NATIONAL CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK FOREWORD I have had the privilege of participating in a remarkable process of social deliberation initiated by. The National Curriculum Framework is one of the four National Curriculum Frameworks . "NAtional focus group" (PDF). "National focus groups" (PDF). This paper critically examines the objectives of policy manifest in NCF for its .. Building Agency, available at: soundofheaven.info- soundofheaven.info
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National Curriculum Framework (NCF) owes its present shape and support in dissemination of NCF through the NCERT website and. National Council of Educational Research and Training, Published . National Curriculum Framework (NCF) owes its present shape and form to the. A Brief Note on National Curriculum Framework (NCF) Dr. G. R. Angadi Assistant Professor, BLDEA's JSS College of Education, P. G. Studies in Education.
For instance, the initial idea of a transport Such knowledge often takes the form of skills, which system built around road transport will be reconstructed are cultivated outside the school, at home or in the to accommodate other types of transport community. Children are remember that languages get socio-culturally born with an innate language faculty. Learning is active and priorities, informing the preparation of teachers, the social in its character. Initially, teachers alterations in a task depending on their need to make an effort to establish the classroom requirements and variations in the level of culture for activities and to establish the rules that interest. They have also changed in their structure and emphasis.
Log In Sign Up. The document provides the framework for making syllabi, textbooks and teaching practices within the school education programmes in India. NCF has been translated into 22 languages and has influenced the syllabi in 17 states.
The NCERT gave a grant to each State to promote NCF in the language of the State and to compare its current syllabus with the syllabus proposed, so that a plan for reforms could be made. Several States have taken up this challenge. The Document is divided into 5 areas: Yash Pal formed 21 National focus groups.
Deliberations at National and state level and public opinions were invited by giving wide advertisements. Seeking guidance from the constitutional vision of India as a secular, egalitarian and pluralistic society, founded on the values of social justice and equality, certain broad aims of education have been identified in this document NCF For teaching to serve as a means of strengthening our democratic way of life, it must respond to the presence of first generation school-goers, whose retention is imperative owing to the constitutional amendment that has made elementary education a fundamental right of every child.
The fact that learning has become a source of burden and stress on children and their parents is an evidence of a deep distortion in educational aims and quality. To correct this distortion, the present NCF proposes five guiding principles for curriculum development: Connecting knowledge to life outside the school 2. Ensuring that learning shifts away from rote methods 3.
Enriching the curriculum so that it goes beyond textbooks 4. Nurturing an overriding identity informed by caring concerns within the democratic polity of the country. The NCF was framed keeping the above mentioned guiding principles as to implement many good ideas that have already been articulated in the past. A brief chapter wise summary of the NCF is given below: These include tribal languages.
Access to quality mathematics education is the right of every child. Social Sciences: Reconceptualization of learning resources in terms of: Professional training of teachers can be strengthened by linking it to: For this to happen the present typology of the question paper must change.
This framework for curriculum presents a vision of what is desirable for our children. It seeks to enable those who are involved with the bases on which they can make choices that determine the curriculum. This approach to the curriculum draws attention to the importance of the school ethos and culture, the classroom practices of teachers, learning sites outside the school, and learning resources, as much as to the dimensions of the system that exert direct and indirect influence.
Aims of Education 2. Systematic Reforms for Curriculum Change 3. Teaching of Indian Languages 4. Teaching of English 5. Teaching of Mathematics 6. Despite the review of that will enable us to implement many of the good the Curriculum Framework in , the vexed issues of ideas that have already been articulated in the past.
All educational programmes will be carried on in strict conformity with secular values. India has always worked for peace and understanding between nations, treating the whole world as one family. True to this hoary tradition, education has to strengthen this world-view and motivate the younger generations for international cooperation and peaceful co-existence.
This aspect cannot be neglected. To promote equality, it will be necessary to provide for equal oppor tunity for all, not only in access but also in the conditions of success. Besides, awareness of the inherent equality of all will be created through the core curriculum. The purpose is to remove prejudices and complexes transmitted through the social environment and the accident of birth.
Some of these traditions today face a serious developments and concerns to which our curriculum threat from market forces and the commodification must respond.
The foremost among these is the of knowledge in the context of the globalisation of importance of including and retaining all children in the economy. In the context of a fast-changing world dignity and the confidence to learn.
Education UEE , not only in representing cultural Decentralisation and emphasis on the role of diversity, but also by ensuring that children from Panchayati Raj Institutions PRIs are to be viewed as different social and economic backgrounds with major steps towards systemic reforms. Today, there is a need to adopt a substantive approach, towards equality of outcome, experience, knowledge and theories by building where diversity, difference and disadvantage are taken rationally upon the contextual experiences.
Making children sensitive to the environment and A critical function of education for equality is to the need for its protection is another important curricular enable all learners to claim their rights as well as to concern. The emergence of new technological choices contribute to society and the polity.
We need to recognise that rights and choices in themselves and living styles witnessed during the last century has cannot be exercised until central human capabilities led to environmental degradation and vast imbalances are fulfilled. Thus, in order to make it possible for between the advantaged and the disadvantaged. It has marginalised learners, and especially girls, to claim their rights as well as play an active role in shaping become imperative now more than ever before to collective life, education must empower them to nurture and preserve the environment.
