NEWS REPORTING AND WRITING STORYTELLING Stories don't exist. They happen. A story is an event, not an object. It exists in time, not space. Writing Style Differences in Newspaper, Radio, and Television News. 2 As he notes in his report, many of the professors and teaching assistants charged. This books (Melvin Mencher s News Reporting and Writing [PDF]) Made by Melvin Mencher About Books Shows students the fundamentals of.
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Some of you are probably thinking of the kind of journalism you want to be doing and the best place to launch your career. Fortunately, the field. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . reporting news, it also includes the process of editing and presenting the news A piece of writing in a newspaper or magazine by a person to give his point of.
Macdougall, C. Hostinger around the world A world class web hosting platform. VVIP reporter is supposed to be on call duty round the clock as he is required to be on assignments on short notice. He should frequently visit the business pages of web and internet. He must establish personal contact with all officials from the top to bottom working in various capacities.
These ministries are responsible for regulating the fiscal policy. All these ministries are responsible to safeguard the internal and external defense of the country. If reporter gets some classified secrets. In Economic Ministry the major ministries are Finance. Economic Ministry deals with the financial and economic maters of the country.
This will help him in seeking guidelines on technical points. Reporter must be aware of their functions. Economic Affairs. The reporters should know the importance of NFC Awards. The reporter. Foreign Affairs and Information ministries. These sensitive ministries are the custodian of the secret.
He must be aware of the global trade scenario and its effect on the local trade. Pakistan Television. The reporter should take care of sensitivities while reporting the activities of various religious groups. This Ministry is responsible for the image building of the Government and to project the achievements of Government. Reporter may use these sources to get the news well in time. All intelligence agencies and police services function under its command.
Radio Pakistan. The reporter has to establish the contacts in these ministries. Environment ministry. He must establish personal contact with all officials from the top to bottom working in various capacities. Human rights. He must have a special relationship with the focal person for media in every ministry.
Education ministry. Health ministries. He should try to establish personal relation with the minister so that he can get first hand information to file an exclusive story or breaking news. Agriculture ministry. He should know the hyrarical structure of these ministries.
The only thing which is eternal is the interest of the nation. NATTO The diplomatic reporter must establish contacts with them.
NGOs also provide useful information to Diplomatic Reporters. Media build or distort the perceptions. Only a person who is well versed with the financial and business climate of the country can do this assignment. He should frequently visit the business pages of web and internet.
The causes and the potential solutions for the problems confronting the business community. During this period. Local sports — Kabaddi and Wrestling etc. Sports also brought a good amount of advertisements.
World Olympics. Courts are one of the very important sources of news.
The decisions of court are often breaking news or they have a larger implication on policy metters of the state. The major courts are: Supreme Court II. High Courts III. The functioning of court, its procedure proceedings. The importance of Bar Council. The problems faced by lawyer community and the clients.
He should also read and understand the constitution. Election commission is also one of the important sources of news. Election commission is a constitutional body and is responsible for holding the general elections in the country. Reporter must know about the structure and functioning of election commission. His tenure is fixed in the constitution. A person having a Supreme Court Judge stature can hold this position.
A common reporter can never be a good war reporter if he does not have the experience of working in pressure and in stress environment. In modern media scene, the war reporting has got importance due to development of technology and live reporting. Show biz is also one of the popular forms of beat reporting. Show biz is the major source of deriving the entertainment news.
Conflict reporting is considered to be the most dangerous form of journalism. Army or Law Enforcing Agencies seizes control over land or situation while media helps consolidating it. In war zone or in mob rallies attack or violence comes from unexpected directions and reporter should be vigilant to take safety measures. Before modern media, history of the war was returned after the end of conflict. He did not participated in the event but he recorded the accounts of various Military General and produced them in book form.
Among recent war, the Kosovo war received a great deal of coverage as did the Gulf war. Instant and live reporting is possible due to satellite uplink and speedy communication. He has to judge what type of facts he has to take to balance the story.
