CAESAR II and pipe stress analysis training your own way! Start with what interests CAESAR II® Software. Not only does it guide users through most of the. Manual to gain a deeper understanding of the game manual or any of the on- line instructions tell you to Game play in Caesar II takes place on two “levels.”. This software and this manual have been developed and checked for correctness and Ltd. CAESAR II is trademark of COADE Inc in Houston, Texas, USA.
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CAESAR II User's Guide - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. CAESAR II User's Guide. CAESAR II PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS TUTORIAL - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text By way of example training regimen a manual inside your new product to . Now you can quickly learn how to navigate and use many of the features in Intergraph's® CAESAR II®. Software! The course includes a copy of the ASME®.
Continue changing values until you are finished. However, if the small angle bend is grossly small compared to the surrounding elements, then a different modeling approach is recommended so that the bend is not used. Database Definitions The Database Definitions category provides access to the following groups of configuration settings:. This approach has produced software that most closely fits the requirements of todays pipe stress industry. Looking to produce a user manual and require to achieve this? Select one of the following standards: The Other Documentation may not be printed for resale or redistribution.
Piping - Defines piping job parameters. For more information, see Piping Input Reference on page Underground - Converts an existing piping model to buried pipe. For more information, see Buried Pipe Modeler on page Structural Steel - Defines structural steel for the job. For more information, see Structural Steel Modeler on page Statics - Performs Static analysis of pipe or structure. The command is available after error checking the input files.
Dynamics - Performs Dynamic analysis of pipe or structure. For more information, see Dynamic Analysis on page Intersection SIF Scratchpad - Displays scratch pads used to calculate stress intensification factors at tee intersections.
For more information, see Bend Stress Intensification Factors on page Flanges - Performs flange stress and leakage calculations. G - Estimates pipeline remaining life. For more information, see Expansion Joint Rating on page API - Evaluates piping loads on centrifugal pumps. API - Evaluates piping loads on compressors. API - Evaluates piping loads on air-cooled heat exchangers. HEI Standard - Evaluates piping loads on feedwater heaters.
API - Evaluates piping loads on fired heaters. Output Menu The Output menu lists all available output of piping or structural calculations that can be selected for review. Static - Displays the results of a static analysis. Harmonic - Displays Harmonic Loading results. Animation - Displays Animated Graphic simulations of any of the above results. Click to view any of the following simulations: Additionally, significant portions of the documentation, including the various guides and F1 Help information, are translated.
English United States - Identifies that the current language is English, which is the default language. Each time that you open the software, it searches for this configuration file in the current data folder. For more information, see Configuration and Environment on page Calculator - Launches an on-screen calculator.
Change Model Units - Converts an existing input file to a new set of units. For more information, see Change Model Units on page For more information, see Material Database on page Accounting - Activates or customizes job accounting or generates accounting reports. For more information, see Accounting on page Multi-Job Analysis - Enables the user to run a stream of jobs without operator intervention.
For more information, see Batch Stream Processing on page External Interfaces - Displays the interfaces to and from third party software both CAD and analytical. For more information, see External Interfaces on page I-Configure - Starts I-Configure.
In addition, all toolbar customizations are reset to the default state and your video driver is to OpenGL. Diagnostics Menu The Diagnostics menu activates utilities to help troubleshoot problem installations. CRC Check - Verifies program files are not corrupted. These commands are disabled if you are using SmartPlant License Manager.
Authorization Codes - See the Access Codes option. View Menu The View menu is used to enable and customize the status bar and all toolbars. Toolbar - Displays or hides toolbars and allows you to customize toolbars. Status Bar - Displays or hides the status bar at the bottom of the window.
An active internet connection is required. Information - Provides information on the best ways to contact Intergraph CAS personnel for technical support and provides internet links for Intergraph CAS downloads and information. A help screen displays showing a discussion and the required units, if applicable. Configuration and Environment This section discusses the configuration options that are available. Each time that you open the software, it searches for this configuration file in the current data directory and uses it to perform the analysis.
If the configuration file is not found in the current data directory, the software then searches the installation folder. To produce identical results between computers, use the same configuration file.
