soundofheaven.info Politics ENGLISH MEANING PDF

English meaning pdf

Wednesday, June 12, 2019 admin Comments(0)

Semantics is concerned with the study of meaning in language and is related to both philosophy and logic. Semiotics is the study of communication systems in. Download this large English dictionary in PDF for free. This dictionary will help you learn English as your second language. PDF definition: PDF files are computer documents which look exactly like the original documents, | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples.


Author: DAHLIA VERSELE
Language: English, Spanish, German
Country: Guyana
Genre: Fiction & Literature
Pages: 372
Published (Last): 08.07.2016
ISBN: 687-5-42076-913-6
ePub File Size: 15.74 MB
PDF File Size: 13.59 MB
Distribution: Free* [*Regsitration Required]
Downloads: 39493
Uploaded by: VENESSA

PDF definition: 1. abbreviation for portable document format: a system for storing and sending documents between computers that does not allow the contents to. The Cambridge English: Preliminary and Preliminary for Schools Vocabulary Multi-word verbs are not included in the list if they have a literal meaning and are. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Wierzbicka, Anna. English: meaning and culture/Anna Wierzbicka. p. cm. Includes bibliographical.

If you already know the answers, you will pass the or the fact that Wednesday will succeed Tuesday. When I grow up, I'm lolning the police sentence; the meaning is approximately 'Someone has arranged to give me a present force. Many people would consider such usages as mistakes, even though PAST. These are therefore not true future- grandfather used to tell me frightful stories of the war. You forget, etc.

My aim is to explain systematically the semantics of the English finite verb phrase, without invoking discussions of syntax and morphology, and without assuming any specialist interest in linguistics. For this purpose, I have tried to rethink the subject in the light of recent research. In this third edition, I have also made use not only of recent advances in English language description, but of the resources of corpus linguistics, a field which involves analysis of computer databases of textual material, and which has grown in significance enormously over the past 20 years.

While stressing what Is new in this book, I should also acknowledge what is old - that is, the extent to which I have drawn as anyone writing in this field cannot fail to draw on the extensive literature on tense, aspect and modality in English. I have avoided placing bibliographical references in the chapters of description: But this obllges me here to make clear my general indebtedness to others, and to point out that the guide to Further Reading pp.

What Is ordinary lost in consistency here is, I feel, redeemed by the flexibility which makes Present Perfect Tense Present Perfect Progressive Tense it possible to bring together contrasts and similarities in whatever seems they have spoken they have been speaking Perfect Aspect. At the same time, for convenience of ordinary reference, there are summaries at the beginning of all chapters, and a full Past Perfect Tense Past Perfect Progressive Tense index at the end of the book.

Most of the grammatical categories that have to be discussed Present Tense, Perfect Aspect, etc. But discrepancies between the most influential regional are derived from a characteristic feature of meaning, but which can be very varieties - American and British English as well as variations of style, are misleading if they are used both as semantic and as grammatical labels. It noted where they are important. To overcome this difficulty, I have made use and even between different age groups.

This book therefore necessarily of a typographical convention whereby formal grammaticai categories are simplifies a rather more complex picture, and the labels 'BrE' British marked by initial capitals Present Tense, etc. Where typical standard usage in their respective countries. For information about necessary, single quotation marks are used to indicate that I am lialking the English language, I have relied to a considerable extent on my own about meaning rather than form. Thus the following arrangement: At the same time, I have referred to many recent studies, and have dangerous.

Some of the examples I use are invented rather than borrowed from texts and dialogues, as it is of great shows a sentence together with its semantic gloss. However, I have also made wide use of corpus examples, that intelligibility in mind. The term 'Tense' is used not only for the primary is, real examples from spoken and written discourse. These have often distinction of Present Tense and Past Tense, but also for the sub-categories been Simplified, to avoid creating unnecessary difficulties.

The term 'Aspect' is this study has been read in manuscript by other native speakers of English, reserved for the primary categories of Perfect has eaten and Progressive and has made use of research carried out on real language data, has is eating modification.

English - Arabic Words & Meaning

In case terms are not found to be self. In this sense, 'present time' is potentially all-inclusive. On the other present; 25 fictional use; 26 travelogues and instructions. Similarly, 'future time' is limited by the fact that it cannot iii The distinction between the Present Tense and Past Tense in English is a extend back as far as the present moment: Tense' and present time, and between 'Past Tense' and past time.

In many ways, it would be better to call the Present Tense the 'Non-past Tense', as it can be used for future as well as However, in English the major formal distinction of Present and Past present time this will become clearer in Chapters 4 and 5.

This helps to explain Tense divide the sphere of temporal reference into two broad semantic why English, which does not have a Future Tense as such, uses Present time zones - the past and the non-past, as already suggested in our discus- Tense or Present Tense auxiliaries such as will and is going to to express sion in the Introduction.

The state or event has psychological being at the Rome stands on the River Tiber. I The Atlantic Ocean separates the present moment'. The Present Tense in special circumstances can refer to past and These usages all follow from the definition of the state use of the Present to future time exclusive of present time. In the 'futurate present', it refers to future events regarded as already planned or predetermined. We can start, however, with the more usual application of the Present Tense to present time - limiting discussion in this chapter to the Simple Present and Past Tenses.

It signifies an event REFF. Thus it typically refers to something which happens over a very short time: It is also called 'unrestrictive' because it In sports commentaries: The first places no limitation on the extension of the state into past and future time: Boxing Honesty is the best policy. I War solves no problems. I How many languages I Adams intercepts, plays it up-field. Football does he know? I They live in Washington. II don't have a TV.

In the patter or 'running commentary' of conjurors and demonstrators: Look, I take this card from the pack and place it under the handkerchief However, limits to the duration of the state may be implied by an adverbial - like this.

I Now I put the cake-mixture into this bowl and add a drop of expression which underlines the 'presentness' of the period in question, vanilla essence. The event present is particularly suitable for commentaries in real time, Crime is the best policy these days. I War no longer solves any problems. I At present they live in Washington. I Just now I do! Event 1, then Event 2, then Event 3, etc.

In most cases, the event probably The limits of the duration can also be implied by other factors, such as does not take place exactly at the instant when it is mentioned: For example, the length of time question of subjective rather than objective simultaneity.

We can compare the following as a. The Present Perfect tense is used I open the cage. I I am opening the cage. In these cases: The second sentence, which contains a Progressive verb form, is a natural t" 8 The Simple Present is suitable for use in expressing 'eternal truths', and so description in answer to the question What are you doing?

But the first is found in SCientific, mathematical and other statements'made 'for all time': If spoken, one would expect it to Hydrogen is the lightest element. I Two and three make five. I Basmati be accompanied by a gesture or flourish; in writing, it seems Incomplete rice has a sweet flavour.

The event use of the Present is generally Not surprisingly, it is also characteristic of proverbs: I No news is good news. I Time flies. Geographical statements are likewise, for practical purposes, without time a. However, the event present does occur exceptionally In ordinary speech in limit: The stagey quality of the event present is evident in its employment in old- The choice between 'state' and 'event' is inherent in all verbal usage in fashioned theatrical language not used in present-day English except in fun: The English.

A state is undifferentiated and lacking in defined limits. An event, bell tolls! He yields! The spectre vanishes! It is significant that there is no event present question form What do you dn? This is perhaps whole entity. It can also make up one member of a sequence or plurality because by the time an Instantaneous action has been observed and queried it Is of happenings: However, What The difference between events and states is parallel to that between do you do?

Dictionary PDF free download for students learning English

Countable nouns can be below. The distinction in nouns, however, is more clear-cut, because it is gram- Another special use of the event present is in PERfORMA11VE utterances, matically indicated by the plural ending. There are no such indicators of nonnally with I or we as subject: I beg your pardon. Here the present 'event' status in the verbal phrase.

What is more, nouns with the excep- event and the act of speech are simultaneous simply because they are tion of words like cake must nonnally be placed in one class or the other; identical; that is, the thing announced and the act of announcement are whereas verbs are often neutral, and capable of switching from 'state' to the same.

Other examples are: We accept your offer. I I dare you to say it! I I deny your charge. I I say Putting it more plainly, 'state' and 'event' are semantic rather than the whole thing was kind of weird. I I give you my word. I I refuse to pay grammatic:: Strictly, we should not talk of 'state verbs' and 'event for that meal. These useful labels are retained here, but it must always in contrast to the Progressive fonns We are accepting your offer, etc.

