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Both led European culture to destruction and barbarism. The goal of the edi- tors became to diagnose this situation and to search for ways out of the crisis, of which Central Europe was the gravest victim. It did support all sorts of testimonies of resistance, aware that in a communist country every gesture of protest had a political, sym- bolic, and moral meaning, and, more than that, it became a model for others to imitate. Poet Community in the Second Corps and its Writing. Pomian — Bibliography and Publications —
Each such protest laid bare the falseness of the official ideology, and revealed the lies, and, above all, the repressive character of the communist power in Poland. They risked having their works placed on the index of prohibited authors in Poland, which meant prohibition of publication and reviewing their books in the Polish press; once they returned, their passport could be withdrawn, they could be prohibited from leaving the country, and sometimes even dismissed from their job.
The communists most violently attacked Kul- tura throughout the s and 60s. The exception was —57, when Kultura could disseminate its publications in Poland, even though it had no right of circulation. Library regulations were liberalized, and the postal service once again began to deliver Kultura and books about which the majority of readers had never heard earlier. Information about Kultura cropped up in the news- papers, and for a few months one could even import Kultura into Poland as customs were practically inexistent.
As a result, Kultura penetrated into the consciousness of the Polish intelligentsia. However, shortly afterwards, when this liberalism ended, the communist papers began to criticize Kultura fiercely, criticizing it emphatically no other manner of writing was permitted. However, in the s, a side-effect of these ritualized ideological attacks became obvious.
Exile Cultures Abroad ing Kultura, it must be a good and important journal. During the martial law, Kultura was accessible only through the distribution system of the underground publishing houses, at the risk of severe repression.
For several decades, Kultura served as an informal center of research for Polish and East-Central European affairs, a publishing house, an archive, a li- brary, and an office documenting the history of Polish emigration.
Between and , Kultura published titles with a total print run of five mil- lion. Everything that was published whenever and wherever in Polish […] is collected, cata- logued, and stored. Against the background of the current crisis in emigration, against the background of the decay and collapse of so many authorities and institutions, the fact that Kultura not only continues but is evolving takes on special significance. Happily, Kultura is dependent on a wide circle of Readers and friends.
The publications of the Instytut Literacki were a primary source for indepen- dent magazines and publishing houses working outside the purview of the censor. Several hundred illegal magazines benefited from reprinting what Kultura published in article or book form years earlier Supruniuk vols 1 and 2.
The authority and trust that Kul- tura earned in exile meant that international organizations and Polonia insti- tutions abroad entrusted Giedroyc with funds to assist in Poland. The latter was published from around the beginning of the martial law up until the elections in , in a print run of approximately eighty thou- sand. Its editors launched in the Spring of the largest daily in Poland, the Gazeta Wyborcza Newspaper of the Electorate.
From to , when subscriptions to Kultura were at their height, Giedroyc helped several dozen magazines, publishing houses, and or- ganizations annually. Their subscriptions fluctuated. These were very large sums then: Kultura gave much support to Polish translations of scholarly and literary works, particularly from East-Central Europe, and mostly Russian and Ukrai- nian literary works.
By simultaneously publishing books from the West and East, Giedroyc wanted to confront both experiences, and, above all, to show the East European experience. Exile Cultures Abroad Several issues of Kultura appeared as monographs in other languages: Giedroyc also rallied Czech, Polish, Russian, and Hungarian opposition activists to support declarations of independence for the Ukraine.
The most difficult period for Kultura came, paradoxically, after the fall of Communism in and the lifting of censorship in Poland in April Kultura lost its privileged independent position, and became one of many un- censored periodicals that shaped Polish public opinion. Its voice ceased to be a reference point and the arbiter of national affairs.
From a journal focused on the exile, Kultura turned increasingly into a national journal, as attested to not only by the issues it dealt with, but also by the growing role of national authors. From a literary-societal monthly, it transformed itself into a political periodical, although the editors never gave up their cultural columns, especially that on literature G. Nevertheless, the Polish intellectual elite read it, and so it was able to pro- voke and generate polemics in political and cultural affairs up to its very last issue.
