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Patents and Intellectual Property Rights in. Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. 5. The Use of the Word 'Fermentation' in Industrial Microbiology. 9. Industrial microbiology pp. , , Industrial microbiology → biotechnology. • Why the increased interest soundofheaven.info Multiple choice questions (MCQs) test a candidates ability to apply his or her Framing a question MCQs in Microbiol Essentials of Medical Microbiology.


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PDF | Extensive application of bioprocesses has created an Several widespread applications of industrial microbiology to deliver a variety of. PDF | On Feb 15, , Sandeep Tiwari and others published Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology. Industrial Microbiology: An Introduction. Michael J. Waites. BSc, PhD, CBiol, MIBiol. Neil L. Morgan. BSc, PhD, MIFST. John S. Rockey. BSc, MSc, PhD.

In all cases, in the particular food and be compatible with other polysaccha- it is necessary to produce and recover the products under carefully rides. Later on Pasteur has also studied the fermentation of acetic acid and beer. Today pharmaceutical agents like antibiotics and other drugs are manufactured at large scale which utilizes micro- organism. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. In addition, if this is a product to be used in animal or human health care, literally mil- The medium used to grow a microorganism is critical because it lions of dollars must be spent conducting trials and obtaining reg- can influence the economic competitiveness of a particular process.

These often are bulk chemicals that are used as food supplements and acidifying agents. Other products are used as biosurfactants and emulsifiers in a wide variety of applications. Degradation is critical for understanding microbial contributions to natural Microbiology and Biotechnology environments. The chemical structure of substrates and microbial community characteristics play important roles in determining the fate of chemicals.

Anaerobic degradation processes are important for the initial The first task for an industrial microbiologist is to find a suitable modification of many compounds, especially those with chlorine and other microorganism for use in the desired process.

A wide variety of halogenated functions.

Pdf industrial microbiology

Degradation can produce simpler or modified compounds that may not be less toxic than the original compound. Biosensors are undergoing rapid development, which is limited only by the croorganisms from the environment to using sophisticated mo- advances that are occurring in molecular biology and other areas of science.

It is now possible, especially with streptavidin-biotin-linked systems, to have essentially real-time detection of important pathogens. Gene arrays, based on recombinant DNA technology, allow gene Finding Microorganisms in Nature expression to be monitored. These systems are being used in the analysis of complex microbial systems. Until relatively recently, the major sources of microbial cultures Bacteria, fungi, and viruses are increasingly employed as biopesticides, for use in industrial microbiology were natural materials such as thus reducing dependence on chemical pesticides.

Cultures from Application of microorganisms and their technology has both positive and all areas of the world were examined in an attempt to identify negative aspects.

Possible broader impacts of applications of industrial microbiology and biotechnology should be considered in the application of strains with desirable characteristics. Because only a minor portion of the microbial species in most environments has been isolated or cultured table Enzyme stability is critical. When these enzymes are separated from their protectant, they lose their unique lems in growing these microorganisms are formidable. For example, to thermostability. This is an exciting lenges in nutrient acquisition, metabolism, nucleic acid replication, and and expanding area of the modern biological sciences to which environ- growth.

Many of these are anaerobes that depend on elemental sulfur as mental microbiologists can make significant contributions. Table Fresh water 0. Soil 0. Microbial genomes—the untapped resource.

Tibtech Adapted from: Table 1, p. With increased interest in microbial diversity and micro- new and desirable characteristics. The classical methods of mi- bial ecology, and especially in microorganisms from extreme crobial genetics see chapter 13 play a vital role in the develop- environments Box Mutation They are also identifying microorganisms involved in mutualis- tic and protocooperative relationships with other microorgan- Once a promising culture is found, a variety of techniques can isms and with higher plants and animals.

There is continuing in- be used for culture improvement, including chemical mutagens terest in bioprospecting in all areas of the world, and major and ultraviolet light see chapter As an example, the first companies have been organized to continue to explore micro- cultures of Penicillium notatum, which could be grown only un- bial diversity and identify microorganisms with new capabili- der static conditions, yielded low concentrations of penicillin.

