Lydian chromatic concept of tonal organization pdf

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G E O R G E R U S S E L L ' S Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization VOLUME ONE: The Art and Science FOURTH EDITION: life and I every day I ponder more and more tonal possibilities. Special thanks go to: important book “The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization. [PDF] George Russell - The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal - Free Download - MB:

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Download the Brochure in PDF Format. The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization. George Russell's book, The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal. Reconceptualizing the Lydian Chromatic Concept: George Russell as Historical Theorist. Michael . theoretical basis for tonal organization within the Lydian .. The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization is a jazz music theory book written by George Russell. The book is the founding text.

Each Principal Chord is an arrangement ofthe tones of a mode into the mode's most "harmonically evolved" complete chordal genre. For searchers like Miles and Coltrane and Bill Evans, and many in the generations that followed them, Russell's theory provided a harmonic background and a path for further exploration. Abbreviations for terms: Its purpose is to generate new pathways toward greater freedom in exercising aesthetic judgment and discernment that invoke a more objective fulfillment of musical statement. Experiment in cre- ating vertical melodies using these scales along with the basic unaltered chordmode-or simply play the scales superimposed over the root modal tonic degree of the chord. See Chapter V, page go. This guarantees the official scale a Lydian tonic position in all twelve LC Scales.

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For example, if notes further up the circle of fifths e. Russell's theory has had far reaching effect especially in the realm of modal jazz. Art Farmer said that it "opens the door to countless means of melodic expression" [6] and critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt described it as "the first work deriving a theory of jazz harmony from the immanent laws of jazz" and as "the pathbreaker for Miles Davis ' and John Coltrane 's 'modality'".

John Coltrane's modal jazz is usually analyzed using Russell's method. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cited in Bruno Nettl, Melinda Russell; eds. In the Course of Performance: Studies in the World of Musical Improvisation , p. George Russell's Lydian chromatic concept of tonal organization.

Volume One: The art and science of tonal gravity Fourth Second printing, corrected, ed. Brookline, Massachusetts: We should not underestimate the extent of Russell's enterprise.

George Russellss Lydian Chromatic Concept Of Tonal Organization | Jorge Restrepo -

His work stands head-to-head with Arnold Schoenberg's "liberation" of the twelve-tone scale, the polytonal work of Stravinsky, and the ethnic scale explorations of Bartok and Kodaly. If you've listened to jazz during the last fifty years, you've heard a good deal of George Russell's ideas; he is one of the 20th century's great originals and one of its bravest innovators.

Having finished this work, Russell is completing another volume on related elements which he has been simultaneously developing over the last several decades. The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization was expanded several times over the years, and has grown greatly since its first appearance in It is with pride and pleasure that we present this fourth and final edition. If you could sit down and write stuff like that out He wrote stuff like that and it was incredible.

The instruction beneath each Pri- mary Modal Genre on the left side ofthe chart yields the degree ofthe chord on which rests its parent Lydian Tonic. Keep in mind it is a chord's parent Lydian Tonic on which rests the tonal organization that represents the ultimate universe of the chord. The chord is born into this universe and evolves in its most natural tonal environment.

The modal tonic of a chord functions only in de5ning the chord's harmonic genre within the con- text of its parent Lydian Chromatic Scale.

Once Dbis determined to be the Lydian Tonic of the Eb7chord, the next step is to fill in the rest of the tones roman numerals indicated by the scale: Try playing the Db Lydian Scale over the modal tonic root ofthe Eb7chord Eb to hear this complete p h chord family.

Put the root ofthe C min7 chord on roman numeral VI, and C now becomes the sixth degree of its parent scale. In other words, C min7 as a complete minor chord genre is cre- ated by sounding the Eb Lydian Scale over its sixth degree modal tonic: Now fill in the rest of the tones roman numerals to complete the scale: This means that the modal tonic root of the chord G is located on the augmented fourth degree of its parent Lydian Scale.