Education can overcome the disadvantages of unequal socialisation and enable them to develop their capabilities of provide the necessary perspective on how human life becoming autonomous and equal citizens.
The National Policy on Education, teachers more accountable, and the schools more emphasised the need to create awareness of autonomous and responsive to the needs of children.
They also natural and social environment is a basic human need. A disturbed can enrich the curriculum and make it more creative. We live in an age of unprecedented violence— from "known to the unknown", from "concrete to local, national, regional and global. Education often abstract", and from "local to global". For this purpose, plays a passive, or even insidious role, allowing young the concept of critical pedagogy has to be practised in minds to be indoctrinated into a culture of intolerance, all dimensions of school education, including teacher which denies the fundamental importance of human education.
It is here that, for instance, productive work sentiments and the noble truths discovered by different can become an effective pedagogic medium for a civilisations. Building a culture of peace is an connecting classroom knowledge to the life experiences incontestable goal of education.
The vision of democracy the Indian state has no preference for any particu articulated by the Secondary Education Commission lar faith. The felt need, today, is to inculcate among is worth recalling: Citizenship in a democracy involves many intellectual, social and moral qualities…a democratic India is a multicultural society made up of numerous regional and local cultures. All the groups have facts from propaganda and to reject the dangerous equal rights to co-exist and flourish, and the education appeal of fanaticism and prejudice … should system needs to respond to the cultural pluralism inherent neither reject the old because it is old nor accept in our society.
To strengthen our cultural heritage and the new because it is new, but dispassionately national identity, the curriculum should enable the younger examine both and courageously reject what arrests generation to reinterpret and re-evaluate the past with the forces of justice and progress….. Understanding human than only a system of governance, the values enshrined evolution should make it clear that the existence of in the Constitution assume paramount significance.
The cultural status and opportunity to all citizens. Continued diversity of this land should continue to be treasured as exclusion of vast numbers of children from our special attribute. This should not be considered a education and the disparities caused through result of mere tolerance.
Creation of a citizenry conscious private and public school systems challenge the of their rights and duties, and commitment to the efforts towards achieving equality.
Education principles embodied in our Constitution is a prerequisite should function as an instrument of social in this context. Democracy is based on faith in the dignity and Moreover, the exclusion of the poor from their worth of every single individual as a human admission process implies the loss of learning being. No basic infrastructural amenities, in schools run by the education is worth the name which does not inculcate the qualities necessary for living state or local bodies does present a serious quality graciously, harmoniously and efficiently with constraint.
Secondary Education teachers who perceive teaching as a career option Commission, - 53, p. Recent suggestions for the dilution of standards in teacher recruitment, training demands that the education available to all children in and service conditions articulated in the NPE, and, different regions and sections of society has a before it, by the Chattopadhyaya Commission , comparable quality.
Naik had described equality, arouse anxiety. Dealing with this metaphorical triangle greatly depends on the means deployed for selection, requires a deeper theoretical understanding of quality procedures used for training, and the strategies adopted than has been available. The representation of quality poses complex conceptual and practical of knowledge in textbooks and other materials needs questions.
The belief that private schools have higher to be viewed from the larger perspective of the quality treats examination results as the sole criterion challenges facing humanity and the nation today. No for judging quality. This kind of perception ignores subject in the school curriculum can stay aloof from the ethos-related limitations of the privileged private these larger concerns, and therefore the selection of schools.
Today, it needs run primary schools where children from hitherto to be boldly reconceptualised in terms of the discourse educationally deprived communities predominate. A of universal human rights and the approaches striking recent feature is the growth of multigrade associated with critical pedagogy.
Quality in education includes provide a school within 1 km. This is unsupported by the necessary curricular concepts or why a concern for peace, protection of the clarity on materials or pedagogy. Such developments environment and a predisposition towards social change unintentionally reinforce privilege and exclusion in must be viewed as core components of quality, not education and undermine the constitutional values of merely as value premises.
Hierarchies of caste, and facilitating the achievement of UEE. On the one hand, we are witnessing to education and participation of children in school. Thus, girls belonging schools. T hese factors indicate a shifting of to SC and ST communities among the rural and urban responsibility for education from the state to the poor and the disadvantaged sections of religious and family and the community.
We need to be vigilant other ethnic minorities are educationally most vulnerable. The increasingly competitive different educational experiences. Unequal gender environment into which schools are being drawn and relations not only perpetuate domination but also create the aspirations of parents place a tremendous burden anxieties and stunt the freedom of both boys and girls of stress and anxiety on all children, including the to develop their human capacities to their fullest.
At any given time and place they can be of the joy of learning. An educational aim helps the teacher connect her present classroom activity education are belied by endemic poverty and unequal to a cherished future outcome without making it social relations, and by lack of adequate provision of instrumental, and therefore give it direction without schooling of equitable quality. The concerns of the divorcing it from current concerns. Thus, an aim is a burgeoning population of the urban poor are still not foreseen end: The expectations and aspirations rather, it influences the steps taken to reach the end.