Per- precisely deSignated 'verb being used to refer to an event' and 'verb being formative verbs are also characteristic of more ceremonial contexts, such as used to refer to a state'. Take the verb remember as an example: I Oh, I remember the good juqge passing sentence: I " resign: I 'I pass: In the first sentence remember, because it refers to the act of recall, is an wills: I " give to Warwick College all my 'event verb'; in the second it is a 'state verb', representing the notion of books..

Quotation marks will always be used with these two labels, as a reminder of their provisional status. In these examples the word hereby could be inserted before the verb, to The following are among the most frequent verbs typically used as emphasise that the verb refers to the current act of speech or writing. The perfonnaUve acts discussed here can be extended to include expressions of wishes and condolences such as We wish you every success and I send you my deepest be, have, know, want.

Also, in very formal letters the verb write Is sometimes used as a perfonn- stan,d, consider, expect, require, continue, remain, understand, involve, ativlli I write to inform you that. The following are among the most frequent verbs typically acting as 'EVENf b. Performatives rarely occur In the passive, but one example is You're fired! NTS has already appeared in the egory, as they can easily switch between 'event' and 'state' according to distinction between the state and event uSes of the Simple Present.

It is the context.

Also, it should not be supposed that these are the only two time now to consider this contrast more carefully.

Despite the dose link between 'event verbs' and the habitual use of the Present, the habitual present can also occur with 'state verbs' where the states have a limited time-span: USE, refer to a multiplicity of happenings at different places and times.

In fact, its relation to the event present is analogous to the relation of a plural to a Singular noun. The habitual present represents a series of individual events which as a whole make up a state stretching back into the past and forward into the future. It thus combines aspects of the event and state uses: An ellent: A habit: I The train leaves at eight o'clock tomorrow. I Goalkeeper Stephen Pears goes into hospital tomorrow. I Racing on Saturday starts at 11 a.

I See you there! We begin at 3. We don't go out much in the evenings. I I buy everything I wear from I Athena inherits the fabulous riches when she reaches I There's a lady down the road who walks with a stick. I I take lessons in self-defence.

Also the Present Tense may be used in reference to the past. The use As the last two examples show, the habitual present resembles the state traditionally known by the term HISTORIC PRESENT is best treated as a story- present in its suitability for 'eternal truths' of a scientific or proverbial teller's licence, whereby past happenings are portrayed or imagined as if nature. To emphasise the element of repetition and universality in the happening at the present time.

It is most evident where the Present Tense, last two examples, we can paraphrase them: Every time someone performs with apparent incongruity, goes with an expression indicating past time: At that moment in comes a message from the Head Office, telling me As a way of interpreting 'event verbs', the habitual present is more the boss wants to see me in a hurry.

Many verbs more or less have to be taken everybody, didn't she Robert? She walks to work, for example, makes us think of an established than in the lounge of an expensive hotel. In fact, few There is a close similarity between the strict historic present, described sentences are ambiguous in this respect. Sometimes a plural object helps here, and the use of the Present to narrate fictional events, conSidered to single out the habitual meaning: He scores a goal.

In popular conversation, the verb say s and its synonym go es are very com- He scores goals. Francesca tells me you're a champion skier. I in an academic book In b. In newspapers, especially In headlines, the Simple Present is preferred no doubt 1B88 Durkheimalready writes that I The editor says her newspaper because of its brevity and vividness to the Past Tense or Perfect Tenses as a way of has undergone considerable change.

I The intellectuals in the nightclubs, announcing recent events: Doctor attacked as he walks dogs. As a further example, we learn, can be spotted because they don't dance. I , hear the Ex-c: Past Tense found in the corresponding prose account: Francesca has told me. However, it appears that c. Two minor extensIons of the 'historic present' are 1 in captions accompanying illustrations Father O'Brien gives his first blessing ; and 2 in historical summaries, the timing has been transferred from the initiating end to the receiving end tables of dates, etc.: Ferdinand I assumes the title of of the message.

The communication is still in force for those who have Holy Roman Emperor. In a sense, what Durkheim France. Once again, the effect of the Simple Present here Is to present a past event wrote in 'speaks' at the present time: The verbs learn and hear, which refer to the receiving of the message, here refer rather to the state of having received the message.

One basic element of meaning is: This means that the present moment is excluded: In The Brothers Karamazov, Dostoevsky draws his characters from sources She worked as an executive secretary for five years makes it clear that she no deep in the Russian soil, not from fashionable types of his day. I like longer has that job as contrasted with the Perfect: She has worked as an Rubens, Watteau is able to convey an impression of warm, living flesh by executive secretary for five years.

Normally another element of meaning is: This definite time in the past is often made explicit by an because the work, and through it in a sense the artist, are still 'alive'. The adverbial expression accompanying the Past Tense verb: I Once this town was a beauty spot - timeless reconstruction from the works themselves.

Here there is almost free now it's an industrial wasteland. I We visited Selfridges last week. Subject ril. Free variation between Past and Present Tenses occurs also in cross-references retrospect, appear as complete, unitary happenings: For cross-references to a later part of a book, a similar free variation exists William Barnes was born, lived, and died in his beloved county of Dorset.

Later chapters will explore this topic in greater detail. There has grown up a convention 'event' and 'state' uses, corresponding to that between the event and state of usIng the Past for narrative even when the events described are supposed presents.

There is, however, a distinction to be drawn between the to take place in the future, as in science fiction: In those days the ghosts enjoyed routine journey to the moon with thirty people on board. We are invited, by this convention, to look at future events as if from a viewpoint even further in the future. Her mother loved and worshipped her. PRESENT; in particular, to the present feelings or thoughts of the speaker The first sentence does not alter its meaning if the order of verbs is or hearer: But an alteration of the order of verbs A: Did you want me?

Yes, I hoped you would give me a hand with the painting. She sealed and addressed the envelope usually means something different from She addressed and sealed the envelope. Sometimes, The subject of this eXChange would probably be the present wishes of as in She kissed and hugged us all, it is not clear whether the happenings are Speaker B, despite the use of the Past Tense.

In fact the Present and Past meant to be at the same time or one after the other. When the happenings Tenses are broadly interchangeable in this context, but there is quite a each last only a short time, however, it is more natural to regard them as noticeable difference of tone. The effect of the Past Tense is to make the stages in a sequence, especially in narrative contexts. We can explain the politer tone here as a hint that the intending or hoping were formulated in a. Other temporal relations between two neighbouring Past Tense fonns are pos- sible.

For example, the first verb can refer to a later time than the second verb, if the past, and that the speaker is not necessarily committed to them in the this is overtly signalled by a conjunction or adverbial expression, or made clear by present.

The Present Tense 1 hope you will A stranger CAME to the house just afl: Politeness also extends to the Original question advantage of being in its midst. The English language does not forbid this arrange- ment, although good style more frequentiy dictates the opposite ordering, or the Did you want me? The logically expected Present Tense Do you want me? You always want something'.

Other verbs similarly used are wonder and think: I I thought I might come and see you later this evening. As It's time we took a holiday. I If I had children, I would teach them good before, the speaker seems to be testing the listener's reaction to a past manners.

Discussion of this use, which is not concerned with past time, is post- a.

Meaning pdf english

I was wondering. First, h. The indirect and polite connotation of the Past here might sugge. Chapter XXI. Madame Mantalini c. Nicholas Nickleby. In both cases the 'non-present' element of Past Tense meaning is c. A further example of summary narrative In the Simple Present is the following emphasised, and the 'definite time' element Is not evident: You can picture the scene: Across a stile begins the descent to the river.

At first the way is between confining trees. It is usual for novelists tree-lined meadow which spreads flatly to the River Eden. Some writers use the You test an air-leak by disconnecting the delivery pipe at the carburettor Present in imitation of the popular historic present of spoken narrative. For more serious writing, transposition into the fictional present is a device The second of these has a spoken counterpart in such verbal directions as: You take the first turning on the left past the roundabout, then you cross a bridge and bear right until you reach the public library.

Tulklnghom takes out his papers, asks permiSSion to place them on a golden talisman of a table at my Lady's elbow, puts on his spectacles, and begins to read In each of these cases, it is possible to interpret the sequence of events as by the Ught of a shaded lamp.

Every time you want to get to the library. On the other hand, perhaps As with the Simple Past, the above succession of Simple Present forms a more plausible interpretation is that of the 'imaginary present': In some other narrative contexts, It is not the Past Tense, but the Present Tense before the mind's eye, at the time of utterance.

For example, stage directions: Petey enters trom the door on the left with a paper and sits at the table froin the beginning of Harold Pinter's play a. You preceding an Imperative receives sentence stress, comes before the audience's eyes. Also in the spirit of the stage direction are 'You 'mind whereas normally as subject of a statement It does not.

