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Gsm architecture pdf

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Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard This tutorial provides an introduction to basic GSM concepts, specifications. GSM Architecture and Interfaces. INTRODUCTION. In this chapter we present an overview of the GSM as described in ETSI's rec- ommendations. GSM - ARCHITECTURE. A GSM network comprises of many functional units. These functions and interfaces are explained in this chapter. The GSM network can.


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GSM Architecture. Numbering and Routing. GSM Services. GSM Network Architecture. Engr. Mian Shahzad Iqbal. Lecturer. Department of Telecommunication. GSM uses Digital Communication System or DCS and GSM Architecture and Subsystems. Open architecture according to the Open Systems. Base Station Subsystem (BBS),. Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS),. Operation Management Subsystem (OMS). BSS. NSS. OMS. GSM. MS. External.

There were four main elements to the overall GSM architecture and these could often be further split. Call control MSC identifies the type of call, the destination, and the origin of a call. The BTS has several very important tasks, some of which are presented in the following. The alarms are stored in the NMS database and this database can be searched according to criteria specified by the network operator. The MSC is responsible for several important tasks, such as the following. We must however also be able to communicate with and through the fixed network, where the speech compression format is different.

A basic diagram of the overall system architecture for 2G GSM with these four major elements is shown below:. The GSM system architecture contains a variety of different elements, and is often termed the core network.

It provides the main control and interfacing for the whole mobile network. The major elements within the core network include:. It consists of two elements:. Mobile stations MS , mobile equipment ME or as they are most widely known, cell or mobile phones are the section of a GSM cellular network that the user sees and operates.

In recent years their size has fallen dramatically while the level of functionality has greatly increased. A further advantage is that the time between charges has significantly increased. There are a number of elements to the cell phone, although the two main elements are the main hardware and the SIM.

The hardware itself contains the main elements of the mobile phone including the display, case, battery, and the electronics used to generate the signal, and process the data receiver and to be transmitted. This is installed in the phone at manufacture and "cannot" be changed.

It is accessed by the network during registration to check whether the equipment has been reported as stolen. It must be noted that as the number of BS increases with the scaling of the subscriber population some of the maintenance tasks are transferred to the BTS, allowing savings in the cost of ownership of the system.

The 2G GSM network architecture follows a logical method of operation. It is far simpler than current mobile phone network architectures which use software defined entities to enable very flexible operation.

However the 2G GSM architecture does show the voice and operational basic functions that are needed and how they fit together. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. GSM Architecture. Maria Mimy. This document is intended for the use of Nokia Networks' customers only for the purposes of the agreement under which the document is submitted, and no part of it may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or means without the prior written permission of Nokia Networks.

The document has been prepared to be used by professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full responsibility when using it. Nokia Networks welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continuous development and improvement of the documentation. The information or statements given in this document concerning the suitability, capacity, or performance of the mentioned hardware or software products cannot be considered binding but shall be defined in the agreement made between Nokia Networks and the customer.

However, Nokia Networks has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the instructions contained in the document are adequate and free of material errors and omissions. Nokia Networks will, if necessary, explain issues which may not be covered by the document.

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To provide this service, the network must be able to set up and maintain a call, which involves a number of tasks: After the transaction, the connection is terminated and normally the calling user is charged for the service he has used. In practice, the task, as the wireless radio connection enables the users to move at their own network has to find solutions to three problems before it can even set up a call: In order to understand how we are able to serve the subscribers, it is necessary to identify the main interfaces, the subsystems and network elements in the GSM network, as well as their functions.

Because of this interface openness, the operator maintaining the network may obtain different parts of the network from different GSM network suppliers. It is relatively easy to imagine the need for this interface to be open, as mobile phones of all different brands must be able to communicate with GSM networks from all different suppliers.

These two network elements will be discussed in greater detail in later chapters. The system includes more than the two defined interfaces, but they are not totally open, as the system specifications had not been completed when the commercial systems were launched. When operating analogue mobile networks, experience has shown that centralised intelligence generates excessive load in the system, thus decreasing the capacity.

