Buy Make: More Electronics now at soundofheaven.info, brought to you by MAKE Magazine. Home · Electronics; Make: More Electronics (PDF) . all the key components and essential principles through the book's collection of experiments . If you finished the projects in Make: Electronics, or if you're already familiar with the material in that book, you're ready for Make: More Electronics. Right away. Charles Platt Make: More Electronics. electronics when I was a teenager, in collaboration with my friends in high This book picks up where my to click an icon to open the entire datasheet as a multipage PDF document.
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The Nature Fix: Why Nature Makes us Happier, Healthier and More Creative Meets Software But if you skip many of the tutorials, Read books on your. This book picks up where my previous introductory guide, Make: Electronics, left off. Here you as a multipage PDF document. This will be .. While Make: More Electronics is a hands-on tutorial, the encyclopedia format is. Want to learn even more about electronics in a fun, hands-on way If you finished the with the material in that book, you re ready for Make: More Electronics.
While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and author assume no re- sponsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein. I want to start with some simple entertainment, because I think electronics should always con- tain an element of fun. This is time-consuming but can save time in the long run. Spark your creativity and gain the electronics skills required to transform your innovative ideas into functioning gadgets. Where those designations appear in this book, and Maker Media, Inc.
On the breadboard I use little pieces of solid wire, stripped at each end.
They are infinitely easier to deal with when you have to do some troubleshooting. This is not helpful, because I want my breadboard wires to be color-coded according tofunction.
Aconnectionterminatingatthepos- itive bus of the breadboard should be red, for ex- ample, no matter how long or short it is. And so on. This way Icanlookatabreadboard,quicklyassessitsfunc- tion, and find a misplaced wire more easily. Perhaps you feel that custom-cutting your own color-codedjumperwiresistoomuchofahassle.
If so, I have a suggestion. Figure S-5 shows the system that I used to breadboard all the projects in this book. First remove an arbitrary amount of insulation a couple of inches and discard it. Next, estimate thedistancethatyourjumpershouldspanonthe breadboard. Cut on the solid line.
A simplified way to create breadboard jumper wires. For sorting and storing jumper wires after they have been cut, you can make yourself a wire- length gauge.
This is also useful for bending wire ends to the desired length. It consists simply of a triangular-shaped piece of plastic or plywood with steps cut into the diagonal edge, as shown in Figure S-6 and Figure S Because the wire thickness will add slightly to the length of the xxviii Make: A homemade wire-length gauge for bread- board jumper wires.
A jumper of 1. Asforwirethickness,Ithink24gaugeisbyfarthe best choice for breadboarding. On the other hand, 22 gauge is too tight a fit. You can often find surplus lots of wire on eBay, or from sources such as Bulk Wire. Personally I have ten basic wire colors: If you are systematic, and you assign one color for each purpose on all your breadboards, this will make your life a lot easier. Lastly, please take another look at Figure P-2 to remindyourselfofthetwomostcommonbread- board wiring errors.
Grabbing In Make: Figure S-8 shows a black grabber installed on a meter probe, while the red grabber remains unconnected. I think this is a useful mix. You can hook the black grab- berontoanygroundwire,thenusetheredprobe to detect voltages around a circuit. The grabber is a very tight push-fit, which I think should add only an ohm or two at most. Minigrabbers convert one or two probes of your meter so that they will latch onto a wire, freeing you from holding a probe in place.
The mechanism of the grabber is shown in Figure S-9, where it is in its open state, extended against an internal spring. In Figure S, the spring has been released to hold a resistor lead. A minigrabber with its grabbing clip extended against the force of an internal spring.
When the spring is released, the grabber ex- ercises a firm grip on a thin object, such as a resistor lead. Jumper wires with an alligator clip at each end as shown in Figure S can be used as a sub- stitute,withonealligatorgrippingameterprobe while the other latches on to a convenient loca- tion in the circuit. Lastly you can buy jumpers that have a micro- grabber at each end, as shown in Figure S A jumper wire with a micrograbber at each end is useful for locations where a full-size alligator clip would be liable to touch an adjacent conductor.
Component Storage For storing capacitors, the reduced size of multi- layerceramicsmeansthatmyrecommendations in Make: Electronics are becoming obsolete. Tiny parts are most efficiently kept in tiny containers, and jewelry hobbyists have exactly what we want. The system I use now for multilayer ceramic capacitors is a bead storage box shown in Figure S This enables me to keep an entire range of basic values on my desk- top, from 0.
Moreover, because each container has a screw top, if I accidentally drop the whole box on the floor, the capacitors will remain confined instead of scattering every- where. This is important because capacitors look so similar, it would be a nightmare trying to sep- arate them by value. Modern multilayer ceramic capacitors are so small, storage containers designed for beads are ideal. For resistors, I suggest cropping their leads so that they, too, will fit in smaller containers.