For example, here Is the beginning of a movie plot summary from the magazine Radio Times 11 January, , p. Batman responds when Gotl! Similar summaries of stories whether In books, on the radIo, on television or In magazines, for example recapitulations of previous Instalments of the same narrat- Ive tend to occur In the Present Tense. Progressive Aspect 'Where's Joan? To distinguish the Progressive 27 Progressive Aspect. Ily complete: G; verbs m class H; 46 further exceptions.

State Present - - - - - - - Progressive: You look tired I You're looking tired. Examples such as I was IIi The durative element of meaning is seen in the contrast of I raise my arm! The first two sentences which seem unusual and overdramatic - gressive, ,: But it is worth noting that the Progressive some way Into the past and into the future.

Consideration of other The Progressive tends to be used for sports happenings which take a longer time or are more gradual - especially those that are not part of the main action: My watch works perfectly permanent state 'my watch is generally a Notice a further difference between Meg was reading a book that evening reliable one'. I Which team are you supporting?

An activity verb such as rain, read, walk or write, however, is not I I am living in Wimbledon temporary residence. I I am enjoying the seaside '1 am enjoying this particular holiday'. They walked for a couple of hours. The notion of 'limited duration', seen from a slightly different point of 2a.

Meaning pdf english

They walked home in a couple of view, means that the situation is 'subject to change'. For example, the hours. Once This connotation is important for some extended uses of the Progressive you have walked home, you have completed your walk. Along with the 'temporary' meaning of the Progressive there Is often a notion that only when the happening Is unbounded. The Progressive, because of its Idea of the situation is 'actually in progress now'. I am enjoying the seaside would be spoken non-completion, cannot be combined with an in-phrase, but only with a for-phrase: Notice a similar difference between This basin is leaking actual: They were walking for a couple 3b.

They were walking home for a couple water is escaping and This basin leaks potential: The explanation Is that the Progressive, ition from one state to another e. Sentence 3b implies they had not reached the end of their journey: They were walking home for a couple of hours, when the storm interrupted vehicle's arrival at a state of rest.

But The bus was stopping means only that their Journey. Example 4b is placed In parentheses for the following reason. Interpreted in the sense relevant here, because the boundedness of the in-phrase conflicts with the unboundedness of the Progressive. The dog was drowning in the sea. I Thedog drowned in the sea. This cautiously negative label is justified, since the Progress- and saved her; but not to the second, which implies that she actually died. For example, the above example I was reading between ten and eleven allows the possibility that the speaker continued reading up in another context: I was reading from 10 p.

I I read from 10 p. The Simple Past tells us that the speaker started to read at 10 o'clock and III The Progressive Aspect generally has the effect of surrounding a particular event or moment by a 'temporal frame', which can be diagrammed: There is no point around which the temporary happening indicated by the verb can be seen as which the 'listening' or 'watching' forms a frame.

In the second example, stretching into the future and into the past. But in the Progressive Past, some other definite reference point ball matches begin and end within the duration of an afternoon. Often this point is made explicit Another case where there is no 'frame' is that where two Progressive by an adverbial phrase or clause; Past verbs are put near to one another. This time last year I was travelling round the world.

I Five minutes later he While she was muttering to herself, she was throwing things into a was sleeping like a baby. I Don was looking very ill when I last saw him. In both Past and Present Tense narrative, the Progressive often forms a All we know here is that the two happenings were at some time or other 'temporal frame' around an action denoted by a non-progressive form.

We know nothing about the relation between their starting- Hence, whereas the relationship of meaning between two neighbouring points or finishing-points: The four main possibilities a Progressive and a Simple Past form is one of time-inclusion. When we arrived she made some fresh coffee. The framing effect is used in a special way in fiction writing. For example, the a. A Simple Tense verb in a main clause is often 'framed' in this manner by a pOint of time or the brief event to be 'framed' may be implied rather than stated.

Progressive Tense verb In a subordinate clause: And then the funeral was over, and they were coming out into the grey, windy b. Verbs referring to utterances or other meaningful acts can be 'framed' by a Progressive verb form referring to the mental attitude or communicative Intention day. But the Progressive Present are seeing the speech act 'from the inside', not in a temporal sense, but in the sense is more immediate: There is no temporal-frame effect here, mourners coming out Into the open air.

Even more dramatic are examples such as; as the 'lying' and the 'saying' are apparently coextensive In time. Like a dam bursting, suddenly she was diving across the room. We have already noted this with 'event verbs' and 'state verbs'; time in both backward and forward directions - in short, that a 'temporal but now it is convenient to distinguish further classes of verb or more frame' should be set up.

When no event or point of time is in question, however, the framing effect does not occur. For example: It is worth bearing in mind that in talking of states, events, activities, etc. But in the gallery. I We were watching a football match on Saturday afternoon.

The weather is changing for the better; They're widening the road; etc. To these we should add verbs like become, get and go which frequently have a 3S A. It's These verbs refer to happenings so momentary that it is difficult to think getting late.

Pdf english meaning

Consequently, the Progressive form, in giving them duration, forces us to think of a series of events, rather than of a Single event. The most important of these verbs is the main verb to be: Verbs unfriendly to the Progressive can be placed in approach to a transition, rather than the transition itself: Meaning, unfortunately, is not the sole determining factor, since virtually synonymous sentences can be found, David Campbell was arriving when the bomb exploded. I Suddenly a one in which the Progressive is allowable, and one in which it is not: I Mother was dying in hospital.

It might even be argued that a different meaning of the verb comes into play in the switch from Simple Past to Progressive Past: There moment of death, the completion of the process. A further point is that many of these anti-progressive verbs can occur with a. The guests were the Progressive Aspect in special contexts. Such special uses can usually be a"'. In the latter case the notion of 'approach to a transition' explained by supposing that the verb perhaps through a special transfer applies differently: First, will have arrived.

The term 'inert' can be used for these common verbs, to 36 c. Although these verbs can be used with the Simple Tenses in an merely passively receptive, from that of say look at, where one is actively 'event' sense, they more usually occur with the Progressive, as they refer directing one's attention towards some object. I could feel! I could hear I heard a knocking at the door. The important point is that the window.

I could smell! Note that activity or 'going on' can Include gaps: They're working on the car I could taste I tasted sugar in the tea. The difference between the constructions with and without could is that 36 D. As a process of change ordinarily has duration, but not event. Thus I could hear a door slamming all night indicates a continuing indefinite duration, these verbs also tend to go with the Progressive Aspect: I see a bird of paradise!

Here, as elsewhere, the event or 'instantaneous' use is rather cost, depend on, deserve, have, matter, own, resemble, etc. The more natural can construction I can see a tions. In this class, along with the key verbs be and have, we put verbs bird of paradise stands In place of the state use of the Present. Often a paraphrase with be or have is possible: Incidentally, some verbs suppose, understand, etc. These, like the verbs of Class F can also be paraphrased in a similar way: But in Class H we place only non- conscious effort or intention.

The Simple Present in this case refers to a mental state, and so belongs to the category 'state', even though a limita- psychological verbs. This carpet belongs to me. I think she's getting upset. I own this carpet. I believe in fair play. Your age doesn't matter. As the examples suggest, verbs with this type of meaning are frequently This bread contains too much yeast.

I Mangoes cost a lot just now. I followed by a noun clause. Other examples: Whether the play is a success depends on you, the audience. I He imagines everything to be easy. The forms of the verb be do not always refer to a state. An exception Is the past participle been, used as past participle of the verb go: Where have you been?

Here been We understand your difficulty. Is an event verb -. The use of have we are considering here Is the 'state' have of She has several intend, like, love, prefer, regret, want and wish are similar to 'verbs of inert sisters; I have a bad backache, etc. She loves working on a farm. However, some of these can more in colloquial BrE, but not by the Progressive be having: Note there Is also an 'activity' have which occurs freely with the Progressive Aspect, easily occur in the Progressive - enjoy, hope, like, love, for example - if the and which can often answer the question What are you doing?: I'm having lunch I a emphasis is on temporariness or tentativeness.

In other cases, the Progressive of have Is used to describe a good or bad experience: We're having fun I What do you want me to wear tonight? I Tim, are you wanting any fruit? The second example sounds like a tentative offer - although it would also be perfectly normal to use the Simple Present here: Tim, do you want any 1: Feel, see and hear, in addition to being 'verbs of perception' Class E , can be 38 J. There is used as verbs of cognition Class F: I SEE your point.