He will get exclusive news stories and would be able to get many other humanitarian aspects to report. The working in war zone is a challenging job. A person who has no experience to work in pressure. For this purpose a war reporter has to hire a fixer. Solo reporting venture in conflict zone is not advisable. Defense Department officials in He should be on the regular pay roll of those organizations. Radio or a Newspaper.
For safety measures the journalists should be careful while filming because camera some time appears as a weapon. Electronic or Web. It requires months of research.
He is a person who is supposed to be alert all the time and to sniff the wrong doings. Never ignore them. He should have the quality to sniff and to start initial investigation. Following acts would be helpful in getting facts: Stroll through an unfamiliar neighborhood. Talk the people you meet there. He must study a lot on the subject. Keep close contact with family. Bosses and co-workers. If you consult the librarian. If you violate the law you may have to face the consequences. These could be very helpful in taking clues and lead to further proceed on the issue.
If you have some technical information.
Every person has an agenda. They are trained to track information. Do not get caught off because some one seems sympathetic. Investigate the truth of every bit of information you get. Accuracy of facts has a prime importance.
Check the law in your area related to journalism. Always report the facts by checking credibility. It is a professional reference to him. It should be done in a tightening circle. This situation requires special care and security measures.
When an investigative report published in the print media or aired on electronic media. It enhances the capacity of the media to play a watchdog role. Under Cover Reporting requires special care. He has to use strong thread throughout the story. Under Cover Reporting is one of the important method. Merely for getting the information — Never encourage people to break the law merely to get the story.
By doing investigative reporting an individual do a National Service. He may get pride of performance award. Under cover is a deceptive practice. In result of investigative reporting. Triple Check. Deformation check. Even sometime he might face indictment and conviction as well. He may have to pay the fines.
Privilege motion. Point of order. Question hour. You should be well versed on the following if you are interested to become a parliamentary reporter: Parliament reporting is a sensitive assignment. Deputy Chairman of the Senate?
Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly and Chairman. Only experienced and a person who has the nose for parliament courage can do this job. The Committees of Parliament are important source of News. He will find exclusive material to report. A Reporter has to take care of certain points if he would like to be a successful reporter. Being a responsible newsman. How to make standard parliamentary news.
He can seek help by applying the following method. To be a good TV reporter you have to disciplined and must have the ability to organize the assignment. He should have story telling ability. They do not come to the news. The news comes to them. Correct while reporting. A good TV reporter must have the following the capabilities. It is an efficient and easy way to prepare a news program or news show.
Interviewer has to focus on one central theme of interest. A good interview technique requires practice so do not expect to master immediately. He must plan a strategy. Remember that it is your right to ask questions but it is also the right of the other person to refuse to answer.
Prepare questions in advance on the subject of interviews. A story can fail if the reporter asks the wrong questions or not enough questions. He must develop research habits. In interview the reporter has a control over the news gathering situation. If the reporter asks right questions.
Interview has to create a three-way interaction. The interview is an active method of gathering news.
During interview. For a journalist. The best interview is conversations in which the required information arises as a part of the conversation. The tone of the interviewer should be according to the objective. He should know what comes first. Which sound bite should be quoted and how to edit the interview. Reporter must know the techniques of presenting the interview. Political personalities. The main three classifications are. These interviews are done to get some exclusive and authentic news story on an event.
Civic issues. Other classifications are: Issue oriented interviews can further be categorized such as Political issues. Personality oriented interviews revolve around personalities for instance. Social issues. Show biz personalities. Interviewing a person who is wanted by police. Reporter has to take care of the situation while asking questions. He may be walking or traveling. These type if interviews are very tricky and require special technical and interviewing skill for doing a smooth interview.
For example. After the opening statement. These type of interviews are normally done with the important people who do not have much time and they are to be captured on a short notice or moving between two places.
Start with easy questions. You should know exactly why you are conduction the interview. In live interview you should be briefed and to the point. In live interview you have to get the information in seconds. You should have objective oriented questions and must be aware of the subject.
Try to get the news quickly. Ask one question at one time. While questioning in the press conference do not offend and try to get some more information by asking a relevant question. While interviewing. Be focused. Plan your questions carefully. In this type of interview to the point questions are asked for example: Do you get on well with your boss?