Figure S shows one option for storing the 30 most commonly used values. Each compartment can hold at least 50 resistors see Figure S Slightly larger jewelry storage containers are good for resistors, if the leads are trimmed. Fifty resistors can be stored in one of these little containers. If component values become mixed up, you will find yourself faced with faults that can be truly perplexing.
To simplify the checking process for resistors, I use a mini-breadboard with jumper wires clip- ped to the probes of an auto-ranging meter, as shown in Figure S All I have to do is push the leads of a resistor into the board, and verification takes about five seconds. For the same reason, the cheapest possible meter can be used for this task. A simple system for quickly verifying resistor values before using them in a project.
So much for the introductory material. I want to start with some simple entertainment, because I think electronics should always con- tain an element of fun. Second, the experiment will lead to a deepening understanding of that most fundamental and vital component, the bipolar transistor.
And third, this experiment will lead in- to a general conversation about ions, resistance, and resistivity. I realize that if you read Make: A Glue-Based Amplifier Figure shows the plan.
Begin by push- ing the legs of the transistor into the cardboard. The 2N is sold in two versions, one featuring a little metal cap, the other using a small lump of black plastic.
If you happen to be using the metal type, the tab that sticks out should be on the left, viewedfromthepointofviewinthefigure. Sticky Resistance 1 Figure Your first experiment: Connect the components as shown. The long lead of the LED is on the right, and the short lead is on the left. If you can taper it from top to bottom,asshowninFigure,thisisgood. Make sure there are no breaks in the trail. Becausemost people have a bottle lying around the house somewhere,anditjusthappenstohavetheelec- trical characteristics that I want.
The actual experiment, just in case you were wondering if it really works. You have to work fairly fast, before the glue dries. Take the green wire which connects with the center lead on the transistor and touch it half- way down the glue trail.
The LED should glow quite brightly. Now touch it near the bottom of the glue trail, and the LED should glow less brightly. Itamplifiesthe currentflowingintoitsbase thecenterlead. The amplified output emerges from its emitter the lefthand lead, in Figure In the experiment, you restricted the current flowing into the base 2 Make: To get a visual impression of what the transistor is doing, remove it from the circuit, as in Figure The green alligator clip now connects with the series resistor, which connects with the LED, and the LED should remain dark.
The resist- ance of the glue is so high, not enough current gets through to light the LED. If you move the green alligator all the way up to less than a quar- ter inch from where the positive power supply is connected with the glue, the LED should glow dimly. When the transistor is no longer amplifying current to the LED, the resistance of the glue is too high to allow enough current to make the LED light up.
The tab that sticks out of the metal-can type of transistor may be in ei- ther of the orientations shown, or somewhere in between, but it will always be closer to the emit- ter than to the other leads.
The schematic symbol for an NPN transistor, and simplified views of components seen from above. See the important warning in the text regarding reversed leads on the P2N Nonstandard Leads Foraslongasanyonecouldremember,whenyou looked at a plastic-packaged 2N transistor from above, and held it with the flat side on the right, the leads were always identified as collec- tor, base, and emitter when reading from top to bottom.
Some manufacturers called the 3Experiment 1: Sticky Resistance Warning: Nonstandard Leads For reasons that remain unclear, some time around , a variant with part number P2N was produced by On Semiconductor, Motorola, and possibly some other manufactur- ers.
Its performance was identical to that of the 2N and the PN, but the sequence of its leads was reversed. Chances are, you will be of- fered a P2N, because your search term is contained within P2N If you go ahead and buy that component because its specification seems to be identical, you are likely to insert it the wrong way around in your circuit.
Compoundingtheproblem,transistorswillwork to some extent when reversed, although some degradation may occur. Therefore you can use the P2N the wrong way around and get some results from a circuit, although not quite what you expect. Anyone buying components online should be careful to read the part number and take note of the configurations in Figure And, as always, check datasheets carefully! Conductors and Insulators You can learn more from your experiment if you wait for the glue to dry.
The drier it gets, the weaker the LED response becomes. Why is this?
Because some of the water in the glue is evapo- rating, while the rest of it is absorbed into the cardboard. As you may recall from Make: Electronics, electric currentisaflowofelectrons. Atomsormolecules which have surplus electrons, or a deficit of elec- trons, are called ions.
Thewaterinthe glue helps to enable this, as the ions move through the water. Water on its own is not a good conductor. To demonstrate this, you need some pure water— not the water that comes out of your faucet, which usually contains mineral impurities. Pure waterusedtobecalleddistilledwater,whichwas created by boiling water to make steam leaving the impurities behind , and then condensing the steam.
