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O'Reilly Media, Inc. VMware Cookbook, the image of a leatherback sea turtle, and location With scores of step-by-step solutions, this cookbook helps you work with VMware ESXi in a wide range of network environments. Youll not only learn the. Com VMware Cookbook Download at Download at WoweBook. Com VMware Cookbook Ryan Troy and Matthew Helmke Beijing • Cambridge.

Custom installation This option allows you to install any combination of the four pieces mentioned: This allows you to install, test, and get a feel for the product before implementing it on physical hardware. Right-click on the datastore you wish to remove, and choose Remove. Then configure the ESX Server as follows: ESX Virtualization.

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Click Next. You will be required to enter some information about the VMkernel port on the Connection Types screen Figure First, configure the port group properties: Network Label This is the label by which the port group will be recognized within the virtual environment.

This should be specified only if you are using VLANs in your network infrastructure. Then configure the IP settings: This is a required field. Subnet Mask The subnet mask of the network. This is also required. To configure additional options, such as DNS and advanced routing, click the Edit button. Click Next to view the summary, and then Finish to create the port group.

It is strongly recommended that you create a dedicated network for this traffic, as described in Recipe 2. Each uses a different kind of software translation, called an initiator, to send traffic from the ESX Server to the network. This section explains basic configuration for software iSCSI. Log into vCenter Server and select the server you are configuring from the inventory list.

Select the Configuration tab from the right window pane and click the Storage Adapters link on the lefthand side. Adding software iSCSI support 3. Enabling software iSCSI 4. Click the Dynamic Discovery tab, and then the Add button. Adding an iSCSI target 2. After clicking the Close button, you will be asked if you wish to rescan for new disks. Accept this, and ESX will rescan.

It requires a hardware iSCSI initiator, which you can set up using the instructions in this section: Select the Configuration tab from the right window pane and navigate to the Stor- age Adapters link on the lefthand side. A new window will appear. Click the Dynamic Discovery tab, then the Add button. Click OK, then click Close. The ESX Server will begin to scan for new devices. In our example, the server has four targets, as identified in the Details window under vmhba4.

This is because we are looking at the vmhba4 path view on the second port of the HBA, and the canonical path is set to route all traffic through the first port of the HBA, which is vmhba3. See Also Recipe 2. This section explains how to download and install the initiator. Microsoft provides both bit and bit versions of the application to ensure both platforms are covered. Users who are required to download the application can install it by double-clicking the executable and following the on-screen instructions.

You will be presented with a new window giving you a set of options that include the following: Virtual Port Driver This is required and cannot be changed after installation. Initiator Service This service handles the work being done. This option is not avail- able on Windows XP. Continue the installation of the initiator by accepting the license agreement.

When you launch the application, you will be presented with a screen of options to configure the iSCSI connections. Adding a new target 2. After creating the initial connection to the iSCSI array, you need to specify which volume you will connect to and mount on the Windows machine.

Click the Targets tab to see the list of targets that are available for you to use Figure Select the volume to which you will be connecting and click the Log On button. A new window will pop up with the target name and two options Figure The options are: Unless you have a very good reason not to, you should always check this box.

If this option is not selected, the volume will need to be manually reconnected each time the system boots. It can be valuable if you have the necessary hardware, need high availability, and previously configured multipathing when installing the initiator. Once you are satisfied, click the OK button.

The status for the target under the Targets tab will switch to Connected, showing that the volume is connected. Now that the Windows machine can see the volume, you need to make, configure, and format the volume in Windows. Right-click on My Computer and select Manage. Choose the Disk Management option.

Since the volume is presumably a new volume with no data, Windows will pop up a new window with the Disk Initialization wizard. Follow the steps presented by this wizard and select from either a basic recom- mended or dynamic disk this is not recommended for Windows iSCSI. Once the disk has been initialized, you will need to create a partition and format the new volume by right-clicking on the new disk in the Disk Management window. Solution Use vCenter to open the necessary firewall port.

Using vCenter, this task is easy. Select the Configuration tab from the right window pane, navigate to the Security Profile link on the lefthand side, and click the Properties link in the upper-right corner to display the Firewall Properties window.