It stirred up intense emotions by con- frontating the private opinions of known critics with the official literary canon. Kultura now also became a subject of interest to historians and artists. Interviews appeared, scholarly articles, and bibli- ographies were published, conference sessions and exhibits were organized. By the end of the s, Kultura was a symbol of the most valued heritage of the post Polish exile culture.
Giedroyc kept his distance from these ritualistic declarations of recognition. His symbolic gesture was to refuse a diploma bestowed on him in by the Minister of Foreign Affairs for his service in disseminating of Polish culture abroad, and his refusal to travel to Poland after the fall of Com- munism. Giedroyc died in According to his wishes, Kultura stopped pub- lication after his death. Kultura also had a key role in acquainting Polish readers with western Sovietology, and western economic, literary, and cultural issues.
For several generations of Poles, Kultura became a symbolic rescue boat, a raft that helped salvage the most valuable treasures of the national heritage after the catastrophe of World War II.
Furthermore, it was highly suc- cessful in both arenas. As a symbol of historical continuity, Kultura kept in- dependent Polish political thought alive in times of unprecedented darkness.
Stalinism, even more than Hitlerism, was apparently capable of suppressing fires and demoralizing the spirit. Kultura was a shelter and a road sign for those who never lost hope in a free and democratic Poland.
It became a sym- bolic continuation of the great exiles of the nineteenth century, preserving thus a tradition that connected the history of Poland to Paris G. Po- mian Its Edi- torial Board and collaborators were witnesses to the contact between the east- ern and western parts of Europe.
Its contributors described Poland and East-Central Europe from the perspective that represented a cultural challenge to the Western world.
Kultura showed a society imprisoned after in a mono- ethnic bell-glass of national Communism, which was shielded from the stan- dards and issues of Western societies: Its more than fifty years of output turned out to be a unique connection between the historical experience of East-Central Europe and its opening onto modernity.
Kul- tura , nr. Aron, Raymond. Kultura , nr. Berberyusz, Ewa. Mara- but, Bobkowski, Andrzej. Francja — Sketches with a Quill: France — Instytut Literacki, Journal — In War and Peace: Journal — Noir Sur Blanc, Krzysztof Pomian, 4th ed.
Burnham, James. The Struggle for the World. New York: John Day, Monte Cassino. Poet Community in the Second Corps and its Writing. Arcana, Most, Vol 1. Zeszyty Historyczne His- torical Notebooks — Vol 2. Zeszyty Historyczne — Vol 3. The New Class: An Analysis of the Communist System. Praeger, Fabre-Luce, Alfred. Florczak Zbigniew. Friszke, Andrzej.
Giedroyc, Jerzy and Andrzej Bobkowski. Listy — Letters — Czytelnik, Giedroyc, Jerzy and Jerzy Stempowski.
Giedroyc, Jerzy and Juliusz Mieroszewski. Krzysztof Pomian. Listy Letters. Giedroyc, Jerzy and Witold Gombrowicz. Listy — Letters —69 , Ed. Giedroyc, Jerzy. Aneks , nr. Gombrowicz, Witold. Dziennik — Diary — Jerzy Giedroyc. Pol- ityk.
Editor, Politician, and Man. Lub- lin: Portrety paryskie Parisian Portraits. Literackie, Habielski, Rafal. O pisarstwie J. On the Writings of Juliusz Mieros- zewski. Rozmowy w Dragonei Conversations in Dragonea. Szpak, Report on a State of Emergency. Kultura nr.
War- saw: Filozofia romantyzmu polskiego The Philosophy of Polish Romanti- cism. A World Apart. Heinemann, Gryf, Czytelnik, — Volcano and Miracle. Ronald Strom. Penguin, Upiory rewolucji Phantoms of Revolution.