For this reason, the GSM specification, in principle, provides the means to distribute intelligence throughout the network.

Referring to the interfaces, the more complicated the interfaces in use, the more intelligence is required between the interfaces in order to implement all the functions required. In a GSM network, this decentralised intelligence is implemented by dividing the whole network into three separate subsystems: The NSS takes care of call control functions. Calls are always connected by and through the NSS. The network operator observes and maintains network quality and service offered through the NMS.

Figure 3.

GSM Network Architecture | GSM System Architecture | Electronics Notes

The SIM is a small memory device mounted on a card and contains user-specific identification. The SIM card also contains tools needed for authentication and ciphering. Depending on the type of the card, there is also storage space for messages, such as phone numbers. A home operator issues a SIM card when the user joins the network by making a service subscription.

Pdf gsm architecture

The three subsystems, different network elements, and their respective tasks are presented in the following. Call control This identifies the subscriber, establishes a call, and clears the connection after the conversation is over. To provide this service, the network must be able to set up and maintain a call, which involves a number of tasks: After the transaction, the connection is terminated and normally the calling user is charged for the service he has used.

In practice, the task, as the wireless radio connection enables the users to move at their own network has to find solutions to three problems before it can even set up a call: In order to understand how we are able to serve the subscribers, it is necessary to identify the main interfaces, the subsystems and network elements in the GSM network, as well as their functions.

Because of this interface openness, the operator maintaining the network may obtain different parts of the network from different GSM network suppliers. It is relatively easy to imagine the need for this interface to be open, as mobile phones of all different brands must be able to communicate with GSM networks from all different suppliers.

These two network elements will be discussed in greater detail in later chapters. The system includes more than the two defined interfaces, but they are not totally open, as the system specifications had not been completed when the commercial systems were launched. When operating analogue mobile networks, experience has shown that centralised intelligence generates excessive load in the system, thus decreasing the capacity.

For this reason, the GSM specification, in principle, provides the means to distribute intelligence throughout the network.

Referring to the interfaces, the more complicated the interfaces in use, the more intelligence is required between the interfaces in order to implement all the functions required. In a GSM network, this decentralised intelligence is implemented by dividing the whole network into three separate subsystems: The NSS takes care of call control functions.

Calls are always connected by and through the NSS. The network operator observes and maintains network quality and service offered through the NMS. Figure 3. The SIM is a small memory device mounted on a card and contains user-specific identification.

Pdf gsm architecture

The SIM card also contains tools needed for authentication and ciphering. Depending on the type of the card, there is also storage space for messages, such as phone numbers.

A home operator issues a SIM card when the user joins the network by making a service subscription. The three subsystems, different network elements, and their respective tasks are presented in the following. Call control This identifies the subscriber, establishes a call, and clears the connection after the conversation is over.

Charging This collects the charging information about a call the numbers of the caller and the called subscriber, the time and type of the transaction, etc. It identifies the origin and destination of a call mobile station or fixed telephone , as well as the type of a call. The MSC is responsible for several important tasks, such as the following.

Call control MSC identifies the type of call, the destination, and the origin of a call. It also sets up, supervises, and clears connections. Initiation of paging Paging is the process of locating a particular mobile station in case of a mobile terminated call a call to a mobile station.

Charging data collection Charging will be covered later in this material. Please note that a mobile subscriber must always be registered in a VLR in order to use the services of the network. Also the mobile stations located in the own network is always registered in a VLR.

The VLR database is temporary, in the sense that the data is held as long as the subscriber is within its service area.

GSM Network Architecture

It also contains the address to every subscriber's Home Location Register, which is the next network element to be discussed. In addition to the fixed data, the HLR also keeps track of the current location of its customers. As you will see later, the MSC asks for routing information from the HLR if a call is to be set up to a mobile station mobile terminated call.

The Authentication Centre supports the VLR's work by issuing so-called authentication triplets upon request.