Uncultured microorganisms and microbial diversity section 6. X [] Most of these microorganisms are asexual or of a single mating UV type, which decreases the chance of random mutations that could WIS. Q [] lead to strain degeneration. To carry out genetic studies with these UV BL3-D10 microorganisms, protoplasts are prepared by growing the cells in an isotonic solution while treating them with enzymes, including cellulase and beta-galacturonidase.

The protoplasts are then re- [] generated using osmotic stabilizers such as sucrose. If fusion oc- curs to form hybrids, desired recombinants are identified by [1,] means of selective plating techniques.

After regeneration of the UV cell wall, the new protoplasm fusion product can be used in fur- ther studies. For example, [1,] protoplasts of Penicillium roquefortii have been fused with UV [2,] those of P.

Even yeast protoplasts and erythro- N UV cytes can be fused. This can create small genetic alterations UV leading to a change of one or several amino acids in the target pro- [2,] UV tein. Such minor amino acid changes have been found to lead, in many cases, to unexpected changes in protein characteristics, and UV have resulted in new products such as more environmentally re- [1,] sistant enzymes and enzymes that can catalyze desired reactions.

The F molecular basis for the functioning of these modified products [2,] [2,] [2,] also can be better understood.

Industrial Microbiology

By use of processing. Unmarked transfers were used for mutant growth and isolation. Yields in 1. Based on recent estimates, what portion of the microorganisms have been cultured from soils and from aquatic and marine environments? What is protoplast fusion and what types of microorganisms are strain NRRL —which was further improved through mu- used in this process?

Today most penicillin is produced with 4. Describe site-directed mutagenesis and how it is used in Penicillium chrysogenum, grown in aerobic stirred fermenters, biotechnology. What is protein engineering? Cephalosporin precursor Penicillium chrysogenum Production 7-ADC and 7-ADCAa precursors by incorporation of the expandase gene of synthesis Cephalosoporin acremonium into Penicillium by transformation. Xylitol production S. Creatininaseb E. Gene inserted with a pUC18 vector.

Acetone and butanol Clostridium acetobutylicum Introduction of a shuttle vector into C. Tang; C.

Pdf industrial microbiology

Wen; and W. Expression of the creatininase gene from Pseudomonas putida RS65 in Escherichia coli. Schoeman; M. Vivier; M.

DuToit; L. Dicks; and I. The development of bactericidal yeast strains by expressing the Pediococcus acidilactici pediocin gene pedA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Yeast Adapted from S. Ostergaard; L. Olsson; and J. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Transfer of Genetic Information between Different Organisms A wide range of genetic information also can be inserted into microorganisms using vectors and recombinant DNA tech- New alternatives have arisen through the transfer of nucleic acids niques.

Vectors see section This involves the bacteriophage-derived chromosomes PACs , and mammalian transfer of genes for the synthesis of a specific product from one artificial chromosomes MACs.

YACs are especially valuable organism into another, giving the recipient varied capabilities such because large DNA sequences over kb can be maintained as an increased capacity to carry out hydrocarbon degradation. An in the YAC as a separate chromosome in yeast cells. Chakarabarty in , which had and-mouth disease of cattle and other livestock.

Genetic infor- an increased capability of hydrocarbon degradation. The genes for mation for a foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen can be antibiotic production can be transferred to a microorganism that incorporated into E. For example, the genes for synthesis of bialophos vaccine production figure Other examples are the expression in cific proteins and peptides without contamination by similar E. This the production of pediocin, a bacteriocin, in a yeast used in wine approach can decrease the time and cost of recovering and puri- fermentation for the purpose of controlling bacterial contami- fying a product.

Another major advantage of peptide production nants. Bacteriocins pp. This specificity is required to avoid efficiency and minimize the purification steps required before the the possible harmful side effects of inactive stereoisomers, as oc- product is ready for use.

For example, recombinant baculoviruses curred in the thalidomide disaster. Transgenic plants dis- siderable range of possibilities for manipulation of microorganisms cussed on pp. A most imaginative way of incor- expression of recombinant DNA. Newer molecular techniques porating new DNA into a plant is to simply shoot it in using DNA- continue to be discovered and applied to transfer genetic informa- coated microprojectiles and a gene gun see section Genes coding for desired products can be expressed in different organisms.