Make a copy of the setup file to be archived with input and output data so that identical reruns can be made. The units file, if it is modified, must also be identical if the same results are to be produced. Alternatively, you can click Configure. The attributes for Computational Control display. Click the title in the Categories pane to navigate to the appropriate configuration spreadsheets. Click Save and Exit. Click the description to change a value for a configuration attribute, A drop-down menu which contains the possible values for the attribute displays.
Select a new value. The new value displays in bold text. Continue changing values until you are finished. Click Alt D to reset an individual field value in the current configuration file to its default value.
Click the Reset All drop-down menu. The various default file options display. Select a default file. The values in left-hand pane change to the default values.
Values change to normal text from bold text. Save the changes. Computational Control The Computational Control category provides access to the following groups of configuration settings:. Decomposition Singularity Tolerance Defines the value used by the software to check the ratio of off-diagonal to on-diagonal coefficients in the row. The default value is 1. If this ratio is greater than the decomposition singularity tolerance, then a numerical error may occur. This problem does not have to be associated with a system singularity.
These solutions have several general characteristics:. When computer precision errors of this type occur, they are very local in nature. They typically affect only a single element or very small part of the model and are readily noticeable upon inspection. The 1E10 limit can be increased to 1E11 or 1E12 and still provide a reasonable check on solution accuracy.
Any solution computed after increasing the limit should always be checked closely for reasonableness. At 1E11 or 1E12, the number of significant figures in the local solution is reduced to two or three.
Although the 1E10 limit can be increased to 1E20 or 1E30 to get the job to run, it is important to remember that the possibility for a locally errant solution exists when stiffness ratios are allowed to get this high. Solutions should be carefully checked.
Friction Angle Variation Specifies the friction sliding angle variation. The default value is degrees. This parameter had more significance in software versions prior to 2. It is currently only used in the first iteration when a restraint goes from the non-sliding to sliding state.
All subsequent iterations compensate for the angle variation automatically. Friction Normal Force Variation Defines the amount of variation in the normal force that is permitted before an adjustment is made in the sliding friction force. The default value is 0. Normally, you should not adjust this value.
Friction Slide Multiplier Specifies the internal friction sliding force multiplier. Friction Stiffness Specifies the friction restraint stiffness. The default value for the friction restraint stiffness is 1. If the structural load normal to a friction restraint is less than the restraint load multiplied by the coefficient of friction, the pipe will not move at this support this restraint node is "non-sliding. Nonlinear convergence problems may be alleviated by reducing the friction restraint stiffness.
Lower friction stiffness will more readily distribute friction loads throughout the system and allow nonlinear convergence. However, this lower stiffness affects the accuracy of the results.
Lower stiffness values permit more "non-sliding" movement, but given the indeterminate nature of the friction problem in general, this error may not be crucial. Rod Increment Degrees Specifies the maximum amount of angular change that any one support can experience between iterations.
For difficult-to-converge problems, values of 0. When small values are used, you should be prepared for a large number of iterations. The total number of iterations can be estimated from the following: Rod Tolerance Degrees Specifies the angular plus-or-minus permitted convergence error.
For systems subject to large horizontal displacements, values of 5. Any entry in the Temp fields whose absolute magnitude is less than 0.
Coefficient of Friction Mu Specifies the value that is applied by default as the coefficient of friction to all translational restraints. If you enter 0, which is the default value, no friction is applied. Default Rotational Restraint Stiffness Defines the value used for non-specified rotational restraint stiffnesses. By default this value is assumed to be 1. Default Translational Restraint Stiffness Defines the value used for non-specified translational restraint stiffnesses.
Hanger Default Restraint Stiffness Defines the value used for computing the hanger restrained weight loads. Where hangers are adjacent to other supports or are themselves very close, such as where there are two hangers on either side of a trunnion support, the CAESAR II hanger design algorithm may generate poorly distributed hot hanger loads in the vicinity of the close hangers.
Using a more flexible support for computing the hanger restrained weight loads often allows the design algorithm to more effectively distribute the systems weight. For most piping codes, this value is only used during the minimum wall thickness computation. Mill tolerance is usually not considered in the flexibility analysis. The default value is New Job Ambient Temperature Represents the installed, or zero expansion, strain state.
This value is only used to initialize the ambient temperature input field for new jobs. Changing this configuration value will not affect existing jobs.