An of the poor for education cannot be set aside as being aim must provide foresight. It can do this in three ways: First, it involves careful observation of the given The social context of education in India thus conditions to see what means are available for reaching presents a number of challenges, which must be the end, and to discover the hindrances in the way.
The discussion on understanding of what they are capable of learning at guiding principles has drawn attention to these challenges different ages.
Second, this foresight suggests the proper as well as some of the ways in which they can be order or sequence that would be effective. Third, it addressed. Opening the concept of knowledge to makes the choice of alternatives possible. Therefore, include new areas of knowledge and experience, acting with an aim allows us to act intelligently.
The inclusivity in selecting learning tasks, pedagogic practices school, the classroom, and related learning sites are that are alert to promoting participation, building spaces where the core of educational activity takes self-confidence and critical awareness, and an openness place. These must become spaces where learners have to engaging with the community to explain and share experiences that help them achieve the desired curricular curricular decisions are among the new ideas discussed objectives.
An understanding of learners, educational in different sections of this document. The aims of education serve as broad guidelines to The guiding principles discussed earlier provide align educational processes to chosen ideals and the landscape of social values within which we locate accepted principles. T he aims of education our educational aims. The curriculum, therefore, should provide adequate experience and space for dialogue and discourse in the school to build such a commitment in children.
Independence of thought and action points to a capacity of carefully considered, value-based decision making, both independently and collectively.
Learning to learn and the willingness to unlearn and relearn are important as means of responding to new situations in a flexible and creative manner. The curriculum needs to emphasise the processes of constructing knowledge. Ah, my son is off to school! Luckily I managed to Choices in life and the ability to participate in get one of these from the airport!
Laxman in the Times of India contribute to society in various ways. This is why education must develop the ability to work and Education must provide the means and opportunities participate in economic processes and social change.
Education for We must ensure that work-related experiences are aesthetic appreciation and creativity is even more sufficient and broadbased in terms of skills and important today when aesthetic gullibility allows for attitudes,that they foster an understanding of opinion and taste to be manufactured and manipulated socio-economic processes, and help inculcate a mental by market forces.
The effort should be to enable the frame that encourages working with others in a spirit learner to appreciate beauty in its several forms. Work alone can create a social temper. However, we must ensure that we do not promote Appreciation of beauty and art forms is an stereotypes of beauty and forms of entertainment, that integral part of human life. Creativity in arts, literature might constitute an affront to women and persons with and other domains of knowledge is closely linked.
In our everyday lives outside the school, we enjoy the curiosity, inventiveness and constant querying of children. They actively engage with the world around them, exploring, responding, inventing and working things out, and making meaning. It involves being socialised into adult society, into acquiring and creating knowledge of the world and oneself in relation to others in order to understand, to act, and to transform.
This is as true of learning language as it is of a craft skill or a 2. The learning plans therefore is that of the teacher. They rarely do things, Our school pedagogic practices, learning tasks, and the nor do they have opportunities to take initiative. Instead, we need to nurture and and to pursue investigations, sharing and integrating build on their active and creative capabilities—their their experiences with school knowledge—rather than inherent interest in making meaning, in relating to the their ability to reproduce textual knowledge.
Learning is active and priorities, informing the preparation of teachers, the social in its character. This requires that the Children will learn only in an atmosphere where basic needs in terms of adequate nutrition, physical they feel they are valued. Our schools still do not convey exercise and other psycho-social needs are addressed. The association of learning with Participation of all children in free play, informal and fear, discipline and stress, rather than enjoyment and formal games, yoga and sports activities is essential for satisfaction, is detrimental to learning.
Our children need their physical and psycho-social development. The range to feel that each one of them, their homes, of abilities as a result of games, sports and yoga will communities, languages and cultures, are valuable as improve stamina, fine and gross motor skills and dexterities, self-awareness and control, and coordination resources for experience to be analysed and enquired in team games.
Simple adaptation of playgrounds, into at school; that their diverse capabilities are accepted; equipment and rules can make activities and games that all of them have the ability and the right to learn accessible to all children in the school. Children can achieve and to access knowledge and skills; and that adult society high levels of excellence in sports, athletics, gymnastics, regards them as capable of the best. We are becoming yoga and performing arts such as dance.
When the more aware of the importance of these needs as our emphasis shifts from enjoyment to achievement, such schools expand and increasingly include children from training can make demands of discipline and practice all sections of society. The midday meal and the that can create stress at this stage. Whereas all students provisioning of infrastructural support and pedagogic must be involved in health and physical education concern for inclusive education are among the most activities, those who choose to excel in games and sports significant developments in recent times.
A strong stand need to be provided adequate opportunities. Physical development supports mental and The boundaries of the school need to become more cognitive development, especially in young children.
At the same time, the The capacity to think, reason and make sense of the problems of curriculum load and examination-related self and the world, and to use language, is intimately stress require urgent attention in all their dimensions. Meaningful learning is a generative process of 2. The curriculum must have a holistic of information. Thinking, language verbal or sign and approach to learning and development that is able to doing things are thus intimately inter-twined.