Solution Use vCenter to view and change multipath settings. Discussion One of the nice things about iSCSI is that it is IP-based, so it already has built-in support for multipathing using IP routing if you are using dynamic routing protocols on your network.

The steps for configuring multipathing are as follows: Select the Configuration tab from the right window pane and navigate to Storage. Then select the datastore you wish to modify and click Properties. Please refer to the hardware compatibility list found at http: At the time of writing, it is recommended that you use one of the more common multipath policies outlined here.

MRU most recently used Uses the last access path for your storage traffic. For example, if you were using path 1 and it failed over to path 2, the device will continue to use path 2 even after path 1 comes back online. Fixed Tries to use a specific path. For example, if you set your path policy to Fixed on path 1 and it has a failure, the device switches to path 2 until path 1 is restored, then switches all traffic back to path 1.

Showing hardware iSCSI paths 4. Click the Manage Paths button to configure the path settings as shown in Fig- ure Click the path you wish to modify and then click the Change button, and you will be able to select the Preference and the State of the path, as shown in Fig- ure In this figure, we have selected the preferred path grayed out and we can enable or disable this path for traffic. Then click the Close button to save the configuration. Managing paths Figure Enabling or disabling a path 2.

Nor- mally, this is done in a utility provided by the SAN manufacturer. Log into vCenter Server and select a server from the inventory list.

Click the Add Storage link. If the disk you are formatting is blank, the entire disk space is presented for configuration. If the disk is not blank, review the current disk layout in the top panel and select the appropriate configuration method from the bottom panel this will erase and remove all data from the disk: Use the entire device Selecting this option will dedicate all the available space to the VMFS data- store.

This is the suggested option for VMware access, and selecting this option will remove all data currently on the LUN. When you are satisfied with your decision, click Next to continue. If you need to adjust the block sizes, do so and click Next to continue. Review the summary and click Finish to add the new datastore.

After it has been added to one, the others will see it if the correct zoning has been configured or if no zoning is present on your fibre switch. If multiple ESX Servers connect to the same datastore, you will need to refresh the storage on each one to see the new datastore.

Discussion Raw device mapping allows virtual machines to have direct access to a LUN on a phys- ical storage system without the use of a VMFS datastore.

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RDM has two different modes: Physical compatibility mode This mode allows direct access to the device, but gives you less control within ESX. For example, you will not be able to snapshot the data using ESX. However, if your SAN supports snapshot technology you will be able to use it on this volume. To add an RDM disk to a virtual machine that has already been created: From the Summary tab on the virtual machine, click Edit Settings. When the new window appears, click the Add button.

The Add Hardware wizard will open. Select Hard Disk, then click Next. You will be presented with a list of options. Select Raw Device Mapping and click Next. From the available list of disks, select the LUN you wish to use for your virtual machine.

Select the datastore for your RDM mapping file. You can store the mapping file on the same datastore where the virtual machine files are stored, or on another data- store. Once selected, click Next to continue. You will be presented with a choice of two compatibility modes, detailed earlier in this recipe. Make your selection and click Next to continue. Select the virtual device node and click Next to continue. If you selected virtual compatibility mode, you will need to choose between the two following modes: Persistent Changes are immediately and permanently written to the disk.

Nonpersistent Changes written to the disk are discarded when the virtual machine is powered off or when the virtual machine is reverted to a previous snapshot image. Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue and click Finish to add the RDM to the virtual machine.

It is recommended that you configure the VMkernel to use a dedicated network, but you can configure it on an existing net- work if necessary. Here are the steps: Select the Configuration tab from the right window pane and navigate to Net- working on the lefthand side. Click Add Networking in the upper-right corner. If you are going to set up your VMkernel on a separate network recommended , you will want to select an unused network adapter; alternatively, select an already existing vSwitch and Ethernet adapter.

The options will appear in the lower portion of the screen, in the Preview section Figure After making your selection, click Next.

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Adding the VMkernel port 5. First, set the port group properties: Network Label The label by which the port group will be recognized within the virtual envi- ronment.

Specify this if you are using VLANs in your network infrastructure. However, you should leave it unchecked because it is not recommended to run VMotion traffic over the same network as your storage traffic.