In Funnel Interview a mostly practiced form is Inverted Funnel. For example: Tell me about your relationship with your boss. In these interviews no specific question is asked. One of the kinds is Funnel Interview.
Where did you get your experience? There are various kinds of interviews. In these types of interviews common and key questions are asked such as — How old are you? Who will you vote for this election? Conducting a successful interview requires a combination of skills and arrangements. Pay special attention after recording has been turned off.
Most people are not accustomed in talking to strangers. Also prepare priority list. Set up a small recorder before interview and also take notes. Prepare a list of questions.
Carefully observe and make notes about the surroundings and the unusual behavior of the person. Always speak with another person who may has different opinion about the topic. The best information and quotes often come after the interview has formally ended. Turn Off your phone or ask not to be interrupted for the duration of the interview. Take diligent notes until the end. If the person who is giving the interview goes off on a track. Ask direct questions. Start up with small talk to loosen up the subject.
Find a quit place to talk if the interview is face to face. Events with two or more independent eyewitnesses may be reported as fact. Moral principles which govern or influence the conduct of a journalist are called code of ethics.
Media ethics are also the subdivision of applied ethics. News and opinion should be separated. Every society has ethics such as Islamic. While reporting the sentiments of all religious sects should be respected. Avoid to report salacious detail of a public figures if it may be true. These are not good ethics. But a professional reporter has to maintain the highest professional and ethical standards.
What happened or is happening? Who did what and why? What did they say? How did they feel? Good questions reveal more than meets the eye.
Most times reporters cannot wait for how the story ultimately ends when it breaks, but several follow-ups can be covered until….. Where does this story fits in the broader context of our world or realty? Stories are more than text, graphics, pictures, etc.
As a reporter you are the story teller. On-the-job profiles are often interesting. Most stories in this genre can be interesting if you approach them with an appreciation for what the workers are doing and a keen eye for detail.
Meet the people in power Meet the rest of the people Visit schools, churches, mosques, events, etc. There are three principal steps: The reporter may be perceived as friend, accuser, confidant or interloper, skeptic or believer.
The best role is the one likely to keep the source open and the reporter may shift role to get the best from the source.
Most extended interviews follow a three-stage pattern: Questions that keep the interview flowing and guard against error have these qualities: This style is accomplished by imagining a triangle, point down. This triangle is your news item. At the top of the triangle-the wide base-is the most important information in the story. That is the first paragraph. When someone reads that first paragraph they should understand the facts of the event and the focus of the article, as well as whether or not they want to continue reading.
It puts the most news worthy information at the top, and then the remaining information follows in order of importance, with the least important at the bottom end.
The inverted pyramid organizes stories not around ideas or in sequence of happenings but around events and facts. It tells stories, weighs and shuffles the various facts focusing on their relative news value. In spite of its critics who say it tells stories backward, it remains invaluable as it takes the reader, who is often reading in a hurry, straight to the point. News writers who use the hourglass combine the inverted pyramid with narrative elements that contained the power of story telling.
According Roy Peter Clark, its originator, this story form respects traditional news values, considers the needs of the reader, takes advantage of narrative, and spurs the writer to new levels of reporting and news writing. The hourglass can be broken down into three parts: Usually the turn is a transitional phrase i. It allows the writer to tell a chronological story complete with details, dialogue and background information.
It is called the nut graf because, like a nut, it contains the kernel or essential theme of the story. It often includes supporting material that helps readers see why the story is important. It justifies the story by telling readers why they should care. It provides a transition from the lead and explains the lead and its connection to the rest of the story.
It often tells readers why the story is timely. It includes supporting material to make readers see why the story is important.
It is a paragraph that says what the whole story is about and why the reader should read it. It is a flag to the reader, high up in the story: As the name implies, nut grafs are a single paragraph long. Narratives have characters, settings, themes, conflicts, plots with climaxes and resolutions.
Stories must be clear, non-fiction, and compelling. Narratives are detailed and their endings are often take you back to the beginning. It contains five boxes namely: Lead 3.
Nut graf: Image, detail, draws in story begun in the Provides context first box.