By the use of recombinant DNA techniques, a foot-and-mouth disease vaccine is produced through cloning the vaccine genes into Escherichia coli. These approaches make it possible to overproduce a wide variety of products, as shown in table As a further ex- E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E9 ample, genes for the synthesis of the antibiotic actinorhodin have been transferred into strains producing another antibiotic, result- ing in the production of two antibiotics by the same cell.

P1,2 P1,3 P1,2 P2,3 P1,3 P2,3 This approach of modifying gene expression also can be used to intentionally alter metabolic pathways by inactivation or deregulation of specific genes, which is the field of pathway ar- E10 E12 E11 E11 chitecture, as shown in figure Alternative routes can be E10 E12 used to add three functional groups to a molecule. Some of these pathways may be more efficient than the others.

Understanding pathway architecture makes it possible to design a pathway that will be most efficient by avoiding slower or energetically more FP1,2,3 costly routes. This approach has been used to improve penicillin production by metabolic pathway engineering MPE. Figure Alternative steps for addition of three functional groups to a pression, which illustrates metabolic control engineering, is basic chemical skeleton may have different efficiencies, and it is critical to that of altering controls for the synthesis of lycopene, an impor- choose the most efficient combination of enzymatic steps or pathway to tant antioxidant normally present at high levels in tomatoes and yield the desired product.

An artificially engineered region that controls two key lycopene synthesis enzymes is stimulated by excess glycolytic activity and influences acetyl phosphate lev- els, thus allowing a significant increase in lycopene production while reducing negative impacts of metabolic imbalances. Another recent development is the use of modified gene ex- 1.

What is combinatorial biology and what is the basic approach pression to produce variants of the antibiotic erythromycin. Block- used in this technique? What types of major products have been created using synthesis of an antibiotic precursor resulted in modified final prod- combinatorial biology?

These altered products, which have slightly different struc- 3. Why might one want to insert a gene in a foreign cell and how is tures, can be tested for their possible antimicrobial effects. In addi- this done? Why is it important to produce specific isomers of products for structure-function relationships of antibiotics.

Procedures for using use in animal and human health? These changed structures the highlighted areas may lead to the synthesis of modified antibiotics with improved properties. This is the process of using specific environmental 1,3-propanediol can be produced at high levels figure The Other examples include the increased synthesis of antibiotics mechanisms of these adaptive mutational processes include and cellulases, modification of gene expression, DNA amplifica- DNA rearrangements in which transposable elements and var- tion, greater protein synthesis, and interactive enzyme overpro- ious types of recombination play critical roles, as shown in duction or removal of feedback inhibition.

Recombinant plas- table Although there is much controversy concerning this area, the The newest approach for creating new metabolic capabilities in responses of microorganisms to stress provide the potential of a given microorganism is the area of natural genetic engineer- generating microorganisms with new microbial capabilities for ing, which employs forced evolution and adaptive mutations use in industrial microbiology and biotechnology. Natural genetic engineering, adaptive mutation, and bacterial evolution.

In microbial ecology of infectious disease, E. Rosenberg, editor, — Washington, D. American Society for Microbiology. Derived from Table 2, pp. Preservation of Microorganisms typic changes in microorganisms. To avoid these problems, a va- Once a microorganism or virus has been selected or created to riety of culture preservation techniques may be used to maintain serve a specific purpose, it must be preserved in its original form desired culture characteristics table Lyophilization, or for further use and study.

Periodic transfers of cultures have been freeze-drying, and storage in liquid nitrogen are frequently em- used in the past, although this can lead to mutations and pheno- ployed with microorganisms. A Word with Many out loss of viability or an accumulation of mutations.

Meanings for the Microbiologist 1. Any process involving the mass culture of microorganisms, either 1. What types of recombinant DNA techniques are being used to aerobic or anaerobic modify gene expression in microorganisms? Any biological process that occurs in the absence of O2 3. Food spoilage 2. Define metabolic control engineering, metabolic pathway 4.

The production of alcoholic beverages engineering, forced evolution, and adaptive mutations. Use of an organic substrate as the electron donor and acceptor 3.

Why might natural genetic engineering be useful in modern 6. Use of an organic substrate as a reductant, and of the same partially microbial biotechnology? What approaches can be used for the preservation of 7. Growth dependent on substrate-level phosphorylation microorganisms?

