre-university teaching, there is little emphasis on educationally imparting knowledges about this theme that would allow for any critical analysis of it.
This shows us that pre-university training does not bring with it the knowledge that would permit a critical vision of gendered reality. During their university career, there is no planning that allows the adequate training of psychologists in these topics; in the curriculum design for our discipline there is no reference to the theme of gender. In whichever field where the psychologist or any professional of social sciences perform their work, it is necessary a consciousness of gender issues in the professional, but it is specifically in clinical practice that it has particular value.
Psychotherapeutic intervention can function as a form of social control and taking into account that therapy is not an objective and impartial scientific method, but an institution that reflects the cultural values where it is conceived and practised -and we live in a patriarchal culture- the model of mental health is influenced consciously and unconsciously by that which therapists desire for their clients based on the same parameters.
If the psychologist achieves the redefinition of gender related phenomena they would be able to make visible much of the problem situations, which are currently incomprehensible to those suffering them, and they could reorient the management of the same.
This would also influence the control of the counter-transference processes, since it highlights that the responses of the therapist will be marked by important unresolved emotional conflicts resulting from a lack of gender consciousness. Providing information and raising awareness about the problem of gender violence against women has been introduced as a priority in the policies that guide the work of the WHO, because of the importance of making known the impact it can have on the various health programmes; as it is considered to be one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality.
The health professional, and above all the psychologist, has a privileged position for identifying and supporting women victims of violence.
The phenomenon is complex and the solution of the problem situations involves professionals from various sectors and their training is necessary so that this problem does not continue to pass by them unnoticed. As a Clinical Psychologist, the epistemological basis of my work was enriched by my doctoral degree at the University of East London.
For over seven years, I practiced within NHS Services for Older Adults, although I disagreed with much of what was going on in the contexts in which I worked; I thought it was important to remain within them to offer an alternative voice to dominant medicalised discourses and a choice for people on healing journeys. However, the toxicity of these environments increased with internal and local changes, proliferating guidelines and constraints imposed at government level e.
Fortunately, I was offered the opportunity to extend my thinking and praxis in higher education, with like-minded colleagues in the same course I trained. Personally, there are two key things I should point out, albeit briefly.
Whilst the service had room for improvement, the integral care provided was light-years ahead of services in this country —I say this even from the power position of a professional, not a user, in the UK. Two, living in Cuba, being married to a revolutionary Cuban artist, and Cubans thinking of me as one of their compatriots although I have Spanish nationality , has afforded me a rich lived experience of the multiple, often apparently contradicting, realities of Cuba.
For me the importance of contextualisation in the meaning-making processes is always clear, regardless of more or less obvious similarities. The representations of our Cuban colleagues make explicit aspects of their particular frames of reference for consideration in getting closer understandings of psychology in Cuba and, at a macro level, of Cuba.
The social, political, environmental, and scientific and all aspects of being are recognised as interlinked and Roberto Corral makes resulting benefits and challenges transparent, whilst western psychologists tend to neglect if not obscure these links.
For I propose that in Cuba there may be equivalent concepts and psychologisation processes, yet the very meanings of both are radically different by virtue of the radically different frames of reference at work. Consequently, Cubans hold very different overstandings I think altitude allows a broad, overarching, more complete look of what we — whether I like it or not I too am influenced by the capitalist worldview— may think essential concepts and notions.
Conversely, when Cubans think of the individual, they do not separate the personal from the collective, and this can be observed at all levels, from everyday social interactions to service provision. As highlighted earlier by Neysa Dominguez, revolutionary programmes of attention —revolutionary both in the sense of being part of the larger project of the Revolution since , and in the sense of being radical practice still today— including psychological services, centre on health promotion and are both integral multidisciplinary and multi- level.
Some of the implications of this conceptualisation in relation to theoretical approaches and clinical practice have been touched on by Roberto Corral, Neysa Dominguez and Aida Torralbas but are worth exploring further regarding possible developments in our particular local and wider contexts. The expansion beyond the discipline of psychology to theorise these complex issues is not only a way to enrich psychology via interdisciplinary knowledge transfer but also a demonstration of freedom and humbleness in the profession.
Further, this is for me yet another instance representing the embodiment of the unity of individual-collective that we only exist in-relation , allowing integrated contextualised knowledges, which is largely evident in the psychological sophistication of the Cuban people; even my 9-year-old Cuban stepson visiting London did at a glance question the lack of solidarity his word in our society!