Jones is engaged to someone called Jack. Notice here a difference between this meaning of feel, which is a question b. Verbs such as read, Il! For example, John tells me I can feel a stone in my shoe, understand as a result of John's having told me.. It is significant that know is characteristically followed by the Progressive with etc. Notice, however, that a verb like hurt can also occur as an event verb. The state of knowledge and the activities of 'talking' and doctor examining a patient with a leg injury.

Bending the knee, the doctor might 'doing' are here concurrent; the time-spans are comparable, and therefore, but for say Does that hurt? In this case, it would be unlikely that either speaker the InclUSion of know in Class F, we would expect matchIng verbal constructions - the Progressive Present In both cases.

Similarly, In a sentence like J think I'm would use the Progressive is hurting. As the type of perception expressed is 'inert' rather than' active', the Progressive is generally avoided: Many of these exceptions Martha's voice. Such multiple membership has already been noted with Strangely, look is an exception to this rule: Feel, taste and smell can be used to Indicate not only 'inert the Progressive in sentences like I am hearing you clearly spoken, say, by a perception', but also 'active perception'.

In the second case, they belong to radio or telephone operator. The meaning here is 'I am receiving your the 'activity' category Class C and so may freely take the Progressive form: We can argue, there- I can smell the gas. I'm smelling the perfume. It's splendid! A rather different case is see in: I need glasses - I'm not seeing so r can feel the heat here. I'm feeling the ground with my foot.

Here see is more like a 'process verb' describing the I can taste the spices in it. I'm tasting the broth to see if it's spicy speaker's deteriorating eyesight. Also sound, smell and taste could occur with the Progressive in describing a In the first sentence of each pair, the sensation is an experience that process developing towards completion. A chef, supervising the progress of cooking simply 'happens' to me; but in the second, I go out of my way, physically, might say: A technidan adjusting the sound quality of a to focus my attention on some object.

The second sentence answers the test recording might say: That's sounding more like it. However, the remaining two verbs in Class E, see and hear, are not used in the active sense, because the separate verbs look at and listen to are I'm thinking for the moment in plain economic tenns.

I Surely you're available for that function: I We're supposing the butler did it. In the first example, 'thinking' is felt to be a r can see a bus in the distance. I'm looking at a bus in the distance. I can't hear what he's saying. You're not listening to what he's saying. In the second example, imagining things means 'entertaining or indulging 'Inert perception' is a more appropriate term than 'passive perception', yourself with illusions'.

In the third, I'm supposing that. In other words, in sentences of this kind, term for the type represented by look at and listen to: I What were you wanting? I You it consists of those verbs for which the grammatical subject is the object are forgetting the moral arguments. I We're wondering if you have any of perception: Here again,.

These In idiomatic colloquial speech, this apparently unaccountable usage is three verbs are used in the 'passive' sense in: You forget, etc. A parallel though less likely example with the tentative, and hence a more polite method of expressing a mental attitude.

On the other hand, no element of showmanShip is to change' and, in the present context,. A more precise analysis should make clear that the contrast between She is awkward the speaker has not made a final commitment to the hope - there is still and She is being awkward is more complicated than suggested above.

Whereas the scope for a change of mind should the listener's reaction be discouraging. Progressive Present here restricts the adjective to the meaning 'obstructionist', the Simple Present is ambiguous, allowing both 'state' and 'activity' interpretations. I just wondered if you could give us some advice. In fact, the two foons verb: The first of these connotations: I was just wondering if you could give us some advice; I was hoping you'd conditions is fulfilled In She is hungry, and the second in She is an angel meaning look after the children for us.

The fonn of verb, for politeness, must be matched against 'She goes out of her way to be kind, helpful, considerate, etc. Only when both the size of favour requested. The Past Progressive most tentative Is more appropriate conditions are present together, as in She is being an angel, does one expect the to a request which will put the listener to considerable risk or inconvenience.

The Progressive Aspect with the main verb to be. Simple Present most direct Is more appropriate when the listener is invited to do b. I hope you'll come and have dinner with us when you're in London next Progressive: The child is asleep The child is sleeping. The verb to be itself furnishes many examples. She is to a temporary state of affairs.

Similar differences of progressive verbs, the Simple Present invades so to speak the semantic terntory of meaning are seen In: He's a fool i. II Certain other verbs of Class H can take the Progressive when accom- He's being a fool panied by an expression like more and more: She's awkward Le. He is resembling his father more and more as the years go by. I The She's being awkward Le.

I The car is difficult to drive i. Good food is costing more since devaluation. The car is being difficult Le. But even if no obvious 'activity' meaning is available, verbs are no longer 'state verbs', but have transferred to the class of we can frequently interpret a sentence X is being Y, however improbable 'process verbs'.

Resemble, for example here means 'to become like' rather the context, by reading into it the Idea of someone acting a part. Today, than 'to be like'. He is being tID Unavoidably, there are some special cases which have not been dealt with sorry I afraid I happy, etc. It seems likely that In these cases, the Progressive concept of 'temporariness' applies not to some aspects of Progressive usage are unstable at the present time, and are the individual events that make up the series, but to the series as a whole.

It is the temporariness of the habit that is important: I Paula was saying that Eddie was going to be promoted. The Progressive Past refers here to fairly recent communicative happen- The iterative element of meaning may well be made clear by an adverbial ings the other day is a typical adverbial collocation. There is no feeling of expression of frequency: Adverbs of indefinite frequency may not be so used, however: The only parts of the Progressive meaning relevant are 'duration' and 'lack of completeness'.

In answer to the question Did you hear about what happened to Matthew on the tour? This would not imply total know- Whenever I pass that house the dog's barking.

I Don't call on them at 7. I Usually the cramp starts just as ledge, and so would politely leave the way open for a continuation of the I'm going to sleep. I You only seem to come alive when you're story. Here the notion of limited dUration applies not to the habit as a whole, A further peculiarity of this usage is that the Past Tense does not have but to the individual events of which the habit is composed.

The effect of to be anchored to a specific earlier point of time reference ct. The or time-point: Normally, this meaning of the Progressive is accom- that there is a time gap between the communication and the present panied by adverbial modification naming the event or pOint of time around moment. If the Perfect Progressive were used, as in 1 have been reading which the temporary activity is seen as a 'frame'.

When no adverbial of about. Thus to the second example above we could add the words An adverbial phrase of frequency may also be added: OffEN when I pass she is sitting there on the doorstep, watching the world go by. Sometimes, absence of frequency modification leads to ambiguity as to habitual or Apart from the major use of the Progressive Aspect to refer to single non-habitual meaning.

This is evident in the second example above, which, temporary happenings, there are four other less important uses to be if normally were omitted, could refer either to a single event of having considered. I This season she is appearing in happenings in the future: I At the moment Glyn is cycling Martin is coming over for lunch on Sunday. I She's staying over in almost twenty miles a day. London next Wednesday night. I I hear you're moving to a new job. Finally, there is a special extended meaning of the Progressive, marked by The Expression of the absence of the 'temporary' element of the normal Progressive meaning: The western land mass is always moving towards the water.

The uninterrupted nature of the activity is usually underlined by the presence of adverbs or adverbial 53 introduction. I They're always cracking jokes. Present Perfect; 61 continuation up to the present time; 62 present result; I We were continually mending punctures - It was really rough going. It does not and Present Perfect; 66 imaginary Present Perfect; 67 Perfect Aspect with mean what always means in the corresponding Simple Present construction: The sense of this last sentence is 'He and secondary points of reference; 69 adverbials associated with Past Tenses; gives her an expensive present on every occasion' i.

But with the Progressive, the rough either; 72 adverbials combining with either, but with difference of meaning. Their tone is often one of irritation or amused disparagement. My main goal, in this chapter, is to show how the Perfect is distinguished in meaning from the Past, first of all concentrating on the Present Perfect Tense.

To begin with, it is worth making the point that Present Perfect and Simple Past are not mutually exclusive choices: Thus the the future: We've kept healthy all our lives, and we mean to stay healthy Present Perfect means'past-time-related-to-present-time'. The Past Tense would be unacceptable in BrE, though not in ArnE, In the first of the three examples above being incompatible with since here. In the other two examples the Past Tense would mean that the period is already complete and in the past: That house was empty for ages but c We have lived in vague to tell us exactly when and when not to use the Present Perfect.

There are exceptions, however, where to the present by means of the Perfect: In He's lived a life of present time. Moreover, we can distinguish not just two, but four different luxury, duration up to the present is understood, because there is an implicit uses of the Present Perfect, one of them occurring with 'state verbs' and period 'during his life'; in You've outstayed your welcome, the word outstay three with 'event verbs'. We begin with the 'state' use, which is conceptu- likewise incorporates the durational meaning 'for too long'.