To change the ambient temperature for an existing job, use the Ambient Temperature on page field in the Piping Input Special Execution Parameters dialog box. The Bourdon effect causes straight pipe to elongate and bends to open up translationally along a line connecting the curvature end points. If the Bourdon effect is disabled, there will be no global displacements due to pressure.
This option may apply for bends that are formed or rolled from straight pipe, where the bend-cross section will be slightly oval due to the bending process. Bourdon Pressure Option 2. For elbows, Bourdon Pressure Option 1 should apply for forged and welded fittings where the bend cross-section can be considered essentially circular. The Bourdon effect Trans only is always considered when FRP pipe is used, regardless of the actual setting of the Bourdon flag.
Miscellaneous Topics Bend Axial Shape Bend Axial Shape Controls whether the displacement mode is ignored. For bends degrees or smaller, a major contributor to deformation can be the axial displacement of the short-arched pipe. With the axial shape function disabled, this displacement mode is ignored and the bend will be stiffer.
Ignore Spring Hanger Stiffness Indicates whether the software uses the stiffness of spring hangers in the analysis. The default setting is False, meaning that the software does not ignore the stiffness of spring hangers.
Setting this option to True is consistent with hand computation methods of spring hanger design, which ignores the effects of the springs. Intergraph CAS recommends that you never change this value. Include Insulation in Hydrotest Controls whether the weight of any insulation and cladding will be considered in the hydrotest case. To ignore the insulation and cladding in the hydrotest case, select False the default setting. To include the weight of insulation and cladding in the hydrotest case, select True.
If you select True, the software places the designed spring stiffness into the Hanger Operating Travel Case and iterates until the system balances.
This iteration scheme therefore considers the effect of the spring hanger stiffness on the thermal growth of the system vertical travel of the spring. If this option is used, it is very important that the hanger load in the cold case in the physical system be adjusted to match the reported hanger cold load.
If you select False, spring hangers are designed the traditional way. Incore Numerical Check Enables the incore solution module to test the solution stability for the current model and loadings. This option, if selected, adds the solution of an extra load case to the analysis. If you select Extracted the default setting , the software will use the spectrum value at the last "extracted" mode.
In these cases, pressure stiffening effects will apply to all bends, elbows, and both miter types. In all cases, the pressure used is the maximum of all pressures defined for the element. Pressure stiffening effects are defined in Appendix D of B When set to Default, the software considers the pressure stiffening of bends according to the active piping code.
Valid options are:. This is the default setting. In , WRC Bulletin was released. It is not an update or a revision of Bulletin simply provides equations in place of the curves found in Bulletin Database Definitions The Database Definitions category provides access to the following groups of configuration settings:. Select a folder in the list. All of the system folders contain formatting files, units files, text files, and other user-configurable data files.
Configuration and Environment of these formatting files are language or code-specific. Therefore, you may want to switch between system folders depending on the current job.
Use Multiple System Folders in the Same Location You can create multiple system folders in the same location to provide different options for different projects. System folder names must use the following naming convention: For example, you could set up system folders specified for each of the piping codes configurations you need, such as: STM Stoomwezen code system configuration System.
Then, you can select one and save the configuration. Use System Folders in Varying Locations You can create system folders that reside in other locations, such as somewhere on your network. This allows you to share the settings from the System folder with others. However, you must copy the System folder and other necessary program folders to the secondary location. You can leave the Backup, Examples, and Temp folders in the original program folder location, as shown in the example below.
The file name requirements mentioned in the previous section apply for system folders on a network or in a secondary location as well. In addition, you can set up network system files that apply at a project level.
There must be a primary system folder, named System, in which the software can place accounting, version, and diagnostic files that it creates during execution. The location of the primary system folder is dependent on the specific edition of the Windows operating system, as follows: Windows 7 and later "C: Default Spring Hanger Table Defines the value of the default spring hanger table, which is referenced during the spring hanger design stage of the solution.
The software includes tables from more than 30 different vendors. Expansion Joints Specifies which expansion joint database the software should reference during subsequent input sessions. Load Case Template Specifies which load case template is active. The software uses the active template file to recommend load cases. TPL default Select this option to include additional Expansion EXP stress range load cases for better coverage of multiple operating conditions.