This is a see the interconnections and transcend divisions between process that begins in infancy, and develops through physical and mental development, and between independent and mediated activities. Initially, children individual development and interaction with others. According to the Kothari Commission: Attitudes, emotions and morals are thus an of an egalitarian and integrated society.
But at present integral part of cognitive development, and are linked instead of doing so, the education system itself is tending to increase social segregation and to perpetuate and to the development of language, mental representations, widen class distinctions. In such a system, all categories experience, making and doing things, of schools presently in vogue i. They require vicinity of the school. Learning is enriched if the two arenas world of the possible.
Art and work provide Conceptual development is thus a continuous opportunities for holistic learning that is rich in process of deepening and enriching connections and tacit and aesthetic components. Such experiences acquiring new layers of meaning. At the same time opinions of the peer group become very important. It learning must provide variety and challenge, and is important to recognise that adolescents need social be interesting and engaging.
Boredom is a sign and emotional support that may require reinforcement that the task may have become mechanically of norms of positive behaviour, acquisition of skills repetitive for the child and of little cognitive essential to cope with the risky situations that they value.
The absence of such support mediation. In the case of the latter, the social can lead to confusion and misunderstanding about these context and interactions, especially with those changes, and affect their academic and extracurricular who are capable, provide avenues for learners to activities. The process of acquiring are at risk of marginalisation, for instance, students with a sense of self is linked to physiological changes, and disabilities.
Labelling an individual student or a group also learning to negotiate the social and psychological of students as learning disabled etc. Responsible handling helplessness, inferiority and stigmatisation. It tends to of issues like independence, intimacy, and peer group overshadow difficulties that children may be facing in dependence are concerns that need to be recognised, schools due to diverse socio-cultural backgrounds and and appropriate support be given to cope with them.
A student with a disability has an equal to it, and free movement influence construction of the right to membership of the same group as all other self. This is of special significance in the case of girls, students. Differences between students must be viewed who are often constrained by social conventions to as resources for supporting learning rather than as a stay indoors.
These very conventions promote the problem. Inclusion in education is one of the opposite stereotype for boys, which associates them components of inclusion in society. T hese Schools, therefore, have a responsibility of stereotypes get especially heightened as a result of providing a flexible curriculum that is accessible to all biological maturational changes during adolescence. This document can form a starting point for These physiological changes have ramifications in the planning a curriculum that meets the specific needs of psychological and social aspects of an adolescent's life.
Teaching and learning processes in the in a group situation. In this context, collaborative classroom should be planned to respond to the diverse learning provides room for negotiation of meaning, needs of students.
Teachers can explore positive sharing of multiple views and changing the internal strategies for providing education to all children, representation of the external reality. Construction including those perceived as having disabilities. Constructing with organisations outside the school. The constructivist perspective provides strategies for promoting learning by all. Learners actively knowledge while engaged in the process of learning. Quite often, children have an idea centred around the bullock cart.
Learners construct arising from their everyday experiences, or because of mental representations images of external reality their exposure to the media, but they are not quite ready transport system through a given set of activities to articulate it in ways that a teacher might appreciate. For instance, the initial idea of a transport Such knowledge often takes the form of skills, which system built around road transport will be reconstructed are cultivated outside the school, at home or in the to accommodate other types of transport community.
All such forms of knowledge and skills systems—sea and air—using appropriate activities. The must be respected. A sensitive and informed teacher is engagement of learners, through relevant activities, can aware of this and is able to engage children through further facilitate in the construction of mental images well-chosen tasks and questions, so that they are able of the relationships cause-effect between a transport to realise their developmental potential.
An element of challenge is critical for the questions? What What is thirty-three take away twenty-seven is challenging for a particular age group becomes easy plus one? How many days did I sacrifice flexibility and creativity. Very often teachers, in spend there? Then E, F, G, H joined them. The Then A and G left. Then G came back, and B argument given for not accepting other answers is that, went away.
How many were left finally? Why did you put the letter into that box? Then should we accept them all? We must ask ourselves why we only Much of our school learning is still individual ask children to give answers to questions. Even the based although not individualised! But 2. Learning in the company of through actions and through language. The physical others is a process of interacting with each other and activity of moving, exploring and doing things, on one's also through the learning task at hand.
The context in which learning takes been made in the area of group work. Projects and place is thus of direct cognitive significance. Suc h events or acti vities with illustrations of certain scenes of the consist of mammals moving in groups on stor y and brief descriptions. A few land or in water, g razing, attacking a pr ey, lear ners enact one or two scenes depicted giving bir th, flocking together at the time in the illustrations. Observation Learners make note of the key events or Learners watch the scenes enacted.
Contextualisation They relate their analysis to the text. They relate the story of the text with the illustrations of the background material.
Inter pretation Learners analyse and gener ate evidence to T he y analyse and g enera te their own constr uction verify their hypothesis related to mammals interpretations of the stor y. Multiple They pr ovide e xplanations and defend their Comparing the interpretations within and interpretations ideas or hypotheses using their analyses and between groups gives the lear ners the idea text both within and between g r oups. Multiple By going back and forth through the process Using the text, background illustrations and manifestations and relating each contextual backg round on their own ref lections, the learners see how various events and the behaviour of the same characters and themes can be mammals, the learner s notice that the general manifested in several ways.