Next, configure the IP settings: VMkernel Default Gateway Enter a gateway if your IP address resides on a network other than the one in which you are configuring the port group. Further options, such as DNS and advanced routing, can be configured by clicking the Edit button. Click Next to view the summary, and then click Finish to create the port group.

Before ESX can communicate with the NFS datastore, you have to configure it to use the storage, as described in the next section. Then configure the ESX Server as follows: Select the Configuration tab from the right window pane, navigate to the Storage link on the lefthand side, and click Add Storage in the upper-right corner.

A new window will appear with two options: Select Network File System and click Next to continue. Selecting NFS to create a datastore 4. You will now be asked to enter some information about the NFS share Fig- ure ESX will proceed to add the new datastore. After the datastore is created, you can rescan or refresh the existing servers and the datastore will appear.

If you try to add the same datastore to each individual ESX Server, you will get data corruption and configuration problems. Select the Configuration tab from the right window pane, navigate to Storage, and click the Add Storage link. Select the device to use for your VMFS datastore. If the disk is not blank, review the current disk layout in the top panel and select the appropriate configuration method from the bottom panel: This is the suggested option for VMware servers, and selecting this op- tion will remove all data currently on the LUN.

After making your choice, click Next to continue. If you need to adjust the block sizes, do so. Solution Use the rescan feature in vCenter. These situations include: Select the Configuration tab from the right window pane, navigate to Storage Adapters on the lefthand side, and click Rescan. Alternatively, to rescan a specific adapter, you can right-click on that adapter and select Rescan.

If a new datastore is found, it will be displayed in the datastore view. In our case, we created a VMFS3 volume.

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The -S option allows you to specify a label for your volume, which should be a simple name. Solution Each virtual machine has a directory with files that define and control the virtual ma- chine. Discussion Many files make up a virtual machine. Understanding the purpose of each one helps you keep your virtual machine environment running at top performance: This file is based on the. If you have snapshots or multiple disks, this file keeps track of them. This allows you to roll back your virtual machine to a previous state or merge the current state with the old state.

Solution Using vCenter, you can add an extent to your existing datastore to add more space. These partitions can be dynamically added to an existing VMFS-based datastore, allowing you to grow it above the 2TB limit. Datastores can span multiple extents and will be presented to ESX as a single volume. Adding new extents can be done while the existing VMFS datastore is online. This makes adding new space really easy. Adding more extents to an existing VMFS datastore can also improve performance.

It should be noted that the first VMFS datastore disk in the extent holds the metadata for the entire datastore, including all new extents. If the first extent is corrupted or damaged, you are at risk of losing all the data on the entire extent set. Select the Configuration tab from the righthand window pane, navigate to Stor- age on the lefthand side, and select the datastore to which you wish to add the extent.

Once the datastore is highlighted, click the Properties link Figure Showing the storage volume that will get an extent 4. A new window will appear with information regarding the datastore.

Click the Add Extent button in the lower-left corner to launch the wizard that will guide you through the process. Once the extent has been added to the datastore, you can click on the datastore to view the new extent in the lower Details window. You cannot remove individual extents after they have been added to a datastore; you can only remove the entire VMFS datastore, which will result in losing all its data.

See Also Recipes 2. The pathname is the pathname of your VMFS filesystem. File system label if any: Renaming a volume in vCenter is much easier, however. This can be accomplished by running one of the following commands: The pathname is linked to a UUID that represents the volume.

The ln com- mand creates a link. The -s option makes it a symbolic link, while the -f option forces the command to overwrite what is already stored in the link: Once complete, run the following command to restart the VMware-hosted process: Solution A combination of standard Linux Bash shell tools can accomplish this. Discussion VMware suggests that partitions be aligned to 64K track boundaries. If you create a new partition inside vCenter, it will automatically align it for you.

However, if you want to create the partition manually using the command line, this recipe will walk you through the steps. If you already have an active partition, you can verify its alignment by issuing the fdisk -lu command.

If you are unsure of the actual path of the disk, use the esxcfg-mpath -l command to get a listing. The output will be similar to this: If the start value is 63, which is the default, the partition is not aligned and you should follow the steps outlined here.