Place Db on roman numeral I, and build the scale dic- tated by the remaining roman numerals: For example, the parent scale prime color ofthe Eb7chord is Db Lydian. However, the other six related scales on Chart A may be used to add color to the Eb7chord at the discretion ofthe improviser. The scales for the first chord F7 have been completed for you. Write the tones of the scales listed for the other ten chords in the same fashion by filling in the blank staves.

Experiment in cre- ating vertical melodies using these scales along with the basic unaltered chordmode-or simply play the scales superimposed over the root modal tonic degree of the chord. They show how a parent or associate principal scale ofthe parent LC Scale dictated by each chord is used to derive a melody that colors the chord with the tonal quality of that scale.

The examples are based upon an identical eight-bar chord progression for the purpose of demon- strating the tonal quality of each of the Seven Principal Scales of the LC Scale.

Each pair of variations features each of the seven types of principal scales. Variation l a has been completed for you. Continue by following this format and filling in the area above each bar in the remaining thir- teen variation examples.

I n the parenthesis to the right ofthe chord, fill in the roman numeral indi- cating the position occupied by the chord's root primary modal tonic degree within its parent [LC] scale, as indicated by Chart A. Identify the exact parent Lydian Tonic and principal scale from which the vertical melody for a chord is being derived, and write it in the bracketed box above the chord and PMT. Each pair of variations indicates the type of principal scale used.

Each of these abbreviations is to be preceded by the capital letter representing the Lydian Tonic of the prevailing parent Lydian Chromatic Scale.

The parent Lydian Tonic's capital letter and Primary Modal Tonic's roman numeral of a chord adequately identifies its parent [LC] Scale and harmonic genre. This produces a G minor chord. Lyd L or Ly Lydian Augmented: LA Lyd aug Lydian Diminished: LD Lyd dim Lydian Flat 7th: AA aux aug Auxiliary diminished: AD aux dim Auxiliary diminished blues: Variations 3a and 3b: Create your own vertical melody for the eight-bar chord progression used in Test 8.

However, instead offeaturing only one particular principal scale color, you may use your aesthetic judgment in choosing a se- quence of varied principal scale types t o be sounded sequentially along with the chords occurring in the progression.

Here are the first four bars as one possible example: Continue creating your vertical melody in the same manner for the remainder of the entire tune. Test D In the bracket above each chord, note the proper parent scale indicated by the PMT degree roman numeral as well as by the tones of the melody in that bar Bar 1 is completed for you.

Also note the initials CE for "chromatic enhancement" in those bars featuring the occasional non-scale tone in the parent scale mix. The tonal order of such bars i.

Ingoing vertical melodies constitute the chief way in which melody behaves on the Level ofvertical Tonal Gravity. Within each VTG alliance a several note melody is derived from a principal scale, associate member scale or tonal order of the Parent LC Scale dictated by the prevailing chord chord of momentary reference. This vertical melody imposes the tonal color of its relative Principal Scale on the prevailing chord, that is, the melody colors the chord of the moment with the desig- nated parent or member scale derived from its parent LC Scale.

Chromatic enhancement is a method of extending a scale-derived melody by mixing scale tones with non-scale tones traditionally referred to as passing tones. The Lydian Chromatic Concept insists on identifying the tonal order of a scale-related melody if one or more non-scale tones appears in its structure. This is determined by the tonal order of the most outgoing non-scale tone if several occur in the structure of a melody.

Not only Db Lydian, but also any of the other scales listed on Chart A may be built on the Db Lydian Tonic and used as a source of melodic vertical color with the chord.

Avertical melody for an Eb7chord may therefore be derived from any one or more of the following seven scales: Db Lydian parent scale 2. Db Lydian Diminished 4. Db auxiliary augmented 6. Db auxiliary diminished blues These seven scales represent the primary vertical colors of music.

Each scale contributes its own melodic color to the sound of the chord. As mentioned at the end of Chapter 11, these seven scales combine to complete a chromatic twelve-tone scale.

This chromatic scale, with its inherent tonal orders and tonal levels, is called the Lydian Chromatic Scale, and is created when the four Lydian Scales Lydian, Lydian Augmented, Lydian Diminished and Lydian Flat Seventh are combined with the three auxiliary scales auxiliary augmented, auxiliary diminished, and auxiliary diminished blues. A different Lydian Chromatic Scale exists on each tone of the chromatic scale. As this book continues, it will explain how the Lydian Chromatic Scale is the scale from which all musical ideas may be derived.