Piping Size Specification Specifies the piping specification standard. Select one of the following standards: By default, the software uses the ANSI pipe size and schedule tables in the input processor.
Structural Database Specifies which database file is used to acquire the structural steel shape labels and cross section properties. Select one of the following: Units File Name Specifies which of the available units files is active.
The active units file is used for new job creation and all output generation. The software first searches for units files in the local data directory, followed by the active System directory. By default, when you add to or modify the supplied material database, the changes are saved to a file named umat1.
This file can be copied, then renamed, if necessary, to umat1. In some cases, it may be necessary to manipulate several UMD files. This can occur if UMD files are acquired from different sources. Because a specific file name can only be used once, it will be necessary to rename any additional UMD files. Material database files are accessed as described below: The specified user material database UMD is read. Open the Configuration Editor and click Database Definitions.
In User Material File Name, type in a new name. The possible settings for this directive are:. The available databases are:. Append Reruns to Existing Data Controls how the software handles data from multiple runs. True - Add new data to the database, thus storing multiple runs of the same job in the database. All jobs run in this data folder will write their output to the database specified here. Elastic Modulus Axial Modulus of Elasticity Displays the axial elastic modulus of fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe.
This is the default value used to set the data in the input processor. When necessary, you may override this value. Axial Strain: FRP Alpha xe Enter the thermal expansion coefficient for the fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe used multiplied by 1,, For example, if the value is 8. The exponent E-6 is implied. If a single expansion coefficient is too limiting for your application, the actual thermal expansion may always be calculated at temperature in inches per inch or mm per mm and entered directly into the Temperature field on the Pipe spreadsheet.
FRP Density Displays the weight of the pipe material on a per unit volume basis. This field is used to set the default weight density of FRP materials in the piping input module. Valid laminate types are:. CSM and Multi-filament - Chopped strand mat and multi-filament roving construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer. CSM - All chopped strand mat construction with internal and external surface tissue reinforced layer.
The software uses this entry to calculate the flexibility and stress intensity factors of bends; therefore, this default entry may be overridden using the Type field on the bend auxiliary dialog boxes. After the file is selected, the software will give you the option of reading in from that file.
You may create FRP material files as text files with the. The format of the files must adhere to the format shown in the following sample FRP data file:.
The data lines must exactly follow the order shown in the above sample FRP data file. Ratio Shear Modulus: Elastic Modulus Enter the ratio of the shear modulus to the modulus of elasticity in the axial direction of the fiberglass reinforced plastic pipe used.
For example, if the material modulus of elasticity axial is 3. The BS code explicitly requires that the effect of pressure stiffening on the bend SIFs be calculated using the design strain this is based upon the assumption that the FRP piping is fully pressurized to its design limit. When the piping is pressurized to a value much lower than its design pressure, it may be more accurate to calculate pressure stiffening based on the actual pressure stress, rather than its design strain.
This alternative method is a deviation from the explicit instructions of the BS code. Some sources, such as Shell's DEP True - Set the fitting flexibility factor to 1. True - Set the fitting SIF to 2. Optionally, you can manually enter an alternative value. Geometry Directives The Geometry Directives category provides access to the following groups of configuration settings:. Bend Length Attachment Percent Controls the amount of accuracy included in the system dimensions around bends.
The default attachment is 1. You can use Bend Length Attachment Percent to adjust this percentage to reduce the error due to the inserted element; however, the length tolerance for elements leaving the bend will also be reduced. Very large angles, short radius bends can cause numerical problems during solution. When you have a reasonable radius and a large angle, problems rarely arise.
However, if the large angle bend plots well when compared to the surrounding elements, then the bend can probably be used without difficulty. Well-proportioned bends up to degrees have been tested without a problem. The default value is 5. Very small angles, short radius bends can cause numerical problems during solution. When you have a reasonable radius and a small angle, problems rarely arise. However, if the small angle bend is grossly small compared to the surrounding elements, then a different modeling approach is recommended so that the bend is not used.