This process will delete all the data and partitions on your entire disk. To create and align a partition: Run the fdisk command on the disk where you wish to create the partition disk names are sda, sdb, etc.

Determine whether any partitions exist by using the p command. If partitions exist, delete them using the d command and enter the number of the partition.

Type n to create a new partition. Type p to set the new partition as the primary partition. When prompted, type 1 the number one. This will set the new partition to number 1.

Select the defaults to use the complete disk. These will vary depending on your disk size. Enter expert mode by typing x, and then type b to adjust the starting block number.

Select the first partition by typing 1 the number one. Type to set the partition position using a 64K boundary. Finally, type r to return to the main menu, and w to write the label and partition information to the disk.

Exit fdisk. Once complete, you will be able to run the fdisk -lu command to see the start point set to Solution Use vCenter to create a diagnostic partition. These parti- tions store core dumps for debugging and are used by the VMware technical support team. Diagnostic partitions can be created on a local disk, on a shared LUN on a Fibre Channel device, or on a device accessed by a hardware-based iSCSI initiator connection.

Diagnostic partitions are not supported on software-based iSCSI initiators. The diagnostic partition must be at least MB in size. If you use a shared storage device, each ESX Server must have its own separate diagnostic partition. The following steps create a diagnostic partition if your ESX installation is missing it: Select the Configuration tab from the right window pane, navigate to Storage, and click Add Storage.

A new window will appear allowing you to select the storage type. Select the Di- agnostic option and click Next to continue. If your ESX Server already has a diagnostic partition, you can access it by issuing the esxcfg-dumppart -l com- mand at the command line. Select the type of diagnostic partition you wish to create. You have three options: Private Local Create the diagnostic partition on a local disk. Select the device on which to create the partition and click Next.

Finally, review the partition configuration and then click Finish to create the di- agnostic partition. Discussion The steps to remove a volume follow: Right-click on the datastore you wish to remove, and choose Remove. A pop-up window will appear asking you to confirm the removal of the datastore. Click Yes if you are positive the correct datastore has been selected. Solution Through a combination of vCenter and the command line, you can determine the physical location of a VMFS datastore.

Look at the device for the VMFS datastore you want to locate. The name will be similar to vmhba7: For example, in step 3 our adapter was vmhba7. The fourth field in the output gives you a clue about the physical storage. Notice the difference from the first example—instead of RAID, it lists a hexadecimal value: Solution Adjust the timeout value in vCenter.

Discussion Timeouts can occur for various reasons when adding new storage via vCenter. The value is shown in sec- onds. Adjust it to a higher number perhaps two times what is already set. During the time your SAN is down and Windows is trying to write data, it is possible for data to be lost or corrupted if your timeout values are not high enough. You can change the timeouts on both Windows Server and by editing the system registry: Select the TimeOutValue and set the data value to 3c hexadecimal or 60 decimal.

Save the changes and exit the registry. Once these changes have been made, Windows will wait 60 seconds before generating disk errors. In this chapter we will look at different networking elements inside the ESX platform and how to configure and build those different pieces. Solution This recipe summarizes the differences between the two versions.

Discussion ESX 3. Here are the key points: However, only in ESX 3. ESXi 3. However, in ESXi, jumbo frame support is currently available only in the guest virtual machine environment. It is not supported in ESXi 3. As the technologies evolve, these limitations will most likely be removed from the ESXi version.

Solution Review and discuss the ports and their functions within the environment. ESX handles most communication through the following ports; they cannot currently be changed, so make sure they are open on your firewall: The lis- tening process vmware-authd on the ESX Server handles the flow of traffic. This port also handles all interaction with the virtual machine when it is accessed via the console in the vCenter client or via the Web.

Networking Download at WoweBook. You have to configure it to open the ports just mentioned, along with any needed for the actual services you run on your guests, such as Web Services, DNS, etc. In Chapter 6, we will discuss how to manage the ESX firewall via the command line and how to enumerate the ports that are available using the esxcfg-firewall command.

It provides some useful additional features—notably, the ability to tie the starting and stopping of services to the opening and closing of ports.