Role of the Teacher: In this context, the teacher is a facilitator who encourages learners to reflect, analyse and interpret in the process of knowledge construction. There are ways in which such group lose their self-confidence and their ability to express learning can be assessed and evaluated. Schools could themselves or make meaning out of their experiences also consider giving mixed age groups of children in school. They repeatedly resort to mechanical rote projects to do together.
In such mixed groups, there is memorisation to pass examinations.
In the company of others, independent thinking, and multiple ways of being one has opportunities of participating in larger tasks solved, encourage independence, creativity and self- where one may find a niche to contribute to, thus discipline in learners. Group learning tasks, taking responsibility, and deeper, meaningful learning.
In a multi-grade class situation, such from sites other than the textbook, in their own vertical grouping, which cuts across different grades, experience, in the experiences of people at home and and which allows a single activity to be used across in the community, in libraries and other sites outside different age groups, could provide a pedagogically the school, communicate the philosophy that learning feasible and sound curriculum plan.
In this context, heritage sites The quality of the learning task influences its assume great significance as sites of learning. Not only learnability and its value for the learner.
Tasks that are the history teacher, but also teachers of all subjects need too easy or too difficult, that are repetitive and to inculcate in the children under their care a sense of mechanical, that are based on recalling the text, that do respect for sites of archaeological significance and the not permit self-expression and questioning by the child desire to explore and understand their importance.
While these and reason, that knowledge is created by others and need to be reviewed and strengthened, there is also a that they must only receive it.
These are ultimately detrimental to learn. For this, it is stages of milk collection, processing and packaging necessary to build the capabilities and confidence of different kinds of products in a dairy farm. Currently, pedagogic reform efforts are still very centralised. Effective decentralisation would be possible Talking about and reflecting on something the child has experience of e. Language is key to organising finally on evaluating to see if children remember what experiences.
Hence, there should be a proper coordination between the kind of experience and the they have learnt. Instead, we need to view the child as level of language development. Initially, teachers alterations in a task depending on their need to make an effort to establish the classroom requirements and variations in the level of culture for activities and to establish the rules that interest. In fact, teachers could also consider will govern the space and use of materials. All children would benefit from such attention.
Students for children by building upon the strengths that are not just young people for whom adults should children may have. Hence children need what is told to them. A matter of serious concern is the persistence of to further enhance the learning process. This is all the stereotypes regarding children from marginalised groups, more critical for children from underprivileged including SC and ST, who traditionally have not had backgrounds, especially girls, as the worlds they inhabit access to schooling or learning.
Some learners have and their realities are under represented in school been historically viewed as uneducable, less educable, knowledge. There is a similar stereotype regarding girls, which encourages the Participatory learning and teaching, emotion and belief that they are not interested in playing games, or experience need to have a definite and valued place in in mathematics and science.
Yet another set of stereotypes the classroom. While class participation is a powerful is applied to children with disabilities, perpetuating strategy, it loses its pedagogic edge when it is ritualised, the notion that they cannot be taught along with other or merely becomes an instrument to enable teachers to children. These perceptions are grounded in the notion meet their own ends. True participation starts from the that inferiority and inequality are inherent in gender, caste and physical and intellectual disability.
There experiences of both students and teachers. Realising the constitutional values Critical pedagogy provides an opportunity to reflect of equality is possible only if we prepare teachers to critically on issues in terms of their political, social, treat all children equally. We need to train teachers to economic and moral aspects. It entails the acceptance of help them cultivate an understanding of the cultural multiple views on social issues and a commitment to and socio-economic diversity that children bring with democratic forms of interaction.
This is important in them to school. A critical framework helps children to see social generation school goers. For instance, formal schooling. First-generation school goers, for understanding of democracy as a way of life can be example, would be completely dependent on the school chartered through a path where children reflect on how for inculcating reading and writing skills and fostering they regard others e. Likewise, issues related to school.
Indeed they need all the assistance they can get. Mobilising intersectoral support for freeing and are perpetuated. Critical pedagogy facilitates children from such constraints, and for designing a collective decision making through open discussion and curriculum sensitive to these circumstances, therefore is by encouraging and recognising multiple views. This enables them to understand and relate to build in certain forms of interactions.
They need to to differences instead of fearing them. W hile addressed. They constantly encounter situations that call for of the learner's understanding, they need to be moral assessment and action, whether in relation to conscious of how differences are expressed. An subjective experiences of conflict involving the self, atmosphere of trust would make the classroom a safe family and society, or in dealing with exposure to violent space, where children can share experiences, where conflict in the contemporary world.
To use conflict as conflict can be acknowledged and constructively a pedagogic strategy is to enable children to deal with questioned, and where resolutions, however tentative, conflict and facilitate awareness of its nature and its can be mutually worked out. In particular, for girls role in their lives. Repositories of knowledge exist in different worth pursuing in education? The answer is a vision mediums, hence all these forms, whether television of the capabilities and values that every individual must programme, advertisements, songs, paintings, etc.