Enklawa, Hertz, Aleksander. Instytut Literac- kie, Hertz, Zygmunt. Cmentarze Cemetery. Holland, Agnieszka, and Andrzej Wolski. Kultura film. Media Kontakt, Paris, Poland in Exile. Le Debat nr. Taternictwo nizinne Lowland Mountaineering. Kennan, George F. Conversations with Bohdan Osadczuk. Biblioteka Narodowa, Kolakowski, Leszek. The Evolution of Political Thought — Stock- holm Slavic Studies nr.
Almquist and Wiksell, Giedroyc i Kultura Giedroyc and Kultura. Jerzego Giedroycia rzeczpospolita epis- tolarna From Bucharest to Laffitte. The Epistolary Republic of Jerzy Giedroyc. Fundacja Pogranicze, Kowalik, Jan. Kultura — Bibliography and Publications — About Revolt of the Youth and Polityka. Libella, Producer Logos Media and Polish Television, Publishing Office Pomost, Katalog wystawy czterdziestolecia Instytutu Literackiego.
Biblioteka Polska. Paris, December 11, — January 10, Les Amis de Kultura, Laqueur, Walter. Biblioteka Kultury no Leich, F.
The National Councils in Exile — Leitgeber, Witold. Leonidas Kliszewicz. Prasa polskiej emigracji wojennej — Polish War Emi- gration Press. Instytut Historii Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Lipski, Leo. Battle against Radio Free Europe. IPN Droga Pani Dear Madam.
Kontra, Maurer, Jadwiga. Mencwel, Andrzej. Mieroszewski, Juliusz. Exile Cultures Abroad Mieroszewski, Juliusz. Kultura , no Kultura , nr 2—3. Kultura , nr 4. Kultura , no 9. Kultura , no 5. Dolina Issy Issa Valley.
Traktat poetycki Treatise on Poetry. How Many Roads? Pankowski, Marian. Parnicki, Teodor. UMCS, Krzysztof Pomian, ed. Jerzy Giedroyc — Pomian, Krzysztof et al. Memories and Opinions. Puls, Pomian, Krzysztof, ed. Editor, Politician, Man. Pomian, Krzysztof.
Pospieszalski, Antoni. IPN, W polu In Action. Biblioteka Kultury nr. Sharp, Samuel.
Poland, White Eagle on a Red Field. Harvard UP, Skalmowski, Wojciech. Stempowski, Jerzy. Instytut Lit- eracki, Materials on the Works of the Instytut Literacki in Paris. Bibliography of the Publishing Activities — Source Materials on the Works of the In- stytut Literacki.
Szaruga, Leszek. Essays on the Parisian Kultura. Polish Televison, Ostatnia rozmowa Recent Conversations. Tatrowski, K. Uni- versitas, Terlecki, Ryszard, ed. Tyrmand, Leopold, ed. Explorations in Freedom: Free Press, Kultura Essays. Ulatowski, Jan. Wandycz, Piotr Stefan. Wat, Aleksander.
Book Fund, Winczakiewicz, Jan, ed. Izrael w poezji polskiej.
Antologia Israel in Polish Poetry. An Anto- logy. Wraga, Ryszard. Kultura , nr Dzieje sporu. Kultura w emigracyjnej debacie publicznej lat — History of a Dispute. LTW, FIS, Related Papers. Monthly "Kultura" By Wlodzimierz Bolecki. Ukraine as a bridge to Russsia. What can the EU learn from the past Polish political strategies for the eastern neighbourhood? MAY 23 Between hatred and cooperation: Stalinist foreign policy in the Lithuanian and Polish debate in emigration.
International relations scholarship in Poland: By Jacek Czaputowicz and Anna Wojciuk. Download pdf. Die CactaceaeVolume 6, C. No additional import charges at delivery! Encore Chaud — Still hot update: Xerophilia, 1.
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