These days people still sometimes talk about distilled water, but it is becoming uncom- mon because the process of making it is too en- ergy intensive. Insert the probes of your meter into a cup of dis- tilledordeonizedwater,acoupleofinchesapart. You should find that the resistance is more than 1 megohm. Now dissolve some salt in the water, andtheresistanceshoulddropradically,because the salt is a source of ions.
You may wonder where the dividing line is be- tween a conductor and an insulator. A very good conductor, such as aluminum, has resistiv- ity of about 0. At the other extreme, a very good insulator, such as glass, has resistivity of about 1,,,, one trillion ohm- meters. More Electronics Background: Conductors and Insulators Somewhere in the middle are semiconductors.
And what about cardboard? Its resistivity is so high, how could you ever measure it? See if you can think of a way. Make Even More If you repeat Experiment 1, what happens if you use a trace of glue that is three or four times as wide? What happens if you put two LEDs in par- allel—or in series?
Maybe you think you know what the results will be. I mentioned earlier that if you insert a transistor the wrong way around, it will still work to some extent.
Does that actually happen when you try it? And if so, why? This is good to know. After you have reversed a transistor in a circuit, it may have sustained some damage and should not be used in other circuits. You can, however, test it as described in the next experiment, and compare its performance with that of a fresh transistor that has not been abused. Sticky Resistance Make Even More The first three will be: Evenifyoufeelthatyouarethoroughly familiar with these concepts, well-informed peo- ple can still have a few gaps in their knowledge, so please take a few moments to go through this section of the book.
Inthisexperiment,becauseyouare goingtobemakingaccuratemeasurements,you need an accurately controlled voltage. Transistor Behavior Numbers are unavoidable in electronics. Getting Some Numbers 2 This will be similar to Experiment 10 in Make: Are you good at making accurate measure- ments? Step 1 Begin by setting your meter to measure mi- croamps DC. The meter measures current flowing into the base of the transistor.
If you have any trouble interpreting this schematic, take a look at Figure This shows a manual-ranging meter measuring microamps between the wiper of the trim- mer potentiometer and the base of the 2N transistor, using flexible jumpers gripped by minigrabbers. The twisted black and red wires entering the picture from the rightaresupplying5VDCregulatedpowerto the breadboard.
The reading on the meter is arbitrary.
Setting up a meter to measure microamps flowing from the wiper of the trimmer potentiometer to the base of the 2N transistor.
See text for more details. A closeup of this same breadboard is shown inFigure Theblackandredwirescoming in from the left, terminating in round plugs inserted into the breadboard, are from the meter. The trimmer potentiometer is orient- ed in the same way as in the schematic so that each of its leads is inserted in a separate row of holes in the breadboard. More Electronics Transistor Behavior A closeup of the breadboard from the previous photograph.
This is the base current—the current flowing through the lefthand side of the trimmer and into the base of the transistor. Step 2 Makeanoteofthebasecurrent.
Maintaining a lab notebook is a really good idea, and you might as well start one now. If you record each experiment on a step-by-step basis, it can be useful to refresh your memory later. Step 3 Remove the meter probes from the bread- boardandsubstituteapieceofhookupwire. Change the meter to measure milliamps, if it does not do autoranging, and move it to the position shown in Figure The meter now measures current flowing into the collector of the transistor.
Figure shows a photograph of this con- figuration. The yellow piece of hookup wire has been inserted where the meter wires were before, and the meter now connects the positive bus on the breadboard with the collector of the transistor.
Getting Some Numbers Transistor Behavior The red and black wires on the left run to the meter, which now measures current flowing into the col- lector of the transistor. Step 4 Alongside the base current that you just wrote down, write the reading that you now seeonthemeter. The result should look something like the first two columns in Figure I measured those numbers myself; are they similar to yours?
Comparing base current with collector cur- rent in an NPN transistor. There are 1, microamps in a milliamp, so you just have to multiply the collector current that you measured in milliamps by 1, to get the equivalent in mi- croamps. You can see this in the third column in the table of values that I measured, in Figure Finally,getoutapocketcalculatoranddividethe collector current in microamps by the base cur- rent in microamps for each of your eight pairs of readings.
After the first one or two, you should find that the ratio is almost precisely constant. This is shown in the fourth column of my table. Be careful when measuring current.
Excess cur- rent can blow the fuse in your meter. With step-by-step instructions, and hundreds of color photographs and illustrations, this book will help you use -- and understand -- intermediate to advanced electronics concepts and techniques. More Electronics","Make: More Details.
Want to learn even more about electronics in a fun, hands-on way? If you finished the projects in Make: Electronics , or if you're already familiar with the material in that book, you're ready for Make: More Electronics. More Electronics. Right away, you'll start working on real projects, and you'll explore all the key components and essential principles through the book's collection of experiments. You'll build the circuits first, then learn the theory behind them! This book picks up where Make: Electronics left off: You'll also learn about topics like audio amplification, randomicity, as well as positive and negative feedback.