Nodes on a bend curvature that are too close together can cause numerical problems during solution. Where the radius of the bend is large, such as in a cross-country pipeline, it is not uncommon to find nodes on a bend curvature closer than 5-degrees. Any non-zero, positive value that you enter is used to automatically assume the To node value on the piping input spreadsheets.
The new To node number is determined as: Connect Geometry Through CNodes Controls whether each restraint, nozzle, or hanger exists at the same point in space as its connecting node. Restraints, flexible nozzles, and spring hangers may be defined with connecting nodes. They may be at the same point, or they may be hundreds of feet apart. In many cases, enabling this option will cause "plot-wise" disconnected parts of the system to be re-connected and to appear as-expected in both input and output plots.
Horizontal Thermal Bowing Tolerance Specifies the maximum slope of a straight pipe element for which thermal bowing effects will be considered. Thermal bowing is usually associated with fluid carrying horizontal pipes in which the fluid does not fill the cross section. In these cases, there is a temperature differential across the cross section.
You can use Horizontal Thermal Bowing Tolerance to define the interpretation of "horizontal. If a pipe elements pitch is less than this tolerance, the element is considered to be horizontal, and thermal bowing loads can be applied to it. An elements pitch is computed using the following formula: You can set this value interactively for each job analyzed, or you can enter the loop closure tolerance using this option and override the software default value of 1.
True - Make the Z-axis vertical.
The X- and Y-axes will be in the horizontal plane. This setting applies only to jobs created after this setting is changed. Graphic Settings The Graphics Settings category provides access to configuration settings that used to set the different plot option colors, font characteristics, and the view options.
Advanced Options - Contains options that should only be used by graphics experts. For more information, see Advanced Options on page Background Colors - Contains options that define the color of the plot window. For more information, see Background Colors on page Component Colors - Contains options that define the color for various components in the plot. For more information, see Component Colors on page Marker Options - Contains options that set the node marker color and size.
For more information, see Marker Options on page Miscellaneous Options - Contains options that determine how graphics are displayed either by default or when using the Reset Plot option. For more information, see Miscellaneous Options on page Output Colors - Contains options that set the colors used when plotting code stress in output. For more information, see Output Colors on page Text Options - Contains options for defining font, font style, font size, and color.
Scripts are supported. For more information, see Text Options on page Visual Options - Contains options that control general plotting visibility. For more information, see Visual Options on page Configuration and Environment To change a color, click it once and then click the ellipses button that appears to the right.
Select a color in the dialog box that appears, and then click OK. To save the color settings, click Save and Exit before closing the Configuration Editor. Advanced Options Topics Backplane Culling Backplane Culling This setting should only be used by graphics experts. If you are experiencing difficulties with your graphics, contact Intergraph CAS Support for assistance. Culling Maximum Extent This setting should only be used by graphics experts. Use Culling Frustrum This setting should only be used by graphics experts.
Background Colors Topics Bottom Use Uniform Background Color Controls the background color. Set this option to True if you want the plot background to be one uniform color instead of blending between the top and bottom colors. Hangers Sets the color of the spring hangers and spring cans when displayed in the graphics. Restraints Sets the color of all restraints except for anchors and hangers when displayed in the graphics.
Steel Sets the color of all structural steel elements in both the structural steel plot and the piping plot when structural steel is included.
Marker Options Topics Marker Color Miscellaneous Options These options determine how graphics display by default or how they display when you use the Reset Plot option while in the graphics. Topics Default Operator Default Operator Controls the initial display of graphics. The default setting is Zoom to Window. Default Projection Mode Specifies the projection of graphics in the software. You can select Orthographic, Perspective, or Stretched.
The default projection setting is Orthographic. Default Render Mode Specifies the render mode. The default render mode setting is Phong Shading. Centerline and Silhouette are the fastest render modes and less memory intensive for your computer graphics card. Default View Specifies the graphical view. The default view setting is SE Isometric.
Disable Graphic Tooltip Bubble Enables or disables the tooltip bubble that displays information about the element that you mouse over in the graphics view. Force Black and White Printing Controls printing output of graphics.
If set to True, graphics are printed using only black and white. Idle Processing Count Controls the number of objects the software is allowed to draw during a single idle cycle.