Any changes made via the command line will not take advantage of these settings. Configure the firewall and services as follows: Select the Configuration tab from the right window pane and navigate to Security Profile. A list of services and ports will appear in the righthand window Figure Displaying firewall services and ports 3.

Click the Properties link in the upper-right corner to open the Firewall Properties window. From here, you can open the port on the firewall by putting a check in the box next to the service Figure You can enable automatic starting and stopping by selecting a service and clicking the Options button in the bottom-right corner of Figure Fig- ure , for instance, shows the options available for SSH.

Service options for the SSH service 94 Chapter 3: VMware rec- ommends keeping this option checked. Using this option might lead to a small delay in a service used for routine background traffic, such as NTP, if its port is opened after the host starts. However, once the port is opened, the connection will begin transmitting data.

For example, NTP may not be started on a reboot, but if you start it manually and the necessary firewall port is specified in the Remote Access area, the firewall will automatically open the port. Solution Use vCenter to build a complex or simple network for your virtual machines. Discussion A vSwitch, or virtual switch, behaves much like a physical switch. Each uplink or physical adapter will use a port on the vSwitch. By using vSwitches you can combine multiple network adapters, balance traffic, facilitate network port failover, and isolate network traffic.

A single vSwitch has a default of 56 logical ports.

However, a vSwitch can be configured with up to 1, ports. A single virtual machine will use one port on the vSwitch. If you choose the standard defaults during the installation of ESX, your initial vSwitch and vswif interfaces will already have been created for you.

Select the Configuration tab from the right window pane and navigate to Net- working. Any current network configurations will be displayed. Click the Add Networking link to create a new virtual switch. Three options will be presented. Selecting the network type 4. A new vSwitch can be created with or without Ethernet adapters assigned to it. If the vSwitch is configured without network adapters, all traffic will be confined to that vSwitch itself.

Traffic on each of the virtual machines on the same switch will be isolated from other virtual machines and vSwitches. A vSwitch that is configured with an Ethernet adapter will communicate with other physical hosts or virtual machines on its network.

However, it can be isolated from other networks by using VLAN tagging.

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The Port Group Properties section allows you to configure the network label Figure This is used to identify the network and will be used by the virtual machine to associate itself with that specific network. This can generally be left blank, but check with your network administrator. Creating a new vSwitch for vmnic15 Figure Entering property information for the new vSwitch 6.

The new vSwitch will now be available for use. Solution Use vCenter to remove the vSwitch. However, it may disrupt your network, so you should take precautions before removing a vSwitch that has virtual machines at- tached to it.

Those virtual machines will need to be moved to another vSwitch in order to maintain their connectivity on the physical network. Follow these steps to remove a vSwitch using vCenter: Select the Configuration tab from the right window pane and navigate to Networking. All configured virtual switches will be displayed in the Network window. Identify the vSwitch to be removed and click the Remove link above it Figure A vSwitch with the Remove link 4.

A confirmation dialog will appear asking if you want to remove the vSwitch. Select Yes. As mentioned earlier, be aware that any virtual machines connected to this vSwitch might lose their connections to the physical LAN. This is called migrating.

The migration uses a VMkernel port. However, you can also configure a VMkernel port with support for VMotion. Some architectural restrictions should be observed to make VMotion work, though: This ensures that the complete network is available while the migration is taking place.

VMkernel ports can be configured in vCenter or via the command line. We will show you only how to use vCenter. Creating a new VMkernel port 4. Details about the configuration will be presented in the Preview window Figure Creating a new VMkernel vSwitch for vmnic15 5. The Port Group Properties section allows you to configure the network label, which is used to identify the network. The step that configures a VMkernel for VMotion is also done here: This allows the port group to advertise that it is going to handle VMotion traffic Figure Adding new VMkernel properties information Chapter 3: If there are more detailed network settings that need to be configured, such as gateways, routing, and DNS servers, click the Edit button to configure them.

Save your changes by clicking OK, and click Next to continue. Solution Using the command line, add a new vSwitch and associate it with a service console network. Discussion The service console handles all traffic to the ESX Server, such as management, authen- tication, and the heartbeat services that run when high availability is enabled on your ESX Server.