This is no small claim, but then, tonal gravity has never formally figured into Western music theory until introduced by the edition of this book. It showed how tonal gravity is the governing force ofharmony, objectively explaining the relationship which any group of tones has to a Lydian Tonic as its center of tonal gravity. Each Lydian Chromatic Scale contains the seven vertical chord-produc- ing Principal Scales listed on Chart A, and four additional scales which are not listed on the chart: Their broader role in melody is discussed in later lessons.

A chord converted into its parent scale is converted into its parent Lydian 5. Chromatic Scale as well.

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It might be said that the parent scale of a chord is 1i" actually a "smaller" parent scale within the "bigger" parent scale: Example v: See John Coltrane's Giant Steps solo, bar 3. Db Lydian Parent Scale 2. Db Lydian Flat Seventh 5. Dbauxiliary diminished 7. Dbmajor 9. The fact that mode I1 of the Lydian Scale creates a 7th chord family establishes the broader relationship that 7th chords in general are found primarilv on the second degree of the LC Scale.

On the left side ofthe brain' of Chart A are listed eight chord categories referred to as Primary Modal Genres. All definable chords in Western music can be reconciled with one of these eight chord categories. To the left of each category is a large roman numeral. This is the scale degree or Primary Modal Tonic , indicating the root position of the chord within its parent scale.

One should begin the search for a chord's Primary Parent Scale with the "brain" first. Identify the prevailing chord by its name: Classify the chord with its proper PMG: Follow the instructions beneath the chord category in order to find the parent scale of the chord.

G Lydian 2. G auxiliary diminished 7.

G auxiliary diminished blues 8. G major 9. G major sharp 5th G major flat 7th Committing to memory the Lydian Tonic interval for each of the eight PMG of the LC Scale facilitates the most necessary vertical tonal gravity procedure ofrelating the prevailing chord to its parent LC Scale.

The first chord has been completed for you. Ab13 - 9. C1l - - This is, in essence, the law for the Level ofvertical Tonal Gravity see: Law ofVTG, this chapter. The parent scale of each chord sounds the harmonic i t genre of the chord so faithfully, and with such a degree of unity, that it only i requires the presence inference of a chord's root to convey its harmonic A genre precisely.

The principal feature of the Law ofvertical Tonal Gravity requires the presence of a melody related to the Parent LC Scale dictated by virtually each chord of a chord progression. From the Parent LCScale of each Prevailing Chord,l one or more member scales are used to derive a several note melody two or more tones structured to convey the harmonic genre of that chord for all or the greaterpart of its duration.

Focusing on each chord of a progression in order to "melodize" the chord establishes a type of melodic behavior termed an ingoing vertical melody, that is, a melody behaving in the manner prescribed by this principal feature of the Law of the Level ofvertical Tonal Gravity. The Level of Vertical Tonal Gravity is validated by the existence of this ingoing vertical melody, derived from any of the eleven member scales2 of the Parent [LC] Scale dictated by virtually each chord within a chord pro- gression.

Chromatically enhanced vertical melodies have already been explained in Test D, Chapter IV as a way to extend vertical parent scale melodies by bor- rowing one or more non-parent scale tones from any of the Prevailing LC Scale's five tonal orders. However, even though such melodies may, to some degree, bend the Principal Feature of the Law of VTG, it still must be com- mitted to it, and consequently must-to a convincing degree-convey the harmonic genre of the Prevailing Chord.

Secondary feature: More outgoing melodic resources3 may occur on the level of VTG, as long as the chief feature of its law is maintained. This requires the musician to continue to derive the melody from the parent LC Scale indicated by each chord ofthe chordstream; avertical melody designed ultimately to convey each chord's harmonic genre for the greater part of its period of duration. Chart A serves as the most practical tool in helping the conveying its harmonic genre.