For example, there may three or four idle messages between keystrokes. On slower machines, it may increase performance to lower this value, and vice versa. Optimal Frame Rate Determines how many times per second the software will re-draw the piping display when it is being manipulated, such as when you are zooming, panning, or rotating the display.
If you experience graphics problems such as sluggishness during operations or large boxes being drawn instead of the piping system display, lower this number. Restore Previous Projection Mode Returns the projection mode to its previous state.
Projection mode is either isometric or orthographic. Restore Previous Render Mode Returns the render mode to its previous state. Restore Previous Restraint Size Returns the restraint size to its previous setting. Restore Previous View Returns the standard view to its previous setting. Video Driver Determines the video driver used in plotting. Actual Stress Settings Assigns a color to a specific level of stress. When plotting code stress in output, the software will color the elements in terms of actual stress.
The levels are currently set as follows: When plotting code stress in output, the software can also color elements in terms of percent of code allowable. For more information, see Percent Stress Settings on page Displaced Shape Sets the color of the Displaced Shape option when displayed in output graphics.
Percent Stress Settings Assigns a color to a specific level of stress. When plotting code stress in output, the software will color the elements in terms of the percent of code allowable. When plotting code stress in output, the software can also color elements in terms of actual stress. For more information, see Actual Stress Settings on page Text Options You can use these options to select font, font style, and font size and color.
The different plot texts are node numbers and names, annotation, and legends. Topics Annotation Text Legend Text Sets the text color and font style settings of all legends, such as displacements, temperatures, and so forth, when displayed in the graphics. Node Text Determines the color and font style settings of node numbers and node names when displayed in the graphics.
By default, the software will not draw text that is occluded by anything else, including other text. For example, if a pipe is in front of text, the text will not be drawn. If some text overlaps other text, the text that is further back will be hidden. Topics Always Use System Colors Always Use System Colors Stores the colors the software uses to display the model in the registry.
Always Use System Fonts Stores the fonts that the software uses to display the model in the registry. Axis Mode Turns on and off the display of the axes in the plot. By default, the axes displays in the lower left corner of the plot. Fixed Size Restraint Size Controls the restraint size. By default, the software draws restraints relative to the size of the pipe to which they are attached. For example, the symbol is larger on a inch pipe than on a 2-inch pipe. You can override this behavior so that the software uses the same size restraint everywhere by setting Use Fixed Size Restraints on page 79 to True and defining a Fixed Size Restraint Size value.
Hide Overlapping Text Hides node text that is overwritten by other text. This makes reading the plot easier, but eliminates some node text. Restraint Helix is a Line Controls how the software draws a restraint helix. By default, a restraint with a variable retention is drawn with a small spring to indicate that it is not fixed. If this property is set to True the default setting , the software draws the spring as a line; otherwise, the software draws the spring as a coiled cylinder.
If drawing the restraint helix as a line degrades plot performance, set Restraint Helix is a Line to False. Shadow Mode Defines the shadow mode.
Select Hard, Soft, or None. The default setting is None. Show Bounding Box Controls whether a bounding box appears around the model when it is being manipulated--for example, rotated or panned-- with the mouse.
Smooth Transitions Specifies whether graphics have a smooth transition when the view is changed. Use Fixed Size Restraints Controls the size of the restraint. When it is set to True, this property draws restraints based on the value defined by the property Fixed Size Restraint Size on page Miscellaneous Options The Miscellaneous Options category provides access to the following groups of configuration settings:. Autosave Time Interval Sets the time interval used to perform the auto-save function.
Type a value in minutes. The graphics thumbnail plots a small image of the model as a single line drawing. On some slower, memory limited processors, or when scanning very large models, this thumbnail graphic may take a few seconds to plot the model. Dynamic Example Input Text Controls how much example text is placed in new dynamic input files.
By default, the software places example text and spectrum definitions in the input stream of new dynamic input files. After you are familiar with the input, this example text may be unnecessary. Select from the following options to vary how much of this example text is incorporated in the input:. MAX - Place all of the examples and spectrum definitions in the input stream of new dynamic input files.
NONE -Eliminate all the example text and all the built-in spectrum definitions. This setting is intended for experienced users. SPEC - Eliminate all of the example text, but leaves the predefined spectrum definition. This means that the built-in spectrum definitions El Centro, and so forth will still be defined and available for use.