Before proceeding, it is necessary to clarify terminology. The As noted in table The development ditions, including temperature, aeration, and nutrient feeding dur- of industrial fermentations requires appropriate culture media and ing the course of the fermentation.

The growth of microorganisms the large-scale screening of microorganisms. Often years are under such controlled environments is expensive, and this ap- needed to achieve optimum product yields. Many isolates are tested proach is used only when the desired product can be sold for a for their ability to synthesize a new product in the desired quantity.

These high costs arise from the expense of development of Few are successful. Fermentation as a physiological process pp. In addition, if this is a product to be used in animal or human health care, literally mil- The medium used to grow a microorganism is critical because it lions of dollars must be spent conducting trials and obtaining reg- can influence the economic competitiveness of a particular process. Patents are obtained whenever possible to assure that bon, nitrogen, and phosphorus table Crude plant hy- investment costs can be recovered over a longer time period.

By-products from the brewing industry fre- monetary value. The development of appropriate culture media quently are employed because of their lower cost and greater avail- and the growth of microorganisms under industrial conditions are ability. Other useful carbon sources include molasses and whey the subjects of this section.

Microbial growth media pp. Filamentous fungi and actinomycetes can change their growth form during the course of a fermentation. The development of pelleted growth by fungi has major effects on oxygen transfer and energy required to agitate the culture. To minimize this problem, cultures can be growth factors can be critical in medium formulation. For exam- grown as pellets or flocs or bound to artificial particles. The medium iting microbial growth. This is most critical during scaleup, also may be designed so that carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, where a successful procedure developed in a small shake flask is or a specific growth factor will become limiting after a given time modified for use in a large fermenter.

One must understand the during the fermentation. In such cases the limitation often causes microenvironment of the culture and maintain similar conditions a shift from growth to production of desired metabolites. If a successful transition can be made from a process originally de- veloped in a ml Erlenmeyer flask to a , liter reactor, Growth of Microorganisms in an Industrial Setting then the process of scaleup has been carried out properly.

Once a medium is developed, the physical environment for mi- Microorganisms can be grown in culture tubes, shake flasks, and crobial functioning in the mass culture system must be defined. Stirred fermenters This often involves precise control of agitation, temperature, pH can range in size from 3 or 4 liters to , liters or larger, de- changes, and oxygenation.

Phosphate buffers can be used to con- pending on production requirements figure A typical indus- trol pH while also functioning as a source of phosphorus. Oxygen trial stirred fermentation unit is illustrated in figure This unit limitations, especially, can be critical in aerobic growth processes. All required The O2 concentration and flux rate must be sufficiently high to steps in the growth and harvesting of products must be carried out un- have O2 in excess within the cells so that it is not limiting.

This is der aseptic conditions. Not only must the medium be sterilized but especially true when a dense microbial culture is growing. When aeration, pH adjustment, sampling, and process monitoring must be filamentous fungi and actinomycetes are cultured, aeration can be carried out under rigorously controlled conditions. When required, even further limited by filamentous growth figure Such fil- foam control agents must be added, especially with high-protein me- amentous growth results in a viscous, plastic medium, known as a dia.

This unit can be run under Valve aerobic or anaerobic conditions, and nutrient additions, sampling, and fermentation monitoring can be carried out under aseptic conditions. Harvest Air filter Biosensors and infrared monitoring can provide real-time information line on the course of the fermentation.

Specific substrates, metabolic intermediates, and final products can be detected. These ters. The most balanced and efficient strain development strategy would not emphasize one to the exclusion of the other; it would contain both mutagenesis- screening and recombination-screening components.

In such a program, strains at different stages of a mutational line, or from lines developed from different ancestors, would be recombined.

Such strains would no doubt differ in many genes and by crossing them, genotypes could be generated which would never occur as strictly mutational descendants of either parent. Recombination was also of importance in the mapping of production genes.

The model for such investigations was the genetic map of Streptomyces coelicolor which was found to be very similar to those of other Streptomyces species, such as Streptomyces bikiniensis, Streptomyces olivaceous, Streptomyces glaucescens and Streptomyces rimosus. Recombination in micro-organisms occurs through three parasexual processes: Internal genetic rearrangements can also occur via translocatable DNA segments insertion sequences or transposons.