Creating a service console from the ESX 3. Bear in mind that the server must already be on a network. Find out what network adapters are available to use for a new vSwitch: Create a new vSwitch. Make sure you execute the command with the quotation marks around the label: Attach a vmnic from step 1 to the new vSwitch to create an uplink. In this example we choose to use vmnic49 because it was not already in use: Create the vswif service console interface on the newly created vSwitch.

Solution Use the vmkping command to verify connectivity. If you encounter timeouts or network problems when running the vmkping command, they could be the result of an incompatible NIC teaming configuration on VMotion. For instance, the following command will output three pings to esx2cluster2, then stop and show the results: Discussion vCenter offers control over a much smaller set of features on the physical adapter than you can control using command-line tools. However, vCenter does let you change the port speed of specific network adapters.

The current network configurations will be displayed. Click the Properties link of the vSwitch you wish to modify Figure Click the Network Adapters tab. From here, select the network adapter you wish to modify and click the Edit button. A dialog box pops up allowing you to change the speed Figure Make your choice and click OK. Network adapter properties 3. Solution Examine the different security measures available in the ESX network and create the appropriate architecture or firewalls.

A virtual network may be subjected to the same attacks as a physical network. In general, the security measures you use on your physical network should be replicated on your virtual network. Within the ESX network, virtual machines that are connected on separate network segments are isolated from each other, so they cannot read from, write to, or commu- nicate with virtual machines on a separate network unless the ESX network specifically enables such communication through vSwitches.

Some ways to add additional security are: This setup is the most secure one, because you are not sharing virtual machine traffic over the same physical network adapter. For example, your physical network might have an external DMZ and an internal network. By connecting those separate physical networks to separate network adapters in ESX, you physically separate the traffic. In contrast, putting those net- works on a single network adapter would lead to routing of internal and external traffic over the same network adapter inside ESX, which could make the entire internal network just as vulnerable as your DMZ.

Minimizing the potential attack locations will help you more easily defend your entire infrastructure. Software- based firewalls can use Windows, Linux, or a virtual server appliance provided by a third-party vendor http: Solution Use vCenter to select the layer 2 security model that fits your environment. Promiscuous mode This option gives you access to the standard operating system feature of the same name. Promiscuous mode allows the virtual machine to receive all traffic that passes by on the network.

Therefore, by default, this option is set to Reject. Each virtual machine on the ESX Server receives only traffic directed to it. This affects traffic that the virtual machine receives. If you are worried about MAC address impersonations, this can be set to Reject. More information on this setting can be found in the ESX documentation. You can change these three settings using vCenter as follows: Click the properties link of the vSwitch you wish to modify Figure Select the vSwitch or port group you wish to modify and click the Edit button Figure A new pop-up window will appear.

Click the Security tab to change the security policy settings Figure From here, you can change the options to fit your needs. Viewing vSwitch properties Figure Changing security policy exceptions Chapter 3: Discussion ESX Server can throttle and shape network traffic by adjusting three outbound characteristics: Average bandwidth The number of bits per second to allow across the vSwitch, averaged over time.

Peak bandwidth The maximum amount of bandwidth in kilobits per second kbps the vSwitch or port group can handle. If the traffic exceeds the peak bandwidth specified, the packets will be queued for later transmission. If the queue is full, the packets will be discarded and dropped. Burst size The maximum number of bytes that the port is allowed to burst. If the packet exceeds the burst size parameter, the remaining packets will be queued for later transmission.

If you set the average and the peak, then this is a multiplicative factor of how long the bandwidth can exceed the average at any rate before it must come back down to the average. The higher it goes, the less time it can stay there with any particular burst size.

These values can be configured using the vCenter client on a specific port group within the vSwitch. Bandwidth shaping in ESX is currently supported only on outbound traf- fic; these characteristics are ignored for inbound traffic. To make changes to the traffic shaping policy: Viewing vSwitch properties Chapter 3: Click the Traffic Shaping tab to change the policy exceptions Figure Traffic shaping enabled 6.

Notice that the traffic shaping status is disabled by default. When this is disabled, you will not be able to make any changes to the various settings.