Prompted Autosave Controls whether the software prompts you at the specified time interval to save the input. You must also set Enable Autosave to True. Displacement Reports Sorted by Nodes Turns on and off nodal sort. This produces a displacement output report in which the nodes are ordered in increasing magnitude. Select False to turn off this nodal sort.
The resulting displacement reports will be produced in the order the nodes were entered during model building. Output Reports by Load Case Controls how output reports are sorted.
By default, the software generates output reports sorted by load case. Select False to turn off this option, which causes output reports to be sorted by type. For reports by type, all displacement reports will be generated, then all restraint reports, then all force reports, and so on. Output Table of Contents Controls the generation of a table of contents, which is normally produced after a static or a dynamic output session.
Time History Animation Controls the creation of the file used to animate the time history displacement of the piping system. XYT, for every time step. This file is used in subsequent interactive animation sessions by the user.
The size of this file is dependent on the size of the model and the number of time steps analyzed. Consequently, it may be advantageous from a disk usage point of view not to create this file.
False - Leave the component files in the data directory and do not create the c2 archive. The advantages and disadvantages to using the compressed c2 archive are outlined follows: The archive is big, because it contains all component files. Therefore, saving or transmitting takes more resources than manipulating a single component file. Because doing this may slow the software, it is usually recommended only for very large piping models.
User ID Creates a control file for a specific computer. Enter a three-character user ID for each user, or more exactly, each workstation. When multiple workstations attempt to access CAESAR II data in the same directory simultaneously, the control file in the data directory becomes corrupted, which may cause abnormal software execution. This user ID is not a password and is specific to the computer requiring access and not to the user. Class 1 Branch Flexibility Activates the Class 1 flexibility calculations.
By default, this setting is False. The appearance of this parameter in the configuration file will completely change the modeling of intersections in the analysis. SIFs act at the surface point for the branch. When the reduced branch rules are satisfied, the local flexibility of the header is also inserted at this surface point.
Intersections not satisfying the reduced intersection rules will be stiffer and carry more loads, while intersections satisfying the reduced intersection rules will be more flexible and will carry less load. All changes to the model are completely transparent to the user.
In systems where the intersection flexibility is a major component of the overall system stiffness,. Configuration and Environment you are urged to run the analysis both with and without the Class 1 Branch Flexibility active to determine the effect of this modeling on the analysis.
Use Schneider Activates the Schneider reduced intersection assumptions. It was because of observations by Schneider that much of the work on WRC was started. For B The recommendations made by Rodabaugh in section 5. Every attempt has been made to improve the stress calculations for all codes, not just the four discussed in Rodabaughs paper.
When finally published, the official WRC designation was Code-Specific Settings Topics B This error was corrected in the version of B True - Assume that the fitting geometry meets the requirements of Note 11, introduced in the A01 addendum, and a flexibility characteristic of 4.
False - Use a flexibility characteristic of 3. Prior to Version 4.
This option produces a code compliance operating load case, with allowable stress values. Optionally, you can utilize distinct in-plane and out-of-plane SIF values for in-plane and out-of-plane moments.
To use distinct in-plane and out-of-plane SIFs, select True. Ignore B False - Apply the weld strength reduction factor at all bends, tees, and reducers for temperatures greater than the starting creep temperature, as defined in the code. Part of the discussion centers around just what should be considered a reduced fitting. The CAESAR II default False is to assume that welding tees and reinforced fabricated tees are covered by the reduced fitting expressions, even though the reduced fitting expressions do not explicitly cover these intersection types.
Occasional Load Factor Specifies the occasional load factor. The default value of 0. The default for B If this is too high for the material and temperature specified, then a smaller occasional load factor could be input. This configuration option is used to seed new job files. After the static load cases have been defined, changing this directive will have no effect for static analysis. For existing static load case definitions, the occasional load multiplier can be changed on the Load Case Options tab.
Dynamic analyses will always reference this configuration option. Pressure Variation in EXP Case Controls whether any pressure variation between the referenced load cases will be considered in the resulting expansion case.
When set to Default, the software considers the pressure variation according to the active piping code. Reduced Intersection Defines the code rules for reduced intersection.