See Chapter VI 3. The late Barry Galbraith was a guitarist for all seasons. He worked all the great jazz clubs in New York. On all of my RCA smalltet recordings, Barry was my orchestra. You could write anything and Barrywould not just play it, he would blend it in with the other instruments and make it sound like a big orchestra. He was a giant among musicians and one of the best friends I and music ever had. The first 3. Test B requires the student to analyze the second 3.

You simply need to note, in the bracket above the chord, your choice of the principal scale within the chord's Parent LC Scale that is most compatible with the tones of the melody sounding with that chord. Use Chart A to help you in locating the proper parent scale if need be.

Test B The second chorus of the Not Me solo by Barry Galbraith requires the stu- dent to note the parent scale of each chord in the bracket above it. As you know, on the level ofVTG, any ofthe eleven member scales ofthe prevailing LC Scale may be used to color the chord of the moment. In bar 4, two member scales of the C [LC] Scale are used.

The first instance of chromatic enhancement occurs in bar 8 with the tone Ah representing the twelve-tone order of the Ab LC Scale being used to chromatically enhance an Ab Lydian Scale melody. Chromatic enhancement occurs again in bars 13 and The first example of Horizontal Tonal Grav- ity in this solo as well as the text of this book occurs in bars 17 and In bar 17 and the two beats of bar 18, Coltrane's melody shifts from vertical to hor- izontal behavior.

In the span ofthis small six-beat area, Coltrane establishes a tonic station area on the Level of Horizontal Tonal Gravity. The two chords in bar 17, B major and D7 resolve to G major as a sub- tonic station.

From the G [LC] Scale, the G major scale a fining horizontal member scale is chosen to sound over the two chords of bar 17 and the G major chord in bar The tone D h sustained over the two chords in bar 17 of Giant Steps is a reliable signal that Coltrane's melodic focus has shifted from vertical to the horizontal level of tonal gravity.

A single tone of the melody sustained over one or more chords is always an alert that the melodic basis for the music may have changed from the Level of Vertical Tonal Gravity to the broader based Level of Horizontal Tonal Gravity or still broader level of Supra- Vertical Tonal Gravity SVTG. The ear always needs to link the melody with a tonal center.

A pause in 1. A semi-final but not the ultimately final tonic station within a phrase. However, the resolving tendency of the chords in bar 17 B maj and D7 directs the ear to the G major tonic station chord ofbar The G major scale melody sounding within this six-beat tonic station area reflects Coltrane's split-second reaction to this resolving tendency of non-finals B maj and D7 to a final G major.

The second instance of horizontal tonal gravity occurs in bars 28 and 29 when the two notes of the B major scale melody1 in bar 28 naturally sound in strongest accord with the B major tonic station to which the Cfl7 and F'N7 chords resolve in bar The chosen member or "official" scale melody signals the identity of the approaching tonic station to the listener.

Giant Steps is a masterful legacy to Coltrane's intellectual brilliance, intuitive perception, emotional fire and spiritual depth. Whether Coltrane was or was not influenced by the Lydian Chromatic Concept is not the reason for including the Giant Steps analysis in this book. Showing how completely. I Tonic station modality is the official term for the dominant melody on the level of HTG. There can be no doubt that the Lydian Concept "put modes in the air" andwas the theoretical foundation for what is commonly referred to as jazz's "modal era," l which, contrary to present myth, is not over.

Modes are woven into the fabric of music. They are intrinsically connected to both chords and scales-an essential part of the nature of music. Coltrane visited my home on Bank Street in Greenwich Village at some point back around We spoke about the Concept at length. Coltrane played with Miles, and I think that anyone who played with Miles was influ- enced by Miles and, through osmosis, by what had influenced Miles. The point is that the Concept was a product of a time when the drive for artistic excellence and innovation, in all the arts, was furious, exhilarating and all- consuming.

Giant Steps, Milestones, Ornette, Cecil Taylor, and the Concept were on the cutting edge of that artistic renaissance. We still had to struggle to say our say, but it was possible for individual essences who wouldn't be denied to evolve in an environment that, however tough, stayed reasonably receptive to new impulses. Additional information may be found in the following books, all by Eric Nisenson b St.