With these verbs, the ordinary Present Perfect a. The construction have got appears to be the Perfect form of the main verb get. In answer to Why haven't you been writing to me? In any case, the usual ArnE of Class 37G describes a temporary situation, for which the Progressive form Perfect of get is have gotten Sam's gotten meaner. In general, then, have got Is not Perfect.

With 'event verbs', the Present Perfect can refer to some indefinite happening or happenings in the past: Have you been to Brazil? I He's a man who has experienced suffering. Something awful has happened. I I've known love, but not true love. Have you ever been to Brazil? NOW Two things are meant by 'indefiniteness' here: To put it more carefully, there- -4 -4 -4 indicates that results persist in the present time. The number of events, it is true, can be mentioned adverbially: I've been to America three times.

But if there is an adverbial of time-when to specify the 1 ; With 'state verbs', present involvement means that exact time in the past, the Present Perfect becomes inappropriate, and is. I We've known each other for years. I That house has been a. Espedally in BrE, there can be cases where the Present Perfect co-occurs with an empty for ages. Many people would consider such usages as mistakes, even though PAST. An event, bell tolls! He yields!

The spectre vanishes! It is significant that there is no event present question form What do you dn? This is perhaps whole entity. It can also make up one member of a sequence or plurality because by the time an Instantaneous action has been observed and queried it Is of happenings: However, What The difference between events and states is parallel to that between do you do?

Countable nouns can be below. The distinction in nouns, however, is more clear-cut, because it is gram- Another special use of the event present is in PERfORMA11VE utterances, matically indicated by the plural ending. There are no such indicators of nonnally with I or we as subject: I beg your pardon. Here the present 'event' status in the verbal phrase. What is more, nouns with the excep- event and the act of speech are simultaneous simply because they are tion of words like cake must nonnally be placed in one class or the other; identical; that is, the thing announced and the act of announcement are whereas verbs are often neutral, and capable of switching from 'state' to the same.

Other examples are: We accept your offer. I I dare you to say it! I I deny your charge. I I say Putting it more plainly, 'state' and 'event' are semantic rather than the whole thing was kind of weird. I I give you my word.

I I refuse to pay grammatic:: Strictly, we should not talk of 'state verbs' and 'event for that meal. These useful labels are retained here, but it must always in contrast to the Progressive fonns We are accepting your offer, etc. Per- precisely deSignated 'verb being used to refer to an event' and 'verb being formative verbs are also characteristic of more ceremonial contexts, such as used to refer to a state'.

Take the verb remember as an example: I Oh, I remember the good juqge passing sentence: I " resign: I 'I pass: In the first sentence remember, because it refers to the act of recall, is an wills: I " give to Warwick College all my 'event verb'; in the second it is a 'state verb', representing the notion of books.. Quotation marks will always be used with these two labels, as a reminder of their provisional status. In these examples the word hereby could be inserted before the verb, to The following are among the most frequent verbs typically used as emphasise that the verb refers to the current act of speech or writing.

The perfonnaUve acts discussed here can be extended to include expressions of wishes and condolences such as We wish you every success and I send you my deepest be, have, know, want.

Also, in very formal letters the verb write Is sometimes used as a perfonn- stan,d, consider, expect, require, continue, remain, understand, involve, ativlli I write to inform you that. The following are among the most frequent verbs typically acting as 'EVENf b. Performatives rarely occur In the passive, but one example is You're fired!

NTS has already appeared in the egory, as they can easily switch between 'event' and 'state' according to distinction between the state and event uSes of the Simple Present. It is the context. Also, it should not be supposed that these are the only two time now to consider this contrast more carefully.

Despite the dose link between 'event verbs' and the habitual use of the Present, the habitual present can also occur with 'state verbs' where the states have a limited time-span: USE, refer to a multiplicity of happenings at different places and times.

In fact, its relation to the event present is analogous to the relation of a plural to a Singular noun. The habitual present represents a series of individual events which as a whole make up a state stretching back into the past and forward into the future. It thus combines aspects of the event and state uses: An ellent: A habit: I The train leaves at eight o'clock tomorrow. I Goalkeeper Stephen Pears goes into hospital tomorrow.

I Racing on Saturday starts at 11 a. I See you there! We begin at 3. We don't go out much in the evenings. I I buy everything I wear from I Athena inherits the fabulous riches when she reaches I There's a lady down the road who walks with a stick. I I take lessons in self-defence.

Also the Present Tense may be used in reference to the past. The use As the last two examples show, the habitual present resembles the state traditionally known by the term HISTORIC PRESENT is best treated as a story- present in its suitability for 'eternal truths' of a scientific or proverbial teller's licence, whereby past happenings are portrayed or imagined as if nature. To emphasise the element of repetition and universality in the happening at the present time.

It is most evident where the Present Tense, last two examples, we can paraphrase them: Every time someone performs with apparent incongruity, goes with an expression indicating past time: At that moment in comes a message from the Head Office, telling me As a way of interpreting 'event verbs', the habitual present is more the boss wants to see me in a hurry.

Many verbs more or less have to be taken everybody, didn't she Robert? She walks to work, for example, makes us think of an established than in the lounge of an expensive hotel. In fact, few There is a close similarity between the strict historic present, described sentences are ambiguous in this respect. Sometimes a plural object helps here, and the use of the Present to narrate fictional events, conSidered to single out the habitual meaning: He scores a goal.

In popular conversation, the verb say s and its synonym go es are very com- He scores goals. Francesca tells me you're a champion skier. I in an academic book In b.

In newspapers, especially In headlines, the Simple Present is preferred no doubt 1B88 Durkheimalready writes that I The editor says her newspaper because of its brevity and vividness to the Past Tense or Perfect Tenses as a way of has undergone considerable change. I The intellectuals in the nightclubs, announcing recent events: Doctor attacked as he walks dogs.

As a further example, we learn, can be spotted because they don't dance. I , hear the Ex-c: Past Tense found in the corresponding prose account: Francesca has told me. However, it appears that c. Two minor extensIons of the 'historic present' are 1 in captions accompanying illustrations Father O'Brien gives his first blessing ; and 2 in historical summaries, the timing has been transferred from the initiating end to the receiving end tables of dates, etc.: Ferdinand I assumes the title of of the message.

The communication is still in force for those who have Holy Roman Emperor. In a sense, what Durkheim France. Once again, the effect of the Simple Present here Is to present a past event wrote in 'speaks' at the present time: The verbs learn and hear, which refer to the receiving of the message, here refer rather to the state of having received the message.

One basic element of meaning is: This means that the present moment is excluded: In The Brothers Karamazov, Dostoevsky draws his characters from sources She worked as an executive secretary for five years makes it clear that she no deep in the Russian soil, not from fashionable types of his day.

I like longer has that job as contrasted with the Perfect: She has worked as an Rubens, Watteau is able to convey an impression of warm, living flesh by executive secretary for five years.

Normally another element of meaning is: This definite time in the past is often made explicit by an because the work, and through it in a sense the artist, are still 'alive'. The adverbial expression accompanying the Past Tense verb: I Once this town was a beauty spot - timeless reconstruction from the works themselves. Here there is almost free now it's an industrial wasteland. I We visited Selfridges last week. Subject ril. Free variation between Past and Present Tenses occurs also in cross-references retrospect, appear as complete, unitary happenings: For cross-references to a later part of a book, a similar free variation exists William Barnes was born, lived, and died in his beloved county of Dorset.

Later chapters will explore this topic in greater detail. There has grown up a convention 'event' and 'state' uses, corresponding to that between the event and state of usIng the Past for narrative even when the events described are supposed presents.

There is, however, a distinction to be drawn between the to take place in the future, as in science fiction: In those days the ghosts enjoyed routine journey to the moon with thirty people on board. We are invited, by this convention, to look at future events as if from a viewpoint even further in the future. Her mother loved and worshipped her. PRESENT; in particular, to the present feelings or thoughts of the speaker The first sentence does not alter its meaning if the order of verbs is or hearer: But an alteration of the order of verbs A: Did you want me?

Yes, I hoped you would give me a hand with the painting. She sealed and addressed the envelope usually means something different from She addressed and sealed the envelope. Sometimes, The subject of this eXChange would probably be the present wishes of as in She kissed and hugged us all, it is not clear whether the happenings are Speaker B, despite the use of the Past Tense.

In fact the Present and Past meant to be at the same time or one after the other. When the happenings Tenses are broadly interchangeable in this context, but there is quite a each last only a short time, however, it is more natural to regard them as noticeable difference of tone.