To enable it, select Enabled from the status drop-down box, and the three configurable options will become available for you to modify to suit your needs. The traffic shaping policy is then applied to each individual virtual adapter that is attached to the port group not to the entire vSwitch. Solution Edit the ESX 3. Discussion Depending on the network setup for your ESX Servers, it may be necessary to add multiple gateways for different subnet masks: Log into the physical console of the ESX Server and gain root privileges.

Add information like the following, altering the numbers as necessary for your network: When you are satisfied with the changes, save the file and restart networking: If not, you can adjust the file to correct the values. Solution Set up load balancing and failure detection policies within your ESX network. Discussion Load balancing helps you distribute traffic evenly among network adapters, whereas failover protects you in case adapters or upstream network elements stop working.

When determining the policies that will be applied to your vSwitch, you need to con- sider three things: Load-balancing policy Determines how outbound traffic will be distributed between the network adapters assigned to the vSwitch. Network failover detection policy Determines how aggressively the server monitors links for failures. Network adapter order Indicates which adapters are active and which are standby.

By doing so, you can set up a load-balanced and failover-ready network within your ESX environment: Viewing vSwitch properties 3. Showing the NIC teaming options From here, the configurable options include: Load Balancing Allows you to choose one of four load-balancing methods: This is useful because each virtual machine has a vSwitch port ID assigned to it and the load is balanced based on that port ID.

Route based on IP hash Choose an uplink based on the hash of the IP address from the source and the destination, assuming the physical uplink switches have been configured to use This method will have some additional overhead as the Chapter 3: Use explicit failover order Always use the first available uplink chosen in order from the list of active adapters. Using this option will not give you any load balancing, but will give you failover capabilities. Network Failover Detection Allows you to choose the method to be used for failover detection: Link Status only This method relies solely on the link status from the network adapter.

It will detect an external networking error such as a bad cable or upstream switch failure, but not physical switch configuration errors.

It will then use that information to determine whether there is a network failure. This option offers more end-to-end error checking. Notify Switches If this is set to Yes, in the event of a failure the server will send out a notice to the upstream switches to update their lookup tables. This is desirable, but it should not be used in conjunction with Microsoft Load Balancing in unicast mode. Failback Allows the originating physical adapter to fail back and take over the workload after a failure.

Failover Order Here you can specify which physical adapters will handle the load and in which order they will do it. There are three different modes: Active Adapters These are used as the primary network connections, so long as the adapters are working.

Standby Adapters These are not used until an active adapter fails, whereupon one of these takes its place. Unused Adapters These adapters will not be used under any circumstances. Discussion The jumbo frames feature increases the maximum frame size beyond the traditional 1, bytes, thus potentially reducing overhead and speeding up traffic on the link.

ESX supports jumbo frames as of version 3. Before enabling this feature, please check with your hardware vendor to ensure it is supported. As of ESX 3. This recipe and the next two cover these tasks. Enable jumbo frames on a VMkernel port as follows: Enter an esxcfg-vmknic command to create a VMkernel interface: The default is typically To verify that the change took place, you can enter: Discussion Enabling jumbo frames on a vSwitch is very similar to enabling the feature on a VMkernel port: Enter the esxcfg-vswitch command to enable jumbo frames on a specific vSwitch: To verify that the change has taken place, you can enter: Solution Using vCenter, you can enable jumbo frames on one or more virtual machines.

Discussion To complete the configuration of jumbo frames, log into vCenter Server and perform the following steps for each virtual machine on which you wish them to be supported: Select the virtual machine from the list presented to you and shut it down.

Select the Summary tab, then select Edit Settings. You can also right-click on the virtual machine and select Edit Settings. Select the network adapter from the hardware list and copy the MAC address that is displayed. Now you must re-create the network adapter. Click the Add button and select Ethernet Adapter. Now that the network adapter has been re-created using the enhanced vmxnet driver, you need to add the old MAC address.

The new NIC is still highlighted at this point. Select the network adapter from the hardware list, change the MAC address radio button to Manual, and enter the old MAC address if you did a Ctrl- C to copy it previously you can do a Ctrl-V to paste it. Click OK to continue.

