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Ursula Heise. Sense of Place and Sense of Planet: The Shape of the Signifier: It also confronts humans with an environment that no evolutionary process has prepared their bodies to inhabit. A month before my talk, Adobe Reader X is released.
With evening injections this distribution might be disadvantageous because insulin needs in people with T1D are often higher in these time periods 12 than at other times of the day. Thus, under these circumstances, a dose of 0. Similar results were observed when all randomized participants were included in the analysis Figure S1 , Supporting Information.
Both, the variance ratio and CV are estimates of pharmacodynamic variability; however, we have used the former as the prespecified primary endpoint in this study as the variances do not need any further transformation. Nevertheless, because of its mechanism of protraction ie, the formation of microprecipitates IGlar has the inherent predisposition to pharmacodynamic variability.
Whereas, after a dose at 8: We also precluded any potential residual effects of endogenous insulin secretion by performing the study in patients with T1D, who were selected using stringent inclusion criteria to represent a homogeneous population required for clamp studies. Most importantly, we tried to achieve very high clamp quality by using a modern automated device ClampArt that attains highly reliable outcomes by measuring BG continuously while GIR is adapted every minute.
The main limitation is the difficulty in translating clamp results into clinical findings. In addition, he is a member of advisory panels for Novo Nordisk and received speaker honoraria and travel grants from Eli Lilly, Mylan and Novo Nordisk.
Insulin degludec: Diabetes Obes Metab. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Apr Haahr 2. Hanne L. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Tim Heise, Email: Corresponding author.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Variability in pharmacodynamic response. Table S1. Demographic and baseline characteristics. Results Overall, 57 patients completed both treatment periods clamps.
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Treatments Participants were randomly assigned 1: Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Safety Overall, both treatments were well tolerated. Supporting information Figure S1. Click here for additional data file. Conflict of interest T. Author contributions T. Old and new basal insulin formulations: Heise T, Mathieu C. Impact of the mode of protraction of basal insulin therapies on their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and resulting clinical outcomes.
Haahr H, Heise T. A review of the pharmacological properties of insulin degludec and their clinical relevance. Clin Pharmacokinet. Comparison of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of insulin degludec and insulin glargine.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. How do humans relate to an environment whose biology and ecology will essentially have to be of their own making? Tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands, and finally millions of settlers follow them over the next few decades as Earth suffers crisis after crisis from population growth, climate change, and the ever-increasing power of transnational corporations.
As in Bova, it is a geologist, the aptly named Ann Clayborne, who provides the initial inspiration and leadership for the conservationists. In her far-flung rover trips across the surface of Mars, Clayborne comes to know and love the planet in its original form, and resists any efforts to transform it more than minimally. Roads, cities. New sky, new soil. She fiercely inveighs against the mindless arrogance of the scientists engaged in terraforming: Here you sit in your little holes running your little experiments, making things like kids with a chemistry set in a basement, while the whole time an entire world sits outside your door.
A world where the landforms are a hundred times larger than their equivalents on Earth, and a thousand times older, with evidence concerning the beginning of the solar system scattered all over, as well as the whole history of a planet, scarcely changed in the last billion years.
Because we could live here and study the planet without changing it—we could do that with very little harm or even inconvenience to ourselves. The beauty of Mars exists in the human mind. Without the human presence it is just a collection of atoms, no different than any other random speck of matter in the universe.
All those dumb sci-fi novels with their monsters and maidens and dying civiliza- tions. And all the scientists who studied the data, or got us here.
Not the basalt and the oxides. Science is part of a larger human enterprise, and that enter- prise includes going to the stars, adapting to other planets, adapt- ing them to us. Science is creation. We are the consciousness of the universe, and our job is to spread that around, to go look at things, to live everywhere we can. Heise But Clayborne and Russell represent only a small sliver—if a crucial one—of the spectrum of approaches to the relationship between humans and the Martian environment in the trilogy that range from spirituality all the way to economic theory.
The point is not to make another Earth. The point is to make something new and strange, something Martian. While each volume stages one central moment in which treaties or constitutions crystallize a few basic points of consensus out of these divergences, Robinson does not suggest that any enduring agreement, or even any durable configura- tion of diversity, can be imagined amidst such complexity.