The effect of the Past Tense is to make the stages in a sequence, especially in narrative contexts. We can explain the politer tone here as a hint that the intending or hoping were formulated in a. Other temporal relations between two neighbouring Past Tense fonns are pos- sible.

For example, the first verb can refer to a later time than the second verb, if the past, and that the speaker is not necessarily committed to them in the this is overtly signalled by a conjunction or adverbial expression, or made clear by present. The Present Tense 1 hope you will A stranger CAME to the house just afl: Politeness also extends to the Original question advantage of being in its midst. The English language does not forbid this arrange- ment, although good style more frequentiy dictates the opposite ordering, or the Did you want me?

The logically expected Present Tense Do you want me? You always want something'. Other verbs similarly used are wonder and think: I I thought I might come and see you later this evening. As It's time we took a holiday. I If I had children, I would teach them good before, the speaker seems to be testing the listener's reaction to a past manners.

Discussion of this use, which is not concerned with past time, is post- a. I was wondering. First, h. The indirect and polite connotation of the Past here might sugge. Chapter XXI. Madame Mantalini c. Nicholas Nickleby. In both cases the 'non-present' element of Past Tense meaning is c. A further example of summary narrative In the Simple Present is the following emphasised, and the 'definite time' element Is not evident: You can picture the scene: Across a stile begins the descent to the river.

At first the way is between confining trees. It is usual for novelists tree-lined meadow which spreads flatly to the River Eden. Some writers use the You test an air-leak by disconnecting the delivery pipe at the carburettor Present in imitation of the popular historic present of spoken narrative. For more serious writing, transposition into the fictional present is a device The second of these has a spoken counterpart in such verbal directions as: You take the first turning on the left past the roundabout, then you cross a bridge and bear right until you reach the public library.

Tulklnghom takes out his papers, asks permiSSion to place them on a golden talisman of a table at my Lady's elbow, puts on his spectacles, and begins to read In each of these cases, it is possible to interpret the sequence of events as by the Ught of a shaded lamp. Every time you want to get to the library. On the other hand, perhaps As with the Simple Past, the above succession of Simple Present forms a more plausible interpretation is that of the 'imaginary present': In some other narrative contexts, It is not the Past Tense, but the Present Tense before the mind's eye, at the time of utterance.

For example, stage directions: Petey enters trom the door on the left with a paper and sits at the table froin the beginning of Harold Pinter's play a. You preceding an Imperative receives sentence stress, comes before the audience's eyes. Also in the spirit of the stage direction are 'You 'mind whereas normally as subject of a statement It does not. For example, here Is the beginning of a movie plot summary from the magazine Radio Times 11 January, , p.

Batman responds when Gotl! Similar summaries of stories whether In books, on the radIo, on television or In magazines, for example recapitulations of previous Instalments of the same narrat- Ive tend to occur In the Present Tense. Progressive Aspect 'Where's Joan? To distinguish the Progressive 27 Progressive Aspect. Ily complete: G; verbs m class H; 46 further exceptions. State Present - - - - - - - Progressive: You look tired I You're looking tired.

Examples such as I was IIi The durative element of meaning is seen in the contrast of I raise my arm! The first two sentences which seem unusual and overdramatic - gressive, ,: But it is worth noting that the Progressive some way Into the past and into the future. Consideration of other The Progressive tends to be used for sports happenings which take a longer time or are more gradual - especially those that are not part of the main action: My watch works perfectly permanent state 'my watch is generally a Notice a further difference between Meg was reading a book that evening reliable one'.

I Which team are you supporting? An activity verb such as rain, read, walk or write, however, is not I I am living in Wimbledon temporary residence.

I I am enjoying the seaside '1 am enjoying this particular holiday'. They walked for a couple of hours. The notion of 'limited duration', seen from a slightly different point of 2a. They walked home in a couple of view, means that the situation is 'subject to change'. For example, the hours.

Once This connotation is important for some extended uses of the Progressive you have walked home, you have completed your walk. Along with the 'temporary' meaning of the Progressive there Is often a notion that only when the happening Is unbounded. The Progressive, because of its Idea of the situation is 'actually in progress now'.

I am enjoying the seaside would be spoken non-completion, cannot be combined with an in-phrase, but only with a for-phrase: Notice a similar difference between This basin is leaking actual: They were walking for a couple 3b. They were walking home for a couple water is escaping and This basin leaks potential: The explanation Is that the Progressive, ition from one state to another e. Sentence 3b implies they had not reached the end of their journey: They were walking home for a couple of hours, when the storm interrupted vehicle's arrival at a state of rest.

But The bus was stopping means only that their Journey. Example 4b is placed In parentheses for the following reason. Interpreted in the sense relevant here, because the boundedness of the in-phrase conflicts with the unboundedness of the Progressive. The dog was drowning in the sea. I Thedog drowned in the sea. This cautiously negative label is justified, since the Progress- and saved her; but not to the second, which implies that she actually died.

For example, the above example I was reading between ten and eleven allows the possibility that the speaker continued reading up in another context: I was reading from 10 p. I I read from 10 p. The Simple Past tells us that the speaker started to read at 10 o'clock and III The Progressive Aspect generally has the effect of surrounding a particular event or moment by a 'temporal frame', which can be diagrammed: There is no point around which the temporary happening indicated by the verb can be seen as which the 'listening' or 'watching' forms a frame.

In the second example, stretching into the future and into the past. But in the Progressive Past, some other definite reference point ball matches begin and end within the duration of an afternoon.

Often this point is made explicit Another case where there is no 'frame' is that where two Progressive by an adverbial phrase or clause; Past verbs are put near to one another.

This time last year I was travelling round the world. I Five minutes later he While she was muttering to herself, she was throwing things into a was sleeping like a baby. I Don was looking very ill when I last saw him. In both Past and Present Tense narrative, the Progressive often forms a All we know here is that the two happenings were at some time or other 'temporal frame' around an action denoted by a non-progressive form.

We know nothing about the relation between their starting- Hence, whereas the relationship of meaning between two neighbouring points or finishing-points: The four main possibilities a Progressive and a Simple Past form is one of time-inclusion.

When we arrived she made some fresh coffee. The framing effect is used in a special way in fiction writing. For example, the a. A Simple Tense verb in a main clause is often 'framed' in this manner by a pOint of time or the brief event to be 'framed' may be implied rather than stated. Progressive Tense verb In a subordinate clause: And then the funeral was over, and they were coming out into the grey, windy b. Verbs referring to utterances or other meaningful acts can be 'framed' by a Progressive verb form referring to the mental attitude or communicative Intention day.

But the Progressive Present are seeing the speech act 'from the inside', not in a temporal sense, but in the sense is more immediate: There is no temporal-frame effect here, mourners coming out Into the open air. Even more dramatic are examples such as; as the 'lying' and the 'saying' are apparently coextensive In time. Like a dam bursting, suddenly she was diving across the room. We have already noted this with 'event verbs' and 'state verbs'; time in both backward and forward directions - in short, that a 'temporal but now it is convenient to distinguish further classes of verb or more frame' should be set up.

When no event or point of time is in question, however, the framing effect does not occur. For example: It is worth bearing in mind that in talking of states, events, activities, etc. But in the gallery.

I We were watching a football match on Saturday afternoon. The weather is changing for the better; They're widening the road; etc.

To these we should add verbs like become, get and go which frequently have a 3S A. It's These verbs refer to happenings so momentary that it is difficult to think getting late. Consequently, the Progressive form, in giving them duration, forces us to think of a series of events, rather than of a Single event. The most important of these verbs is the main verb to be: Verbs unfriendly to the Progressive can be placed in approach to a transition, rather than the transition itself: Meaning, unfortunately, is not the sole determining factor, since virtually synonymous sentences can be found, David Campbell was arriving when the bomb exploded.

I Suddenly a one in which the Progressive is allowable, and one in which it is not: I Mother was dying in hospital. It might even be argued that a different meaning of the verb comes into play in the switch from Simple Past to Progressive Past: There moment of death, the completion of the process. A further point is that many of these anti-progressive verbs can occur with a. The guests were the Progressive Aspect in special contexts.

Such special uses can usually be a"'. In the latter case the notion of 'approach to a transition' explained by supposing that the verb perhaps through a special transfer applies differently: First, will have arrived. The term 'inert' can be used for these common verbs, to 36 c. Although these verbs can be used with the Simple Tenses in an merely passively receptive, from that of say look at, where one is actively 'event' sense, they more usually occur with the Progressive, as they refer directing one's attention towards some object.