Conjugation involves transfer of DNA via cell-to-cell contact. Transduction occurs from host cell to recipient cell via mediation by bacteriophage. Transformation involves uptake and expression of naked DNA by competent cells. Competence occurs naturally but can also be induced by changes in the physical and chemical environment. In the laboratory, it can be induced by cold calcium chloride treatment, protoplasting, and electroporation and heat shock.

As mentioned above, genetic recombination was virtually ignored in industry, mainly due to the low frequency of recombination.

(PDF) Industrial Microbiology | Bekele Oljira - soundofheaven.info

However, use of protoplast fusion changed the situation markedly. After , there was a heightened interest in the application of genetic recombination to the production of important microbial products such as antibiotics. Today, frequencies of recombination have increased to even greater than in some cases, and strain improvement programs routinely include protoplast fusion between different mutant lines.

The use of micro-organism in large scale production of food and industrial products is being done worldwide. When micro-organisms are used for food production, the branch is called as food microbiology. The sources of food production in such cases may be animals or plants but the processing is done by enzymatic activities by micro-organism only. Micro-organism contains various enzymes which are capable of degradation of substrates. This is also known as fermentation process in which the degradations is not completed and results in useful by products.

These by products include, beverages, antibiotics, milk by products etc which are used by humans as nutritive foods. With the development of technology like genetic engineering, many mutants are developed which are capable of performing extra with respect to production quality and quantity as compared to their wild types.

This isolation is either done naturally or by screening of mutants after the genetic engineering. Today pharmaceutical agents like antibiotics and other drugs are manufactured at large scale which utilizes micro- organism.

The history of microbiology has given us very broad spectrum antibiotics like Penicillin and Streptomycin which are still in use at large throughout the globe. This is the most useful application of micro-organisms. Foods which are originated from animals are enzymatic ally processed by specific micro-organisms resulting in increase in their nutritive value.

These foods are fermented foods like Yogurt, milk by products like cheese, sweet chocolates and silage. Many algae are today used as source of protein. Fungus like mushroom is today being used as source of nutrition as well as medicine. Bacteria like Lactic acid bacteria are used in production of pure curd and other milk products. Bacteria like Bifid bacteria are being used in food industry as probiotics which helps in curing of diseases of digestive systems and intestinal disorders.

Polysaccharides, polyamides, polyesters and many other varieties of biopolymers are produced by many micro-organisms. These are ranging from plastics to viscous solutions. Today many researches in drug delivery and tissue engineering are being successfully done with the help of genetically manipulated micro-organisms which are producing biopolymers which are having medical applications.

Today bioremediation and other methods like biotransformation are used for cleaning of the environments. Today even heavy metals like mercury which is toxic and results in biomagnifications. The degradation of this is very costly by chemical and other standards technologies. Therefore the alternative method is bioremediation.

Today in modern societies, lot of waste is being generated from domestic wastes. These are accumulating every day and are very harmful to not only the society but also the environment Our mother earth. The processing of such waste using living organisms is known as biotreatment. These methods are helping society and saving earth from accumulation of hazardous wastes. This method of using micro- organisms in degradation of hazardous waste is not only useful but also simple, cost effective and eco friendly.

The systematic method of biotreatment is done with the help of bioreactors having aeration system, baffles which suitable for microbial enzymatic reaction. Apart from waste treatments, micro-organisms are used in production of biological like insulin, serum antibodies, and essential hormones. Today with the development of technology and science, new ways of diagnosis of diseases are being used for early detection using micro-organisms e. One of the microbe known as Clostridium is useful in treatment of malignant cells like cancers.

These organisms have the ability to selectively target cancerous cells. Micro-organisms are used in large scale manufacturing of vaccines against diseases like influenza flu, polio, BCG etc.

New organisms are today being detected especially from extreme conditions like high temperature, high saline, low or high pH, etc having unique characteristics which are very useful in industrial productions and ultimately for well being of mankind. Environment is precious to us all.

But in many areas nature suffers from the heavy impact of the western way of life. All the companies have a responsibility to pursue sustainable solutions to their industrial processes, and in many cases enzymes can help them do it.