So also the learners themselves. The and global inequalities is one that does not merely affirm curriculum needs to provide experiences that build the different individual and collective experiences but also knowledge base through a progressive introduction to locates these within larger structures of power and raises the capabilities of thinking rationally, to understand the questions such as, who is allowed to speak for whom? This requires appreciation and sensitivity towards others, to work evolving different strategies for different learners.
For and to participate in economic processes. The difference is that the father is cooking, the mother fixing a light bulb, the daughter returning from school on a bicycle, and the son milking a cow, the other sister climbing a mango tree, and the other son sweeping the floor. The grandfather is sewing on a button, and the grandmother is doing the accounts. Ask the children to talk about the picture. Do they think that there is any work that these people should not be doing?
Involve them in a discussion on the dignity of labour, equality and gender. Discuss the importance of each individual being self - sufficient and complete.
This can be done for other topics such as good and bad work, caste stereotyping and the value - added nature of work through similar talking pictures. It suggests that in the informed curricular choices and approaches to content. Human Education would concern itself with maintaining and beings over time have evolved many bodies of transmitting this store - house of human knowledge. All children have to re-create a significant dynamic engagement with the world through part of this wealth for themselves, as this constitutes observing, feeling, reflecting, acting, and sharing.
It is also important to learn to participate that are likely to help achieve the chosen educational in the very process of knowledge creation, meaning aims. The range of human capabilities is very wide, making and human action, i.
Conceiving and through education we cannot develop them all. This They create possibilities of development of is true whether it is an object being fashioned or understanding and knowledge, providing the ability to whether it is a play a to be presented to an audience. Describing these activities as skills draws attention Development of language for a child is synonymous to only the dexterities that are involved, but not to the with development of understanding and identity, and considerable understanding of the social and natural also the capability of relating with others.
It is not only world and the self that each of these forms of practice verbal languages with scripts, but also languages without involves.
Like accepted academic disciplines, these crafts scripts, sign languages, scripts such as Braille and the and trades too have their traditions and expert performing arts, that provide the bases for making practitioners.
The knowledge relevant to each of these meaning and the expression. This A craft like carpentry involves the ability to gives meaning to life, providing it with emotional conceptualise and design the object to be made, an content and purpose. This is also the basis for ethics understanding of its value in the society socio-cultural, aesthetic and economic significance , and morality. It also involves handling tools and maintaining the necessary tools, judging for quality, technologies, and the ability to manipulate and organise creativity and excellence in craftsmanship.
A sport like kabaddi involves physical stamina and 2. Crafts such as weaving, capacities, ability to plan and coordinate as a team, to carpentry and pottery, and occupations such as farming assess the other team, and to strategise to win. These forms of knowledge are of a Therefore, each one of them is a discipline of practical practical nature, tacit and often only partially articulated.
It also has its own validation procedure, Oral and Craft Traditions namely, a step-by-step demonstration of the necessity of what is to be established. The validation procedures The oral lore and traditions of craft are a unique of mathematics are never empirical, never based on intellectual proper ty, varied and sophisticated, preser ved by innumerable g roups in our society, observation of the world or on experiment, but are including women, marginalised, and communities, demonstrations internal to the system specified by an and tribal people.
By including these in the curriculum appropriate set of axioms and definitions. School privileges the literate, but cannot afford to continue to ignore the oral.
Sustaining oral skills natural world. Concepts include atom, magnetic field, of all kinds is important. Scientific inquiry involves observation and experimentation to validate predictions made by theory hypotheses , which may be aided by instruments practical knowledge is vast, varied and rich.
As and controls. Formalisation into theory and model productive skills, they are an invaluable part of the building can sometimes involve mathematics, but it is economy. Understanding how they are practised and to reality. It is necessary culture, identity, and polity. The Social Sciences aim at to realise their curricular significance, not only as forms developing a generalised and critical understanding of of work but equally as forms of knowledge, and as human beings and human groups in society.
The Social mediums for other learning. This important area of Sciences concern themselves with description, human knowledge needs to become a substantial part explanation and prediction in the social world. The of the school curriculum. Social Sciences deal with hypotheses that are about human behaviour in collective living, and their validation 2.
Knowledge can be categorised based on distinct kinds With regard to the process of knowledge formation, of concepts and meanings involved and processes of Science and the Social Sciences are almost identical. Philosophy involves a concern, on the one hand, Art and aesthetics have many words in common, with analytical clarification, evaluation and synthetic such as rhythm, harmony, expression and balance, coordination of the aforementioned forms of though giving them new senses or new ranges of understanding in relation to life, and, on the other hand, application.
Although there is ample transcendent. All but the simplest kinds of human with the rules, principles, standards and ideals which activity draw upon them—the liberal professions, give them expression. In relation to action and choice, technology, industry and commerce. They are central therefore, ethics must be conceded primacy over each to human culture. Imagination and critical thinking are of the forms of understanding. Ethical understanding linked in obvious ways with the development of involves understanding reasons for judgements—for understanding and reason, and so are the emotions.