I could feel! I could hear I heard a knocking at the door. The important point is that the window. I could smell! Note that activity or 'going on' can Include gaps: They're working on the car I could taste I tasted sugar in the tea. The difference between the constructions with and without could is that 36 D. As a process of change ordinarily has duration, but not event.

Thus I could hear a door slamming all night indicates a continuing indefinite duration, these verbs also tend to go with the Progressive Aspect: I see a bird of paradise! Here, as elsewhere, the event or 'instantaneous' use is rather cost, depend on, deserve, have, matter, own, resemble, etc.

The more natural can construction I can see a tions. In this class, along with the key verbs be and have, we put verbs bird of paradise stands In place of the state use of the Present. Often a paraphrase with be or have is possible: Incidentally, some verbs suppose, understand, etc. These, like the verbs of Class F can also be paraphrased in a similar way: But in Class H we place only non- conscious effort or intention.

The Simple Present in this case refers to a mental state, and so belongs to the category 'state', even though a limita- psychological verbs. This carpet belongs to me. I think she's getting upset. I own this carpet. I believe in fair play. Your age doesn't matter. As the examples suggest, verbs with this type of meaning are frequently This bread contains too much yeast. I Mangoes cost a lot just now. I followed by a noun clause. Other examples: Whether the play is a success depends on you, the audience.

I He imagines everything to be easy. The forms of the verb be do not always refer to a state. An exception Is the past participle been, used as past participle of the verb go: Where have you been? Here been We understand your difficulty. Is an event verb -. The use of have we are considering here Is the 'state' have of She has several intend, like, love, prefer, regret, want and wish are similar to 'verbs of inert sisters; I have a bad backache, etc. She loves working on a farm. However, some of these can more in colloquial BrE, but not by the Progressive be having: Note there Is also an 'activity' have which occurs freely with the Progressive Aspect, easily occur in the Progressive - enjoy, hope, like, love, for example - if the and which can often answer the question What are you doing?: I'm having lunch I a emphasis is on temporariness or tentativeness.

In other cases, the Progressive of have Is used to describe a good or bad experience: We're having fun I What do you want me to wear tonight? I Tim, are you wanting any fruit? The second example sounds like a tentative offer - although it would also be perfectly normal to use the Simple Present here: Tim, do you want any 1: Feel, see and hear, in addition to being 'verbs of perception' Class E , can be 38 J. There is used as verbs of cognition Class F: I SEE your point.

Jones is engaged to someone called Jack. Notice here a difference between this meaning of feel, which is a question b. Verbs such as read, Il!

For example, John tells me I can feel a stone in my shoe, understand as a result of John's having told me.. It is significant that know is characteristically followed by the Progressive with etc. Notice, however, that a verb like hurt can also occur as an event verb.

The state of knowledge and the activities of 'talking' and doctor examining a patient with a leg injury. Bending the knee, the doctor might 'doing' are here concurrent; the time-spans are comparable, and therefore, but for say Does that hurt? In this case, it would be unlikely that either speaker the InclUSion of know in Class F, we would expect matchIng verbal constructions - the Progressive Present In both cases.

Similarly, In a sentence like J think I'm would use the Progressive is hurting. As the type of perception expressed is 'inert' rather than' active', the Progressive is generally avoided: Many of these exceptions Martha's voice.

Such multiple membership has already been noted with Strangely, look is an exception to this rule: Feel, taste and smell can be used to Indicate not only 'inert the Progressive in sentences like I am hearing you clearly spoken, say, by a perception', but also 'active perception'. In the second case, they belong to radio or telephone operator. The meaning here is 'I am receiving your the 'activity' category Class C and so may freely take the Progressive form: We can argue, there- I can smell the gas.

I'm smelling the perfume. It's splendid! A rather different case is see in: I need glasses - I'm not seeing so r can feel the heat here. I'm feeling the ground with my foot. Here see is more like a 'process verb' describing the I can taste the spices in it. I'm tasting the broth to see if it's spicy speaker's deteriorating eyesight. Also sound, smell and taste could occur with the Progressive in describing a In the first sentence of each pair, the sensation is an experience that process developing towards completion.

A chef, supervising the progress of cooking simply 'happens' to me; but in the second, I go out of my way, physically, might say: A technidan adjusting the sound quality of a to focus my attention on some object. The second sentence answers the test recording might say: That's sounding more like it.

However, the remaining two verbs in Class E, see and hear, are not used in the active sense, because the separate verbs look at and listen to are I'm thinking for the moment in plain economic tenns.

I Surely you're available for that function: I We're supposing the butler did it. In the first example, 'thinking' is felt to be a r can see a bus in the distance. I'm looking at a bus in the distance. I can't hear what he's saying. You're not listening to what he's saying. In the second example, imagining things means 'entertaining or indulging 'Inert perception' is a more appropriate term than 'passive perception', yourself with illusions'.

In the third, I'm supposing that. In other words, in sentences of this kind, term for the type represented by look at and listen to: I What were you wanting?

I You it consists of those verbs for which the grammatical subject is the object are forgetting the moral arguments. I We're wondering if you have any of perception: Here again,. These In idiomatic colloquial speech, this apparently unaccountable usage is three verbs are used in the 'passive' sense in: You forget, etc. A parallel though less likely example with the tentative, and hence a more polite method of expressing a mental attitude.

On the other hand, no element of showmanShip is to change' and, in the present context,. A more precise analysis should make clear that the contrast between She is awkward the speaker has not made a final commitment to the hope - there is still and She is being awkward is more complicated than suggested above. Whereas the scope for a change of mind should the listener's reaction be discouraging.

Progressive Present here restricts the adjective to the meaning 'obstructionist', the Simple Present is ambiguous, allowing both 'state' and 'activity' interpretations. I just wondered if you could give us some advice. In fact, the two foons verb: The first of these connotations: I was just wondering if you could give us some advice; I was hoping you'd conditions is fulfilled In She is hungry, and the second in She is an angel meaning look after the children for us.

The fonn of verb, for politeness, must be matched against 'She goes out of her way to be kind, helpful, considerate, etc. Only when both the size of favour requested.

The Past Progressive most tentative Is more appropriate conditions are present together, as in She is being an angel, does one expect the to a request which will put the listener to considerable risk or inconvenience.

The Progressive Aspect with the main verb to be. Simple Present most direct Is more appropriate when the listener is invited to do b. I hope you'll come and have dinner with us when you're in London next Progressive: The child is asleep The child is sleeping. The verb to be itself furnishes many examples. She is to a temporary state of affairs.

Similar differences of progressive verbs, the Simple Present invades so to speak the semantic terntory of meaning are seen In: He's a fool i. II Certain other verbs of Class H can take the Progressive when accom- He's being a fool panied by an expression like more and more: She's awkward Le. He is resembling his father more and more as the years go by. I The She's being awkward Le.

I The car is difficult to drive i. Good food is costing more since devaluation. The car is being difficult Le. But even if no obvious 'activity' meaning is available, verbs are no longer 'state verbs', but have transferred to the class of we can frequently interpret a sentence X is being Y, however improbable 'process verbs'.

Resemble, for example here means 'to become like' rather the context, by reading into it the Idea of someone acting a part. Today, than 'to be like'. He is being tID Unavoidably, there are some special cases which have not been dealt with sorry I afraid I happy, etc. It seems likely that In these cases, the Progressive concept of 'temporariness' applies not to some aspects of Progressive usage are unstable at the present time, and are the individual events that make up the series, but to the series as a whole.

It is the temporariness of the habit that is important: I Paula was saying that Eddie was going to be promoted. The Progressive Past refers here to fairly recent communicative happen- The iterative element of meaning may well be made clear by an adverbial ings the other day is a typical adverbial collocation. There is no feeling of expression of frequency: Adverbs of indefinite frequency may not be so used, however: The only parts of the Progressive meaning relevant are 'duration' and 'lack of completeness'.

In answer to the question Did you hear about what happened to Matthew on the tour? This would not imply total know- Whenever I pass that house the dog's barking. I Don't call on them at 7. I Usually the cramp starts just as ledge, and so would politely leave the way open for a continuation of the I'm going to sleep.

I You only seem to come alive when you're story. Here the notion of limited dUration applies not to the habit as a whole, A further peculiarity of this usage is that the Past Tense does not have but to the individual events of which the habit is composed.

The effect of to be anchored to a specific earlier point of time reference ct. The or time-point: Normally, this meaning of the Progressive is accom- that there is a time gap between the communication and the present panied by adverbial modification naming the event or pOint of time around moment.

If the Perfect Progressive were used, as in 1 have been reading which the temporary activity is seen as a 'frame'.