Nor is it clear that these would even be desirable goals in the new Martian society Robinson proposes. It is therefore all the more striking that where the environment is concerned, Robinson does strive to achieve a compromise between the Red and Green positions. Both Mars trilogies, then, stage the conflict between ecological conservation and commercial development as a central feature of their extraterrestrial societies.
Since Mars does truly confront humans with an environment that they have never yet have had a chance to alter in any way, it seems to offer ecocentrism a firmer foothold than Terran landscapes.
And yet, of course, Mars cannot be nature in the sense McKibben means it—nature as it has been envisioned by modern societies over the last two hundred years. The character of the Martian rock landscape without any biology or ecology or the merest remnants of them, in Bova gives the deep ecological perspective a curious twist in the Mars trilo- gies.
Russell muses, after another fruitless discussion with Clayborne: The rock ethic, one might say. Ecology without life. Heise intrinsic worth indeed! Waterman, rather than making rock come alive theoretically in the way Russell does, chooses to reanimate it by reviving the few remnant rockbound organisms—endolithic lichens and siderophile bacteria. Since these populations cannot flourish in the atmosphere of Mars such as humans find it upon arrival, Waterman is forced to create synthetic environments that might resemble earlier states of the planet.
However successful such an imitation might turn out to be, it marks the end of nature as an Other untouched by humans. It also confronts humans with an environment that no evolutionary process has prepared their bodies to inhabit. Dex Trumball suggests such a project for the area including the Ancient Martian cliff dwellings and village, but even in his final surrender to future tourists, Waterman resists this idea: The idea that the environment has to be adapted enough to make it livable for the visitors but not so much that it actually resembles their Terran habitat makes good sense for a tourist venture, of course, but it also points to a larger irony: For the ecocentric geologists of the two trilogies, adapting the hu- man body to the alien environment remains preferable to adapting the environment for human uses, even when the technologies exist to make such livable environments possible.
By the end of Blue Mars, the originally untouched planet is well on its way toward a wholly synthetic planetary environment that has embarked on its own evolutionary history. The only exception appear to be the wilderness areas exempted by the Dorsa Brevia document from human development: The goal of our environmental alterations should therefore be minimalist and ecopoetic, reflecting the values of the areophany.
It is suggested that the goal of environ- mental alterations be to make only that portion of Mars lower than the five-kilometer contour human-viable. Higher eleva- tions, constituting some thirty percent of the planet, would then remain in something resembling their primeval conditions, exist- ing as natural wilderness zones.
Green Mars At these higher altitudes, the atmosphere would remain sufficiently thin to exclude most human-introduced flora and fauna—but not all.
Both sets of novels, through these new social and biological systems, point to what might come after the old kind of nature that the ecocentric geologists seek to defend but must ultimately connect to emergent realities no longer con- veniently described by that term: Mars, as the empty planet that offers a last sighting of untouched nature in this older sense, becomes the vibrant staging ground for unprecedented experiments with the fusion of culture, technology, and biology.
Russell perceives these new ecologies during a trip where he encounters all manner of introduced and genetically altered organisms, among them snow pika, small white rodents that remind him of lab rats: He crouched and watched the little rodents until he got cold.
There were greater creatures out on that plain, and they always stopped him short: Yet here they were. And now these little snow pika, happy in their oasis. Not nature, not culture: Jameson, Archaeologies and Markley , it comes as little surprise that Mars in both cases is a thought experiment ultimately meant to be bent back onto Earth itself. Heise shown a map of current climate change impacts: The Gulf of Mexico was encroaching from Texas to the tip of Florida.
A projection five years into the future yields an even grimmer picture: The Mississippi River swelled into a connected series of lakes that swal- lowed entire cities. The Gulf of Mexico. Delgado explains the broader scenario: The Arctic is melting down!
Fresh water run- off from Greenland will interrupt the Gulf Stream in another couple of decades. Maybe sooner. When the Stream shuts down, Europe goes into deep freeze. Even the winners in the climate change lottery are under pressure, as becomes clear to Waterman when he flies over the American Southwest in a jetliner: He saw a familiar yet strange landscape sliding by.