Martin's Press, New York: Round Midnight: A Portrait of Miles Davis; Ascension: Robert b E Palmer's liner notes to the recording Kind of Blue are both profound and factual.

Analyze the following ingoing vertical melody based on the chords of Autumn Leaves. In the bracket above the chord, note the principal or associate member scale you believe the improviser to be using. Within the parenthesis next to each chord, note the PMT indicating the position of the chord's root in its primary parent LC Scale. As you know, a chord's primary parent LC Scale has the most ingoing relationship to it.

When finished, check your analysis with the correct one on page of the Technical Appendix. Now create your own interesting melody based on the Autumn Leaves chord sequence. Derive your melody from the principal scale or associ- ate member scale of the parent LC Scale dictated by each chord.

The result should be an exciting ingoing vertical melody on the level of VTG. Observe the principal features of the Level ofVTG. Note each chord's PMTdegree roman numeral in the parenthesis next to it and identify the parent or associate member scale used in the bracket above the chord, as you've been doing so far in the text.

Write music that is vibrant and fresh, with the same intensity as i f you're performing it live for an audience. Try to avoid having your work on these Concept tests sound like dry and pedantic exercises. The present discussion will cen- ter first on alternate modal tonic degrees. Conceptual Modal Tonic degrees will be the focus of attention later in this chapter. Consequently, the status of the prevailing chord as such is maintained within the context of the newly created VTG alliance between the prevailing chord and its Alternate Parent [LC] Scale.

Exceptions to this will be discussed in due course. These possible changes are as follows: The consequence of these conversions is that, while its fundamental tones remain intact, the prevailing chord is placed in an interesting, though more remote, tonal environment. This includes all melodic and harmonic exposition. Three of these are listed on the next page. This qualifies the Db LC Scale and any ofits member scales to be employed as an alternate 2.

Chart A Lists certain Principal Scales which produce tonical majodaltered major chords containing a b7 degree. The chord progression in the following study see example on the top of the next page is called a "cycle of fifths"; each chord resolves to a chord an interval of a 5th below.

The following Principal Scales produce a type of seventh chord on their augmented fourth degree: Lydian, Lydian Augmented, Lydian Flat 7th, auxiliary augmented and auxil- iary diminished blues.

Notice that the chords in bars 1 and 2, although employing different scale I colors, have quite the same Lydian Chromatic Scale. One may form a general rule about this: This is also the case when the VI scale degree is assigned to the minor chord, and the I1 scale degree to the following 7th chord a 5th below.

Finish choosing primary or alternate parent scales for bars 5 through 8 of Example v1: List your chosen scale above the chord, and place the alternate or primary modal tonic scale degree which dictated the choice to the right of the chord as shown in Example v1: Then improvise or compose vertical melodies using your choices in the entire 8 bar progression. Fill in primary or alternate parent [LC] Scales for the "cycle of fifths" progres- sion in Example v1: The parent LC Scale for each chord is dictated by the scale degree listed next to the chord.

This example uses the following Primary Modal Genre: Compose or improvise a vertical melody along with the chord progression.

When playing a scale against a minor chord, it is only nec- essary to play the tonic and minor p h or minor 6th degrees ofthe chord in the left hand. Allow the scales of the solo in the right hand to express the vertical coloring of chords. They are the foundation of its tonal organization and rep- resent the fundamental harmonic colors of its tonal spectrum. Coltrane sounds secondary modal genres within VTG alliances prevailing in bars 2 , 6 , 14,16,26,28,29,30 and 35 of his solo.

The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization

These are discussed later in this chapter. In bar 10,C7 is the prevailing chord. These are in addition to its I major triad and VI minor triad. The manifestation of these four sharp-related major and minor triads within a flat-lying Lydian Scale is responsible for the horizontal state in which they and their corresponding modes V, , 11, or VII exist within the Lydian Scale.

They represent horizontal states of the Lydian Scale, the sem- inal vertical scale of the Lydian Chromatic Concept. The fact that the four sharp-lying triads exist as horizontal chordmodes within the Lydian Scale accounts for the essential contribution made by these triads to the tonal organization of the LC Scale, and consequently for their being termed Conceptual Modal Genre of the LC Scale.