Select one of the following options:. These rules did not define a separate branch SIF for the reduced branch end. The branch stress intensification factor will be the same as the header stress intensification factor regardless of the branch-to-header diameter ratio. The reduced intersection SIF equations in B This is according to WRC For this reason, many analysts opted for the pre B Configuration and Environment configuration file to generate any interpretation of B The default for a new job is for B The WRC recommendations result in more conservative stress calculations in some instances and less conservative stress calculations in others.
In all cases, the WRC values should be more accurate and more in-line with the respective codes intent. Schneider - Activate the Schneider reduced intersection stress intensification factor multiplication.
Has the same effect as Use Schneider on page If you select Default in this configuration setting, the software uses whatever the currently active piping code recommends. Only the process piping codes except for B The power piping codes such as B Add Torsion in SL Stress Controls how the software handles the torsion term in those codes that do not include it already by default.
The process piping codes except for B In a sustained stress analysis of a very hot piping system subject to creep, it is recommended that you include torsion in the sustained stress calculation using this parameter in the setup file. A recent version of the B Some have interpreted this to mean that the reduced section modulus should be used for all stress calculations, including expansion. This option allows you to apply this conservative interpretation of the code. Enabling All Cases Corroded causes the software to use the corroded section modulus for the calculation of all stress types.
This method is recommended as conservative, and probably more realistic as corrosion can significantly affect fatigue life, or expansion.
If, however, you disable this option, the software will strictly follow the piping code recommendations. That is, depending on the active piping code, some load cases will consider corrosion and some will not. Previously this was not permitted, and the code-defined SIF was always used. To override the codes calculated SIF for bends, select True. The user-defined SIF acts over the entire bend curvature and must be specified at the To end of the bend element. The default setting is False.
The default is to use the ID of the pipe. Most piping codes consider the effects of pressure in the longitudinal component of the CODE stress. Usually, the value of the hoop stress has no bearing on the CODE stress, so changing this directive does not affect the acceptability of the piping system.
Available options are:. Lam - Compute maximum hoop stress according to Lam's solution: Default Piping Code Specifies the piping code that you design to most often.
This code will be used as the default if no code is specified in the problem input. The default piping code is B Valid entries are:. New Job Liberal Expansion Stress Allowable Instructs the software to default new jobs to use the liberal expansion stress allowable. This allowable adds the difference between the hot allowable stress and the sustained stress to the allowable expansion stress range if it is allowed by the particular code in use.
To instruct the software to default new jobs to not use this allowable, select False. Some codes permit this simplified form when the pipe wall thickness is thin. The more comprehensive calculation--the default--is recommended. Yield Stress Criterion Specifies the method the software uses to calculate maximum stress. Code stress refers to a stress calculated by an equation provided by the code. The Stresses Extended output report produced by CAESAR II contains a value representative of the maximum stress state through the cross section, calculated according to the indicated yield criteria theory.
Configuration Setting. CAESAR II computes the selected stress at four points along the axis normal to the plane of bending outside top, inside top, inside bottom, outside bottom , and includes the maximum value in the stresses report. The equations used for each of these yield criteria are listed below. If von Mises Theory is used, the software computes the octahedral shearing stress, which differs from the von Mises stress by a constant factor.
For codes B For these codes, the software uses the equations shown in the piping code to determine the yield stress criterion in the Stresses Extended output report.
The four points are established by a line perpendicular to the bending moment acting on the pipe shown in red. Points 1 and 4 are on the outside surface of the pipe, where radial stress is zero. Point 1 is in bending tension and Point 4 is in bending compression. Points 2 and 3 are on the inside surface of the pipe where radial stress is compressive negative pressure. Longitudinal stress Sl , hoop stress Sh , radial stress Sr and shear stress St are calculated at each position using the appropriate formulas.
These stresses are translated into the principal stresses S1, S2, and S3. The following shows a graphical representation of a typical calculation of the four position points.
Determine the principal stress using the longitudinal stress Sl , the hoop stress Sh , and the sheer stress St which sets the red line. The principal stress refers to the points where the red circle crosses the normal stress axis shear stress equals zero. Place the radial stress Sr which has a shear stress of zero on the same axis. Stress can mean different things to different people. Pipe Cutters. In this module.
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