Rugged mesas and tortuous arroyos—covered with green. The abrupt climate change had bizarrely brought plentiful rain to the stark scrublands of the desert Southwest.
The Gulf of California was invading the Colorado River basin. Yuma was already flooded and there were dark jokes about Albuquerque itself becoming a seaside resort town. The lands of the Navahos and other Native Americans farther north were green and burgeoning. An- glos were already making inroads on reservation land.
Refugees driven from the flooded coastal cities formed a pressure bloc that was trying to drive The People from their own territory. Earth and Mars emerge as mirror images of each other, the one transformed by hu- man agency into a landscape less livable due to increased sea levels and higher temperatures, the other uninhabitable by virtue of aridity and cold except by means of synthetically created habitats.
Mars, in this context, functions first and foremost as an additional natural resource, but when the expedition of the First Hundred leads to the discovery that Mars can potentially be made habitable for millions of humans, govern- ments and transnational corporations also begin to use it as an escape valve for surplus populations. At the same time, the struggle over control of Mars adds new political and economic tensions to already existing ones, even as emergent Martian movements in favor of greater autonomy from Earth seek to exploit such instabilities.
Terran crisis comes to a head with a natural catastrophe of unprecedented magnitude in human history: Human society was not equipped to handle such a situation. Even in the best of times it would not have been easy, and the early twenty- second century had not been the best of times. Populations were still rising, resources were more and more depleted, conflicts between rich and poor, governments and metanats [metanational corporations], had been sharpening everywhere: The crisis offers Martian society its long hoped-for break, a chance to declare indepen- dence without fear of the repercussions such a move would have entailed during more stable political periods on Earth.
It was a natural revolu- tion. The distribution of human and animal populations. Heise reason, in this situation, to try to reinstate the antediluvian world. So we see the flood as an opportunity—here as it was on Mars—to—break the mold.
Robinson does not present the transformations that the great flood brings about in Terran society with any of the detail that he lavishes on the further development of Mars, except to point to the emergence of human habitats on other extraterrestrial moons and asteroids.
At the same time, writers from Umberto Eco and Jean Baudrillard to Don DeLillo and Karen Tei Yamashita have portrayed technologically mediated and simulated experiences of nature as a quintessential feature of postmodernist culture. The resurgence of interest in Mars, in this con- text, can be understood as a step beyond this postmodernist questioning of the natural.
Mars, with its absent or perennially dying nature, certainly serves recent science fiction writers as a material framework in which to highlight the obsolescence of conventional nature in much the way postmodernist thinkers and writers had done. Mars stands as shorthand for the future of nature conceived of in terms of such global, entirely synthetic ecologies that can no longer be measured against the old nature.
The choices between terraforming and areoforming mark ethically significant alternatives against this background, but they do not alter the general panorama of a human society that will live its future life in Martian ecologies, no matter the planet. Notes 1. Inevitably, making such statements involves simplifications: But they remained a contested minority in this phase. I have explored these and other texts in greater detail in Sense of Place and Sense of Planet: The Environmental Imagination of the Global.
Waterman himself points out this disconnection in a conversation with his grandfather, who dismisses it as misguided book knowledge, apparently so as to affirm a spiritual rather than genetic ancestry Return to Mars It should be noted, however, that this convergence of ecocentric and anthropocentric perspectives cf.
Heise 9. This plot adds yet another twist to the narrative of the end of nature, in that the nature on the point of disappearing in Red Dust is already an en- tirely human-created one being gradually erased by other products of human technology.
Works cited Abbott, Carl. Frontiers Past and Future: Science Fiction and the American West. Law- rence: U of Kansas P, Baudrillard, Jean. Simulacres et simulations. Beck, Ulrich. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity.
Mark Ritter. Lon- don: Sage, Auf dem Weg in eine andere Moderne. Suhrkamp, Bova, Ben.
New York: Bantam, Mars Life. Tor, Return to Mars. Hodder and Stoughton, Buell, Lawrence. The Future of Environmental Criticism: Environmental Crisis and Literary Imagination. Blackwell, Burling, William J. Kim Stanley Robinson Maps the Unimaginable: Critical Es- says.
Jefferson, NC: McFarland, Cohen, Michael P. Crutzen, Paul J.