Chemicals used in industrial processes are one of the most severe threats to nature and man today. By using enzymes instead of chemicals, the problem is solved. Enzymes present no threat to the environment. With enzymes we can maintain the living standards we have today and at the same time preserve the environment for our children. Enzymes not only just replace chemicals but they also reduce the consumption of raw materials, energy and water, giving real benefits to both the environment and industry.

As the world's leading producer of industrial enzymes, No enzymes cannot save the planet, but we can provide some of the tools to do it. Enzymes also replace chemicals in the detergent, which means a reduction in the amount of chemical waste from both industrial and household laundry. A third benefit of putting enzymes in detergents is that they can even make your clothes look better and last longer.

So what's the catch? There isn't one. If you want to take care of nature and still wear clean clothes, let enzymes do the dirty work for you.

The minute bread leaves the oven; the breakdown of the bread begins. It is the bread's starch content that is most "hard to please"; starch feeds on moisture, which is why bread becomes hard and unfit for consumption within a few days. By adding Novozymes' enzymes to the flour, it is possible to alter the structure of the starch in the bread so that it retains moisture better. This means that the bread remains soft for a longer period of time.

Other enzymes make dough-handling much easier for the baker. Enzymes make the dough less sticky, which is a major benefit if you are making hundreds of loaves every morning. If you have ever wondered why bread from the bakers is larger and more airy, enzymes are once again the answer. Specialized enzymes can make the gluten of bread retain naturally-occurring gases that would otherwise disappear. Enzymes make your leather soft: Natural, untreated leather is as stiff as metal.

It therefore needs to be softened before use - and enzymes can do the job. To make leather pliable, the raw material requires an enzyme treatment called bating, which takes place before tanning.

This involves dissolving and washing the protein components that stiffen the leather. The degree of bating depends on the desired properties of the finished leather. Glove leather, for example, should be very soft and pliable and is subjected to strong bating, whereas leather for the soles of shoes is only lightly bated.

In the old days, dog excrement was used in the bating process, the bacteria in the excrement producing enzymes to make the leather soft. The use of enzymes in industry today is rather more hygienic. Hygiene is not the only advantage of using enzymes to treat leather products. Before leather becomes soft it undergoes several different treatments.

Each treatment normally requires the use of large quantities of harsh chemicals. Enzymes are also responsible for major reductions in the amounts of water used, as the replacement of chemicals reduces the rinsing and cleaning processes. Ultimately, higher quality leather is achieved and the load on the environment is reduced. Enzymes turn corn starch into sugar syrup: Sugar is the expensive element of most sweet products like candy or cola.

But there is an easy way to cheaper sweets. The enzymes work by rearranging and cutting up the starch molecules, turning them into liquid sugar. When the process is complete, the syrups and modified starches, which have different compositions and physical properties, can be used in a wide variety of foodstuffs, including soft drinks, confectionery, meats, baked products, ice cream, sauces, baby food, tinned fruit, preserves, and much more.

Novozymes makes many specialized enzymes for the starch and sugar industries. Some of them also protect the environment. For example, one supplants the use of strong acids in the manufacture of sugar syrups. Others help manufacturers to produce products of higher quality, save energy and help ensure a safer working environment. Latest Invention of Microbiology in Industrial Field: Rapid microbiology method in a pharmaceutical: Many Rapid microbiology method RMM technologies have been developed over the last years.

Most of these have been marketed mainly in the clinical sector, and to a lesser extent in the food manufacturing and water microbiology sectors. Nevertheless, some have specific pharmaceutical applications and others have been developed solely for the pharmaceutical industry. Growth based technologies: Growth based RMM technologies differ from conventional culture methods in that they rely on the detection of biochemical or physiological growth indicators rather than visible growth.

This generally allows much more rapid detection, but often requires a short enrichment stage before micro-organisms can be detected, especially in samples containing low levels of contamination. Examples of growth- based RMM include: Adenosine triphosphate ATP bioluminescence is a well established rapid method for assessing contamination levels in pharmaceutical products and raw materials.

The amount of light is related to the number of microbial cells present. The main drawback is that non-microbial ATP is also detected. Several commercial systems have been developed for a range of pharmaceutical test applications, especially for filterable samples where non- microbial ATP in the sample is less of a concern. ATP bioluminescence tests typically require hours to complete including enrichment.