Mark Burton points out the evolution of psychology in Cuba since the Revolution tell us about Cuba as a society but also about psychology both as discipline and as possibility sic. For psychologists like Mark Burton and I, and many others in the UK who engage in critical thinking e. Parker, , future interchanges in both directions, including trainees having access to overseas placements, can really be exceptional opportunities to advance developments towards the theorisation and practice of preferred possibilities for the profession.
References AI-Issa, I. New York: Plenum Press. Foucault Un dialogo sobre el poder y otras conversaciones.
Alianza Editorial. Freire, P. Gergen, K. American Psychologist, 40 3 , Parker, I. Critical Links, Radical Psychology: A Journal of Psychology, Politics and Radicalism, 1, La Habana: Casa Editora Abril. Roca, M. Su significacion para la salud humana.
Felix Varela. Sentmanat, A. Smail, D. White, M. Mark Burton Manchester Metropolitan University I am concerned here to look at psychology in Cuba from the perspective of a dissident Western psychologist. Psychology owes its dominant models to the North American university, itself serving business interests. As Danziger Danziger, has shown, North American psychology offered a generalised model of the human, free from social context that purported to enable the prediction and control of human behaviour.
Moreover individualism provided the ideological resources for psychology and its concepts. This individualism that suffused psychology was rooted in the dominant capitalist ideology of the individual who enters into contracts with other individuals in a market system. The current domination of decontextualised cognitive behaviour therapy in clinical psychology typifies the problems of a discipline inextricably linked to the capitalist world view.
I want to argue that the experience of psychology in Cuba since tells us something about Cuba as a society and about psychology both as discipline and as possibility. It is a comparison of the similarities and differences between psychology in socialist Cuba and the capitalist world that can tell us about the nature of Cuba and its revolution and about the nature of psychology in its social context — the extent to which a different psychology could be constructed, and also about how psychology in the capitalist countries may be deformed by that system.
Since it would be unreasonable to expect the Cuban system to be a perfect socialist paradigm, the experience of psychology in Cuba also tells us something about the achievements and limitations of that social experiment.
It will not be possible to explore all of this here, but some key dimensions of these questions can be identified, perhaps to identify some areas for more systematic investigation.
Cuban psychology as previous speakers have affirmed has always been eclectic, studying psychology from various sources and using whatever is useful. Even when the soviet influence was at its height, it.. On the contrary, it represented a period of fertile polemic, an important antecedent in the maturation of the different tendencies that characterise Cuban psychology today. The situation of Cuban psychology is inevitably different. To illustrate, from my own experience, I took part in a Cuban symposium on developmental disability.
While my paper was in the tradition of critical social policy and ideology critique see Burton, , the Cuban contributors spoke on the use of orthodox psychometric tests in the description of disabling conditions — we did not find much by way of points of contact! Cuban psychologists have asked for our help in acquiring such tests. These are tools that the Western psychologists most sympathetic to Cuba tend to be suspicious of, with their origins in the categorization and exclusion of disabled persons.
Yet, when used in the Cuban context, it could be argued that such orthodox psychological techniques have a different meaning, a different social function or as Maria Castro terms it, a different frame of meaning.
That is not so different from the best practice here, where accurate understanding of where a person is starting from, what they find difficult, is essential for the maximization of opportunity, of inclusion and support as a citizen.
However, given the tendency in Cuba for special needs to be met in special places, this is by no means certain. So we could see the use of orthodox psychological tools not as the strange use of incompatible, ideology laden technology, but the flexible and creative selection of appropriate tools from diverse conditions — bricolage. Perhaps a little of both things is actually going on.
In recent writing on the problem of individualism in dominant traditions of psychology I proposed a counterfactual mind experiment. What would it be like? It is perhaps suggestive that the space for Cuban psychology appears to have expanded during first the rectification programme of the s and then the difficult conditions of the special period de la Torre, This both bounds the scope of Cuban psychology and defines the discipline.
Our Cuban colleagues refer to the dimension of psychological sophistication of a person or people: In a similar way, Cuban psychological practice, societally situated as it is, does indicate that another psychology is possible, just as another world is possible. References Agger, I. Trauma and Healing under State Terrorism. Bernal, G. Hogan Eds. University of Nebraska Press.