When no adverbial of about. Thus to the second example above we could add the words An adverbial phrase of frequency may also be added: OffEN when I pass she is sitting there on the doorstep, watching the world go by. Sometimes, absence of frequency modification leads to ambiguity as to habitual or Apart from the major use of the Progressive Aspect to refer to single non-habitual meaning.

This is evident in the second example above, which, temporary happenings, there are four other less important uses to be if normally were omitted, could refer either to a single event of having considered. I This season she is appearing in happenings in the future: I At the moment Glyn is cycling Martin is coming over for lunch on Sunday. I She's staying over in almost twenty miles a day. London next Wednesday night. I I hear you're moving to a new job. Finally, there is a special extended meaning of the Progressive, marked by The Expression of the absence of the 'temporary' element of the normal Progressive meaning: The western land mass is always moving towards the water.

The uninterrupted nature of the activity is usually underlined by the presence of adverbs or adverbial 53 introduction. I They're always cracking jokes. Present Perfect; 61 continuation up to the present time; 62 present result; I We were continually mending punctures - It was really rough going. It does not and Present Perfect; 66 imaginary Present Perfect; 67 Perfect Aspect with mean what always means in the corresponding Simple Present construction: The sense of this last sentence is 'He and secondary points of reference; 69 adverbials associated with Past Tenses; gives her an expensive present on every occasion' i.

But with the Progressive, the rough either; 72 adverbials combining with either, but with difference of meaning. Their tone is often one of irritation or amused disparagement. My main goal, in this chapter, is to show how the Perfect is distinguished in meaning from the Past, first of all concentrating on the Present Perfect Tense. To begin with, it is worth making the point that Present Perfect and Simple Past are not mutually exclusive choices: Thus the the future: We've kept healthy all our lives, and we mean to stay healthy Present Perfect means'past-time-related-to-present-time'.

The Past Tense would be unacceptable in BrE, though not in ArnE, In the first of the three examples above being incompatible with since here. In the other two examples the Past Tense would mean that the period is already complete and in the past: That house was empty for ages but c We have lived in vague to tell us exactly when and when not to use the Present Perfect.

There are exceptions, however, where to the present by means of the Perfect: In He's lived a life of present time. Moreover, we can distinguish not just two, but four different luxury, duration up to the present is understood, because there is an implicit uses of the Present Perfect, one of them occurring with 'state verbs' and period 'during his life'; in You've outstayed your welcome, the word outstay three with 'event verbs'.

We begin with the 'state' use, which is conceptu- likewise incorporates the durational meaning 'for too long'. With these verbs, the ordinary Present Perfect a.

The construction have got appears to be the Perfect form of the main verb get. In answer to Why haven't you been writing to me? In any case, the usual ArnE of Class 37G describes a temporary situation, for which the Progressive form Perfect of get is have gotten Sam's gotten meaner. In general, then, have got Is not Perfect. With 'event verbs', the Present Perfect can refer to some indefinite happening or happenings in the past: Have you been to Brazil?

I He's a man who has experienced suffering. Something awful has happened. I I've known love, but not true love. Have you ever been to Brazil? NOW Two things are meant by 'indefiniteness' here: To put it more carefully, there- -4 -4 -4 indicates that results persist in the present time.

The number of events, it is true, can be mentioned adverbially: I've been to America three times. But if there is an adverbial of time-when to specify the 1 ; With 'state verbs', present involvement means that exact time in the past, the Present Perfect becomes inappropriate, and is. I We've known each other for years. I That house has been a. Espedally in BrE, there can be cases where the Present Perfect co-occurs with an empty for ages.

Many people would consider such usages as mistakes, even though PAST. This is partly separated from the more general indefinite past meaning they sometimes occur in the speech of native speakers. Always, b. The indefinite past meaning of the Perfect, like the state-up-to-the-present never, ever and before, on the other hand, single out the more general meaning, does not often occur without adverbial reinforcement.

On the infrequent meaning. I have eaten lobster with a fall of intonation on have and a rise on lobster a. In ArnE, the recent indefinite past is frequently expressed by the Simple Past ' I I have played tennis '. Did your sister phone yet?

But the Present Perfect is also used here in ArnE - and British speakers 57 At first glance, it looks as if there is no element of 'present involvement' show signs of beginning to follow the American use of the Simple Past.

The habitual or iterative use indicate that a period of time leading up to the present is involved here, of the Present Perfect with 'event verbs' is illustrated by: Once again, our 'indefinite Mr Phipps has sung in this choir for fifty years.

I I've always walked to past' definition must be revised, and more exactly formulated as: I The news has been broadcast at 10 o'clock for as long as I can once-in-a-period-leading-up-to-the-present'.

This longer wording, when remember. But consider these other examples: Since a habit as that term has been understood here is a state conSisting of repeated events, this use is similar to the 'state' use of the Present Perfect Have you visited the Gauguin exhibition?

As we saw there, the habit or state may continue I The postman hasn't called at our house i. Mr Phipps has sung in this choir without the adver- running, whereas the Simple Past Did you visit the Gauguin exhibition?

Often, would have suggested that the exhibition is over or more precisely, that the habit element is emphasised by an adverbial of frequency: The machine your chance to visit it is over. The Present Perfect is also used in reference to a past event rather that the postman has not called during a period in which his to imply that the result of that event is still operative at the present time.

The resultant and present state word or phrase to refer to something close at hand rather than distant. It implied by the Perfect is indicated in brackets in these typical examples: If we recognise that the The taxi has arrived i.

The taxi is now here'. In other sentences, the restricted period is made explicit: Someone has broken her doll 'The doll is now broken'. Have you installed any new software in the last week? I Have you taken In other examples, the resultative implication is still there, even though it him to the vet since the trouble started? Have you seen my car keys recently? ArnE would be more likely to use the Simple Past.

If the adverbs recently and just are omitted from these sentences, there is scarcely any change of The resultative meaning needs no support from adverbials. It is sometimes meaning, as they simply make the implicit 'nearness' of the event explicit. There is a comparable resultative use of past participles; a broken doll, a painted ceiling, an injured arm.

For example, a broken doll means a doll that has been broken, Again, here is the same point illustrated with the indefinite past use: These examples contrast with past participles of 'state verbs', where the meaning is purely stative: Did Anton Chekhov write any novels? There are two Perfect forms of the verb ga: The difference in meaning between them is that the first is resultative, indicating In all these examples, the period in question is assumed rather than named: He has gone to America Implies he Is still there; He has been to America it is most likely the lifetime of the person or institution denoted by the implies that he has since returned or at least that he has since left America.

As the notions of completeness and result are clearly connected, we note at this a. We do find occasional examples which contradict the rule about continuation point the completive emphasis of the Present Perfect in some rather oracular utter- up to the present, e.

What I have written, I have written. Here the effect of the Perfect is 'What I have written must stay there - It cannot be altered or added to'. First, it is worth noting that the Present Perfect is much less frequent than the Simple Past tense. The resultatlve use of the Present Perfect in BrE is shown of the Present Perfect are of very different frequency - by far the most in contrast to the Simple Past in: The indefinite past Peter has injured his ankle 'His ankle is still bad'.

The Peter injured his ankle ' The second allows us to conclude that the result of the injury has Now let's review the contrasts and points of overlap between these disappeared. As a means of referring to the past, a. This house was built by Imgo fones. Tobacco was continuation up to the present, present result, and indefinite time. This element of meaning is found replaced by the Simple Past: Why are you limping?

Did you hurt YOllr foot? The contrast of the 'state' Perfect with the Past is evident in: The point of reference may be specified in one of three ways: The same contrast is made with the habitual use in: For generations, Nepal has produced the world's greatest soldiers 'The nation of Nepal still exists'.

I saw him Tuesday. Implicit definiteness can often be clarified by taking the corresponding indefin- b By a preceding use of a Past or Perfect Tense: Ite statement, and by mentally adding a when clause. Who gave you this tie? Did you have a good journey? Did you hear that noise? When the topic of a sentence is unique e. From the speaker's viewpoint - though not necessarily from since we know that Philadelphia is a definite place, and was founded at a unique the hearer's - the time is definite.

In this connection, it is interesting to contrast the indefinite John has painted A picture of his sister with the definite John painted THIS picture. The Past Tense, Indicating a definite point of reference in the past, is to be expected in temporal clauses introduced by when, while, since, etc. When followed by the Present Perfect is not frequent, and must be understood in a past-in-the-future or hablt-up-to-the-present sense.

Perfect is exactly parallel to the contrast in meaning between the definite the when clause Is classed as an adverbial expression of time-when, just like last article the and the indefinite article a or an.