Power on the operating system and configure jumbo frames per the instructions for that OS. See Also Recipes 3. Discussion In some situations you may be required to change the IP address of your service console network. Follow these steps to change the IP address: Log into vCenter Server. Right-click the server whose IP address you want to change and select the option to put it into maintenance mode. Once the server is in maintenance mode, right-click it and select Disconnect.

When the disconnection is complete, select Remove to remove the server from vCenter. Determine which service consoles are already configured by running the following command: Make a note of this parameter, along with the IP address, netmask, and broadcast address.

You will need to respecify all four parameters later. Remove the service console interface by running the following command, replacing vswif0 with the interface you want to remove: With the service console removed, you now need to create a new one with the IP address you wish to use. Again, this can be accomplished using the esxcfg-vswif command: If the network is the same, you can simply ignore this step and continue.

To ensure the new settings have taken effect, try disabling stopping and then re- enabling the vswif interface. This can be done using the esxcfg-vswif command, again replacing vswif0 with the interface you previously configured. To disable the interface: You should now be able to add the ESX host back into vCenter and migrate your virtual machines to it.

Solution Use command-line commands to identify the physical Ethernet adapters. Discussion There may be a time when you need to identify the physical Ethernet adapters that exist in your ESX host.

This can also be accomplished in vCenter by clicking on the ESX host, clicking the Configuration tab, and then clicking Networking. To do so, log into the physical console of the ESX Server and gain root privileges. Then run the esxcfg-nics command, which displays all the physical Ethernet adapters along with their speeds, drivers, MTUs, PCI devices, vmnics, link status, and descriptions.

You can then use the esxcfg-vswitch command to see which vSwitches the Ethernet adapters are assigned to: Solution Use the esxcfg-nics command on the desired physical adapter. List the available adapters by following the steps in the previous recipe, and make a note of the names of the adapters you wish to change. Run the esxcfg-nics command on each desired adapter to change the speed.

For instance, the following command changes the vmnic1 port speed to Mbps with the duplex set to full you can instead set the duplex to half by specifying the -d half option: To verify the changes, you can run the esxcfg-nics -l command as outlined in the previous recipe: Solution Use the command line to remove and re-create the service console network.

Discussion There are several reasons why you might need to re-create the service console network, including changes to physical Ethernet adapters, changes to other network components inside ESX, or configuration problems. In this situation, you need to re-create the service console network from the command line of the ESX 3. Follow these steps to restore your service console via the command-line interface: List the current service consoles or vswif interfaces.

The output in the following example wraps around on new lines to fit onto the page: Delete the vswif interface of the service console that you want to re-create. You may have more than one vswif interface, so double-check that you are about to remove the correct one before you enter this command to remove it: You also need to delete the vSwitch, so that it can be re-created. Running the following command lists all the currently configured vSwitches so you can choose the one you wish to delete: Remove the vSwitch, specifying the correct name for your system: Once the vSwitch has been removed, you can re-create it using the -a option.

Typ- ically, you will want to re-create a vSwitch with the same name as the one you deleted in the previous steps. Next, the port group must be created on the vSwitch created in step 6. Notice the uppercase -A and the quotation marks around "Service Console", which need to be present in order for the command to run correctly: Verify that the following file has the correct network information: If not, review the previous steps, and remember that you can always use the -h switch on any VMware command- line tool to get more options to help you troubleshoot.

This chapter takes a look at the available technologies and how they work together to help you manage your environment effectively. For example, if you have a four-node cluster and one node in the cluster goes down, you can configure HA to automatically start up the virtual machines from the failed node on any remaining node that has available resources. VMware DRS The distributed resource scheduler actively monitors all virtual machines in a clus- ter and manages their resources.

In this case a replication to another PSC is not necessary. Linux and Windows. Check the bellow concerning the conversion of SQL express into vPostgress!

Supported databases for the windows installation are SQL R2, and , Oracle 11g and 12c as well as the option to use an embedded vPostgres database. Upgrades where SQL express was installed will be converted to vPostgres.

The vCenter Server Appliance supports embedded vPostgres at full scale, host and 10, virtual machines and is the recommended database for the vCenter Server appliance. External Oracle 11g and 12c databases are supported as well for this release, look for these to be phased out in future releases. Get the VMware vCenter Server 6. Check it out!

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