Colorimetric growth detection: Colorimetric growth detection methods rely on a color change being produced in a growth medium as a result of microbial metabolism during growth, often as a result of CO2 production. Clearly the range of organisms that can be detected by this method is limited by variations in metabolism, but systems able to detect most aerobes and acid-producing types, such as lactobacilli and yeasts, are available.

This is semi-automated and employs sensitive color detection and analysis technology to produce a result within hours. Auto fluorescence detection: All living cells auto fluoresce under blue light and this can be used to detect microbial colonies growing on a solid surface long before they are visible to the naked eye.

This technique is particularly useful for filterable samples, where a membrane filter can be incubated on a conventional nutrient medium and scanned using highly sensitive imaging systems to detect micro colonies several days earlier than using traditional colony counting methods.

The system has the advantage that it is non- destructive and mirrors the compendial method, thus is straightforward to validate. The system is also fully automated from sample prep onward. Rapid Air Monitoring: Environmental monitoring is another key requirement in pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities and rapid detection of airborne contamination in clean areas is particularly important. Most microbiological air sampling systems rely on conventional culture technology and so cannot give rapid results, but several instruments have been developed that can speed up this process.

IMD technology is one of very few methods that can produce results in real time. It can alert operators immediately when contamination is detected. But other techniques are needed to subsequently identify the contaminants and the source of contamination. Validation In the past, difficulties with validation have proved to be a serious obstacle for the implementation of RMM in pharmaceutical manufacturing.

The regulatory authorities now offer more encouragement for manufacturers to validate alternative methods and several rapid product release test methods have already been approved by the FDA. Many industrial sectors are likely to generate highly saline wastewater: The discharge of such wastewater containing at the same time high salinity and high organic content without prior treatment is known to adversely affect the aquatic life, water portability and agriculture.

Thus, legislation is becoming more stringent and the treatment of saline wastewater, both for organic matter and salt removal, is nowadays compulsory in many countries. Saline effluents are conventionally treated through physico-chemical means, as biological treatment is strongly inhibited by salts mainly NaCl. However, the costs of physico-chemical treatments being particularly high, alternative systems for the treatment of organic matter are nowadays increasingly the focus of research.

Most of such systems involve anaerobic or aerobic biological treatment. Even though biological treatment of carbonaceous, nitrogenous and phosphorous pollution has proved to be feasible at high salt concentrations, the performance obtained depends on a proper adaptation of the biomass or the use of halophilic organisms. Another major limit is related to the turbidity problems inherent in saline effluents. Hydrocarbon-eating cells could help clean up oil slicks by converting the alkenes in crude oil into storage polymers, shown here as white spots within the cell.

With a complete blueprint for Alcanivorax borkumensis, researchers hope to better understand the specialized physiological mechanisms that enable the bacteria to live almost exclusively on hydrocarbons, say Victor Martins dos Santos of the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research formerly the German Research Centre for Biotechnology in Braunschweig, Germany, who co-led the international project.

The sequencing of the 2,gene organism is described in the journal Nature Biotechnology. The findings could reveal how to optimize the conditions for these bugs and thus enable them to help mop up the hundreds of millions of liters of oil that enter the sea each year, says Martins dos Santos.

The ability of some bacteria to metabolize oil has been well known for more than a century. But so far efforts to exploit these capabilities for remediation efforts have faltered. In one example, bacteria were used experimentally to try to help clean up the 11 million gallons of crude oil spewed out by the Exxon Valdez after it ran aground off the coast of Alaska in The problem was not a lack of bacteria, he says. Indeed, though the oil-eating bacteria are not common in unpolluted environments, they are plentiful where there is oil; A.

The challenge in using these bacteria to clean up oil lies in creating the right conditions for them to grow faster and metabolize oil more efficiently. Cleanup workers have started to do this: However, they still have no real understanding of what specific nutrients the bacteria need, says Martins dos Santos. Journal source http: The majority of antibiotics we know of today are produced naturally by a group of soil bacteria called Streptomyces. For commercial production of these antibiotics for clinical use, it is necessary to increase the yield.

This has typically been achieved by randomly inducing mutations and screening for strains that show increased production, a process that takes many years. When technology had progressed sufficiently to analyze how this had been achieved scientists found that, in some cases, the increase in yield was due to repeated copies of the genes needed for antibiotic production.