One might perceive modes , V, I1 and VII of the Lydian Scale to have a split personality- a vertical state noted by the letter v and a horizontal state noted by the letter h. In this horizontal state, the tonical quality of the mode V major triad is stressed, C major, in this example. F maior 38 FIIIh: In its horizontal state, the tonical quality of the mode minor triad is stressed A minor, in this example.

F major 76 FVIIh: In this horizontal state, the tonical quality of the mode VII minor triad is stressed, E minor, in this example.

Naturally, in this latter state, the tonical quality of the mode I1 G major triad is stressed. This applies to any horizontal scale used in a VTG context.

The Parent [LC] Scale will remain the same. Abbreviations for terms: The musician is therefore fi-ee to relate to any p h chord in the manner of a IIh majb7 chordmode, placing the plain I1 seventh chord in the conceptual mode IIh context of its Parent [LC] Scale, EbLydian in this case. The aesthetic judgment of the musician must prevail in choosing which scales to relate to chords on the level of vertical tonal gravity; the Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization simply shows the possibilities.

Recontextualizando Russell's Lydian Chromatic Concept

This is the most ingoing and natural tonal envi- ronment for minor chords. However, in order to accommodate the melody in bar g of the Coltrane solo, the Bb major scale-a horizontal member of the Bb LC Scale-would have to be used. EbLydian is Bb major and vice versa.

The sharp lying major or minor triads situated within a flat-lying Lydian Scale when used to support a melody derived from that LC Scale are referred to as conceptual modal genre of the prevailing LC Scale.

In other words, a condition exists in which a LC Scale may function as the prevailing parent LC Scale for any one of its sharp positioned major or minor triads. Alternate and conceptual modal genre application brings about a certain degree of scale duplication.

So why bother to make conceptual computa- tions? Because even with duplication, many more scale possibilities are revealed. More importantly, these possibilities are unveiled in their true and natural relationship. For instance, the most natural position for the Ionian mode i.

This was its original, pre-fifteenth century position in the church modal system before the church fathers relented and permitted the major scale the scale of duality to exist on what was to become the common key center of a system of seven modes.

See Technical Appendix, Reed Gratz article. Of course, any principal, member or official scale1 of the conceptual parent scale Bb LC Scale in this instance may be used with the C major triad or C majb7 chord.

They function both vertically and horizontally. Test C Compose an interesting, imaginative solo derived from parent [LC] Scales established by the modal tonic degrees primary, alternate or conceptual that you have assigned to the chords in the following pro- gression. Always note the chosen modal tonic degree roman numeral t o the right o f the prevailing chord.

Be sure t o note in a bracket above the chord the scale you've selected from the parent LC Scale indicated by your designated modal tonic degree. The nomenclature shown in the two bar break preceding the first cho- rus is the correct one to follow throughout this test. Simply complete it by deriving an ingoing vertical melody of your own from the F LC Scale. A certain amount of chromatic enhancement of a scale may be used judi- ciously. When you've completed this test, compare your ingoing vertical melody solo with that of Miles Davis's solo on page of this chapter.

The general class of Secondary Modal Genres includes any and all princi- pal or Sub-principal Chordmodes of any LC Scale, except for those of the prevailing LC Scale in which they currently are manifesting, in a manner suggesting the expansion of that LC Scale's tonal environment. However, when used in the context of the general class of SMG as defined above , Alternate and Conceptual Modal Genres lose their sub-prime status and therefore no longer have authority to convert prevailing LC Scales.

The one hun- dred forty-four intervals of the tonal gravity chart representing all of equal temperament or a single Lydian Chromatic Scale make this a fact. Assume we're on the Level of VTG where the gravity centering element the prevailing chord on which we are momentarily focused is a C min7. See Chart, Example I I: See Volume However, as such, their LC Scale converting priv- ileges are canceled. However, their use within VTG alliances must be carefully managed to sustain the integrity of the level of VTG, summa- rized again as follows: Within the dura- tion of each VTG alliance, secondary modal genre melodies may occur as secondary expressions of its tonal levels as long as the basic requirement of the law of VTG is fulfilled; this is the creation of a melody that ultimately conveys the harmonic genre of its prevailing chord within the context of each VTG alliance.