Furthermore, such reasons will be reasons methodologies. These areas have developed, and continue to Layers of understanding grow, through the contributions of people in the past. They have also changed in their structure and emphasis. A variety of intelligence and forms of knowing come into play while learning these areas: All part of the curriculum. These rarely receive the attention our children have a right to access this knowledge, to they deserve in terms of preparation by teachers or educate and enrich their common sense, to develop school time.
Areas of knowledge such as crafts and and discover themselves and the world of nature and sports, which are rich in potential for the development people, through these lenses and tools. Important areas of 2. Others, Second, the subject areas tend to become such as ethical understanding, need to be interwoven watertight compartments. As a result, knowledge seems into subjects and activities. The basic capabilities of fragmented rather than interrelated and integrated.
All these areas require opportunities for boundaries get constructed between knowledge in the project activities, thematic and interdisciplinary courses school and knowledge outside. The need for subjects addressing textbooks, along with associated rituals of examinations contemporary concerns of society is important. But to assess, knowledge acquisition and marks as a way there has been a misplaced tendency to address these of judging competence in the subject area.
First, those areas that do not lend themselves methods of evaluation for them.
This area undesirable compartmentalisation of knowledge. Hence, in this document, we emphasise the There is insufficient consideration of developmental significance of contextualising education: It is not a means to 2. It is in Unless learners can locate their individual interaction with the environment that the child standpoints in relation to the concepts represented in textbooks and relate this knowledge to their own experiences of society, knowledge is reduced to the Selecting Knowledge level of mere information.
If we want to examine Domains of knowledge have grown enormously, how learning relates to future visions of community so that it is necessary to select what is to be included life, it is crucial to encourage reflection on what it means in the curriculum. This could lead to very functionalist choices, with mistaken notions relating to usefulness The learner must be recognised as a proactive participant in later adult life.
This may be completely unsuited in his or her own learning. A useful measure, but this should not be they have climbed, the fruits they have eaten, the birds reduced to simplistic notions of what children enjoy, they have admired. Rather the measure cycles of day and night, of the weather, the water, the should be the ability to engage a child and keep her interested and self - motivated to engage in the task plants and the animals that surround them.
Children, at hand. The most important measure. Only if base of small numbers, and the rudiments of the child finds the activity or knowledge being learnt operations are already in place. Yet rarely do we hear meaningful, will its inclusion in the curriculum be justified. Instead we resort to Par ticipating in the Genera tion of the convenience of the printed word and picture, all Knowledge of which are poor replicas of the natural world.
Worse Given its intrinsic variability, each manifestation of still, today in the name of computer-aided learning, the environment tends to be unique. Its the living world is being turned into animation strips understanding cannot, therefore, be arrived at solely that children are expected to watch on their computer on the basis of the classical scientific approach of experimentation, calling for extensive replication.
There is hardly any amazing. Children in Mahabalipuram in Tamil Nadu good quality documentation available today of the may include in their list of things sea shells, pebbles many facets of India's environment, such as the depth of the underground water table, and it is and fish, and those in Chhattisgarh near the feasible to create such documentation on the basis Dandakaranya forest may include nest, bee hive, and of student projects.
It would be possible to upload anklet. Instead, children are usually required to look at the results of such projects on a publicly accessible a drawing in the textbook, or a list of words, and sort website, thereby creating a transparent and comprehensive database on India's environment. By the things out as living and non-living. During a lesson inviting not only experts, but also all interested on water pollution, children could examine the water citizens to assess the quality of such projects and sources and water bodies and then connect these with augment their results, a self-correcting system could be set up that would lead to an organic growth of different types of pollution.
This exercise could also our understanding of the Indian environmental raise issues regarding how lack of safe water affects scenario and concrete ways of undertaking positive health. Instead, children are expected to see pictures action. Such information collated annually over the of polluted water and comment on them. When years, and also shared with and compared with other regions, and collated centrally would produce a studying the moon and its phases, how many teachers significant understanding of ecological changes and actually ask the children to look at the moon at night develop a perspective on what is happening and why and then talk about it the next day?
Instead of asking through comparisons. In the case of content around them in their local community, and ask what selection for the Social Sciences and language, it is things would happen in the same way, and what things important to keep in mind the ideals and values would happen differently.
Inclusion of the local The local environment consists not only of the context in classroom transaction would imply a serious physical and natural world but also the socio-cultural attempt by the teacher to make choices in a manner world.
All children have a voice at home, and it is that is pedagogically imaginative and ethically sound.
They rather than evoking images of the typical sand dune also have rich oral histories. By imposing silence we and the camel. They should wonder how in a place so stifle children. They 2. Children need to find rich storehouse of knowledge about many aspects examples of the plurality of peoples and ways of life of India's environment, acquired over generations represented in the textbooks.
These portrayals need to and handed down as traditional knowledge, as well as through an individual's practical experience. Such ensure that no community is oversimplified, labelled, knowledge may pertain to: It may even be better for children to study plants, or ways of harvesting and storing water, or of practising sustainable agriculture. Sometimes and generate portrayals of the local social groups as a these may be different from the ways in which school part of their social science studies.