In almost all cases, the genes needed to produce these antibiotics are clustered together in the bacterial genome. In work carried out initially at the John Innes Centre, which is strategically funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Professor Mervyn Bibb and collaborator Dr Koji Yanai from a Japanese laboratory discovered 36 repeating copies of one gene cluster in a strain of Streptomyces that had been repeatedly selected to over-produce the antibiotic kanamycin.

The researchers then went on to identify the components within Streptomyces responsible for creating the 36 repeating clusters that led to kanamycin overproduction. These consist of two DNA sequences that flank the gene cluster, and a protein, known as ZouA, that recognizes the two sequences and replicates them.

In research to be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Prof Bibb and colleagues Dr Takeshi Murakami and Prof Charles Thompson, working at the University of British Columbia, together with the same Japanese pharmaceutical laboratory, describe a system for the targeted amplification of gene clusters.

The researchers were able to engineer these components into genetic 'cassettes' and then insert these into another strain of Streptomyces.

They successfully used the system to make Streptomyces coelicolor overproduce actinorhodin, a blue-pigmented antibiotic. They believe the system will work equally as well for many other Streptomyces strains and antibiotics, and have also shown that it functions in an unrelated bacterium, Escherichia coli. The system may also uncover new, undiscovered antibiotics. Researchers have been able to identify other gene clusters within these sequences with unknown products.

It is likely that many of these 'cryptic' gene clusters produce potentially new antibiotics, but at an undetectable level, or only under specific environmental conditions.

Using the gene cluster amplification system identified here, it will be possible to amplify these cryptic gene clusters, identify their products, and potentially discover new antibiotics for the battle against resistant superbugs. Role of Microbiologist in the Pharmaceutical Industry: A pharmaceutical industry is a manufactory organization where life saving medicines is produced.

The role of microbiologist plays a vital role in the pharmaceutical industry from raw materials to finish product analysis. The work has done by the microbiologist in the pharmaceutical industry are listed bellows: Works for the microbiologist in the pharmaceutical industry: Laboratory design: Microbiological laboratory design in the pharmaceutical industry is one of the major responsibilities of a microbiologist.

How the equipments will be placed in the laboratory will be maintained by the microbiologist. The environment of the laboratory and the processing zone of the product will be checked by the microbiologist e. Chlorination and aseptic technique should be applied for every employee before entrance and working period of the laboratory or processing zone.

Raw materials analysis: Raw materials of the product should be checked by the microbiologist that is the raw materials are not already contaminated before the production starts. Quality assurance of the product: Several tests are being done by the microbiologist in the microbiological laboratory of the pharmaceutical industry for the quality control of the product.

Some tests names are given bellow: In process control: In process control is a process where the micro-organisms are belong free from raw materials to finish product including the machineries are used in processing of any product.

The total process will be checked by the microbiologist. Physical fitness checkup of the employee: The microbiologists have to confirm that every single worker is medically fit and there are no contamination chances from the workers. The role of microbiologist in the pharmaceutical industry is very much significant.

So microbiologist in the pharmaceutical industry is must mainly for the quality control of the product and other purpose as discussed. Golam Moktadir Khan Dept. They do a great deal of good and they do a great deal of damage. This also returns mineral salts to the earth which plants need. Other fungi even create drugs which man uses to fight diseases. There are other fungi which cause diseases of plants and animals, and man is waging a constant battle against them.

Fungi they are simple and dependent plants. So they depend on food that has been made by green plants. There are a great many different kinds of fungi, and they differ considerably in their structure.

Some fungi consist of a single cell. As example: The average length of bacteria is about 0. Slime mold is another type of fungus. It differs from all other plants in that it consists of a mass of naked protoplasm that looks like a film of jelly on the surface of a rotting log or other moist object. All other fungi except this three, bacteria, yeast, and slime mold, consist of a mass of colorless threads.

Certain molds gives flavor to cheese and others are used to prepare drugs. Did you know the mushrooms and toads tools are fungi?

The main part of these fungi is the mycelium that branches underground. The mushrooms itself is only the spore-producing part, and is almost completely formed before it pushes out of the ground. Biotechnology and microbiology go hand in hand in the characterization and modification of the micro-organisms for the welfare of humans and industrial uses.