Bars 3 and 4 of Coltrane's solo features an example of an AMT degree being used in relation to an F7 chord. Bars 31 and 32 show Col- trane's melody being derived from the F Lydian Augmented Scale in both of these bars. Bars 33 and 34 show Coltrane imposing a Bbmajor scale melody over the G min7 and C7 chords. This is a good example of using a horizontal member scale melody within the context of, in this case, a BbLC Scale VTG alliance, thereby enabling us to again grasp the idea of a verticalized horizontal melody.

As Coltrane became more conscious of chordmodes, his use of SMG became more extensive and more daring. The tour-de-force solo on Manhat- tan is an excellent testimonial to this.

A 4 AbLyd ? Bar 1 begins immediately following the 2 bar break at the start of the solo. Therefore, historically, Miles was no doubt using the F major scale in these three bars. Remember that before the Lydian Con- cept's first edition in , virtually all jazz musicians depended on tradi- tional Western theory with all its omissions and subjectivity.

So certainly Miles must have been thinking of the F major scale in bars g,13, and 25 of the Four solo. In def- erence to an old but steady law ofthe Lydian Concept that is applicable here: Bar 29 features an F Lydian Scale melody sounding horizontally. Miles allows the Ab min 7 chord to function as a color of his F Lydian melody, then imposes a vertically sensitive nine-tone order melody of the Bb LC Scale on the G min7 and C7 chords in bar At the time of the Four solo, Miles was inevitably looking beyond to a concept that would slow down the harmonic rhythm of the chord flow.

He needed wide open spaces to spend more time coloring and developing a single chordmode as he was becoming more conscious of chordmode rela- tionships. This inevitably led to what, in jazz terms, is called the "Modal Period. Chordmodes are parented by scales parent scales. Chordmodes are an intrinsic component of the Western harmonic spectrum. The publication ofthe Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization revealed these relationships, perhaps for the first time ever.

Western music is founded on chordmodes; they are its building blocks and represent Western culture's most profound theoretical contribu- tion to "World" music. John Coltrane employs this particular type of SMG. TER V I: The F LC Scale thereby becomes the tonal envi- ronment in which the music ofbar 3 unfolds. Eric's improvised melody employs secondary modal genre to expand the tonal environment of the A LC Scale, the parent LC Scale for both chords ofbar 4. All the notes of the melody sounding over the first five eighth notes ofbar four are within the ten-tone order ofthe A LC Scale.

Eric sounds a plain F major scale melody over the F majb7 chord, obviously ignoringits flat seventh degree. The horizontal state or mode is always indicated by the presence within it of a non-final element and a final- ized element to which the non-final resolves, or evidences a tendency to resolve.

BAR 8: A conceptual treatment of bar 8, beats 1 and 2, results in the following CMG analysis. I,C] Scale alliance. An ingoing vertical melody is a melody derived from any of the eleven member scales of the parent Lydian Chromatic Scale dictated by a chord. An absolute scale melody uses only the tones of the scale: Generally speaking, a subject's remote, contradictory, and "far out" aspects.

A chromatically enhanced scale melody occurs when a member scale of the prevailing LC Scale is used as a reference for a melody featuring member scale tones enhanced by non-scale, neighboring passing tones. A member scale that is chromatically enhanced acquires additional tones taken from a tonal order of its parent LC Scale.

The member scale is there- fore a framework onto which other non-scale tones are grafted. There are five tonal orders ofthe Lydian Chromatic Scale. The most outgoing. Example v Example V I I: On the Level of Vertical Tonal Gravity, the Lydian Chromatic Scale dictated by the chord is the source of tonal organization from which the musician derives parent, member, or official1 scale melodies absolute or chromatically enhanced to sound with the chord.

The musician's growing awareness of the five tonal orders of the Lydian Chromatic Scale makes it possible to also use them directly as tonal resources of the parent LC Scale.