They can then knowledge approaches the subject. At other times, directly interact with the gram panchayat representative, it may not be recognised as something that is important. In these situations, teachers could help who may be invited to the school to speak about the children develop projects of study based on local extent to which decentralisation has helped in traditions and people's practical ecological knowledge; addressing local civic issues. Local oral history could this may also involve comparing these with the school approach.
In some cases, as in the case of also be connected with regional history and national classifying plants, the two traditions may be simply history.
But the social context also calls for a much parallel and be based on different criteria considered significant. In other cases, for example the greater critical awareness and critical engagement on classification and diagnosis of illnesses, it may also the part of curriculum developers and teachers. Community-based identities, of gender, caste, class and However, all forms of local knowledge must be mediated through Constitutional values and religion are primary identities, but they can also be principles.
It could also Some principles regarding the approach to knowledge in the curriculum: For this, teachers outside school; to draw one's learning from observing, interacting with, classifying, must know the reasons why something is included while categorising, questioning, reasoning and something else is not.
They must also be able to win arguing in relation to these experiences. This is a period of groups e.
Hence, it is an important dimension of imagination and fantasy alive. The creation or recreation of knowledge requires learn later will be in relation to this knowledge that an experiential base, language abilities, and interaction they bring into the classroom.
This knowledge is also with other humans and the natural world. Children intuitive.
School provides opportunities to build on entering school for the first time have already begun this in a more conscious and engaged manner. At the constructing knowledge of the world. The division into subjects is not very critical thinking. The creation of a space for explorations significant, and the knowledge areas discussed above into social issues and knowledge without boundaries can be totally integrated and presented to children in could at this stage go a long way in encouraging rational the form of learning experiences of the environment.
These early integrated engage with different forms of knowledge in the full experiences of the natural and social environment sense: Therefore, the subjects could be more closely linked The upper primary or middle school period may with the basic forms as listed above and the disciplines be the place for the emergence of better defined as they are recognised in higher education today.
At this stage of knowledge, and emphasis on similarities, special it should be possible to create spaces across subjects in characteristics, and the widest possible interconnections which children engage in the process of data collection, between them, become important when the subject natural, social, mathematical or linguistic, to classify and areas are more clearly defined. It is important that each curricular area is revisited in depth, so that specific points of entry can be identified in the context of emerging social needs.
In this respect, the status and role of the arts and health and physical education deserve special attention in view of the peculiar orbit of the 'extra-curricular' to which they were relegated almost a century ago. Aesthetic sensibility and experience being the prime sites of the growing child's creativity, we must bring the arts squarely into the domain of the curricular, infusing them in all areas of learning while giving them an identity of their own at relevant stages.
Work, peace, and health and physical education have a similar case. All three have a fundamental significance for economic, social and personal development. Schools have a major role to play in ensuring that children are socialised into a culture of self-reliance, resourcefulness, peace-oriented values and health. And when we talk of home language s and to relate to the world around. Children are remember that languages get socio-culturally born with an innate language faculty.
We know from constructed and change in our day-to-day interactions. In many cases, children the acquisition of academic knowledge. Children with come to school with two or three languages already in language-related impairments should be introduced to place at the oral-aural level. They are able to use these standard sign languages, which can support their languages not only accurately but also appropriately.
A Even differently talented children who do not use the recognition of the linguistic abilities of learners would spoken languages develop equally complex alternative encourage them to believe in themselves and their sign and symbol systems for expression and cultural moorings.
Languages also provide a bank of memories and 3. They are also the medium The linguistic diversity of India poses complex challenges but also a range of opportunities. India is through which most knowledge is constructed, and hence they are closely tied to the thoughts and identity unique not only in that a large number of languages are spoken here but also in terms of the number and of the individual. In fact, they are so closely bound with identity that to deny or wipe out a child's mother variety of language families that are represented in those languages.
There is no other country in the world in tongue s is to interfere with the sense of self. Effective which languages from five different language families exist. Even though they are so distinct structurally as to Multilingualism, which is constitutive of the identity of a child and a typical feature of merit classification as different language families, namely, the Indian linguistic landscape, must be Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic, Tibeto-Burman used as a resour ce, classroom strategy and and Andamanese, they constantly interact with each a goal by a creative language teacher.
This is not only the best use of a resource readily other. The three-language formula needs to be implemented in its spirit, promoting Tamil and Sanskrit are rich in their inflectional multilingual communicative abilities for a grammatical structure and aesthetic value, and can multilingual country. In the case of Hindi speaking states, Today, we know for certain that bilingualism or children learn a language not spoken in their area. Sanskrit may also be studied as a Modern Indian The three-language formula is an attempt to address Language MIL in addition to these languages.
It is a strategy that should really languages may be introduced. It needs to be followed both in letter and spirit. Its 3. The following guidelines may help us achieve It is clear that through their innate language faculty and this aim: They enter the school not only that would use the multilingual classroom as a with thousands of words but also with a full control resource. A child knows not only how to schools. She can modulate her behaviour in in the child's home language s at the higherlevels, terms of person, place and topic.
She obviously has primary school education must still be covered the cognitive abilities to abstract extremely complex through the home language s. It is imperative systems of language-from the flux of sounds. Honing that we honour the child's home language s.