Released July 24, , by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), For information on Sheep and Goats call Everett Olbert at. Wool that comes directly from the sheep is called “raw wool.” Raw wool may go through 70 processing steps to make sure it is the highest quality. Depending . (c) - page 1 of 8 - Get Instant Access to PDF File: 6fa12 Sheep In A Jeep By Nancy Shaw EPUB KINDLE PDF PDF. Sheep In A Jeep By Nancy Shaw download free of book in format. .. Last updated 24 October
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There is little natural vegetation suited to hay making but in some northern areas hillsides produce enough vegetation to be worth mowing. The floor space requirement for covered area is 12 sq. Ideally, it should be constructed close enough to a source of water to allow the easy filling of the trough. However, exact direction can be modified to suit local conditions at different regions. Khor Acacia Senegal: Although the leaves and pods have low feeding value, they are consumed by livestock during feed shortages. Wan Salvadora oleoides:
Expensive fittings and designs on permanent basis should not be resorted to face only the brief periods of climatic extremes. The shed should be made of cheap, durable and non-conducting material such as brick pillars to support mud plastered thatched roof of bamboo and sarkanda as shown in the picture below.
The inclination of the roof should be made from back of roof. The height of the roof should not be more than feet. Inside walls must be cemented upto 3 feet area.
The floor of sheds with brick lining must be in a sloping position to avoid accumulation of urine and water. Low cost roof structure for sheep and goat sheds iii. Concentrate Troughs There are many types of troughs for feeding concentrate ration and hay to feedlot sheep and goats. When hay is fed in separate racks, feed troughs are usually 10 to 12 in. These may be of any desired length.
These should be placed so that these cannot be easily pushed over, and there should be a guard rail along the top to strengthen these and to keep sheep and goats from getting into these. The troughs should be easily cleaned. Fig 4. Danville, Illinois iv. Hay Racks The essentials of a satisfactory hay rack for sheep and goats are 1 adequate capacity, 2 ready availability of feed to animals 3 , minimum wastage of feed.
The rack should be so designed that animals can eat conveniently but cannot enter into it. Hay and concentrate bunk. Danville, Illinois. In this type of rack, the hay and concentrate ration are placed on the same bottom, but usually concentrate ration is consumed before the hay is fed. This kind of rack is one of the easiest to build and keep clean.
It is also well suited to all kinds of feeds. These racks may be made of any desired length, and the sides may have one long, continuous opening or divided by upright slats into a series of 8-in.
A width of 24 in. Farm Facilities: For medium or large size flocks more permanent facilities should be considered according to the required management jobs. At a lead farm following facilities are suggested beside the animal sheds for the feedlot fattening. The office can serve focal point on the farm, where record, reference books and valuable equipment are kept.
It is handy to have a store near office where bulky supplies and equipment such as feed and tools can be stored securely. It is an important management practice to keep good record of the stocks of materials in the store, so that these can be replenished in time and to devise an effective method of controlling their use.
It is good to have a few simple visual displays about the farm in the office such as number of stocks, vaccination, deworming schedule etc. The size of the office cum store should be 12'x16'.
Quarantine Pen This pen should be separated from the main farm facilities. All newly purchased stock should be kept in this pen to follow the standard procedure of quarantine, i. The size of this facility will depend upon the number of incoming animals, whereas, standard concentrate, hay troughs and watering facilities will be provided as per need of the stock.
This will be useful to sell the animals when target weight has been reached. Isolation Pens It is good practice to have a few isolation pens where sick sheep and goats can be kept apart from the rest of the flock to avoid cross infection. Ideally, the pen should be quite separate from the main housing and grazing area, to avoid any chance of air-borne infection.
Isolation pen should be made of such a material that these are easy to clean and disinfect after recovery or death of sick animals.
Burial Pens A deep pit should be dug, far away from the flock, for the disposal of carcasses. Carcasses should either be burnt or deeply buried and covered with soil and thorny bushes so that wild animals can be prevented from gaining access to the carcass and spreading infected material.
Dip Bath This facility will be required at the lead farm, where large number of animals are regularly dipped to control external parasites, a cemented dip should be built away from the rest of the farm and should have soak away drain or septic tank to dispose off the waste dip-wash, without contaminating the adjacent pasture and water sources see figures below.
Ideally, it should be constructed close enough to a source of water to allow the easy filling of the trough. This dip is mainly needed for sheep. Establishment of Feedstuff Grinding and Mixing Unit The feed mixing plant will be justified at lead farms.
This will facilitate economized feed production. The entry and exit ramps are created and on a to degree angle. The steeper portion of the entry is hidden under the water and is at a degree angle. The height of this shed should be 30'. There is need of feed raw material storage room 30'x25' adjoining to this shed.
Machinery The details of machinery required along with the estimated cost are given in table given below. The layout of the machinery is provided in Figures. Description Number Cost Rs. Road, w Gujranwala. Al-Rehmat Filling Station, G.
Road, Gujranwala. Khenewal, w Tel: Shukrana Pvt. Limited, No.
Vanda Pvt. Limited, Lahore Road, Sheikhupura. Attock, Tel: This will assist to reduce the feed costs by better utilization of feed resources relative to nutrient requirements of the flock for year round feeding.
The system of feeding of animals for mutton production will vary in different agro-ecological zones of the country. It will depend upon the availability of resources in terms of grazing area, land for cultivation of fodders, facilities for hay making and provision of concentrate feed. Grazing with Supplement Feeding The objective of raising sheep and goats under feedlot system is to achieve maximum growth rate in minimum period of time.
The sheep can easily adopt intensive system of production under feedlot system, whereas, goats which is basically a browser takes time in getting used to intensive systems of feeding.
The best feeding option for both the species is grazing with supplement feeding of high energy concentrate ration. This system of production is close to the natural behaviour of these species.
The available grazing areas are managed under rotational system. Electric fencing can be used for dividing the grazing area in small paddocks of one day need of the flock. It is advised that animals should consume 2 percent of their body weight dry matter from the grazing and rest of 1.
The examples of supplement rations are provided below. Total Mixed Ration If land resources are not enough for grazing of sheep and goats, total mixed ration is provided to the animals.
In this system of production, the sheep and goats are raised under intensive system of production fed on total mixed ration having dry roughages and concentrate energy and protein sources with little supplemented green fodder. In this system, the total mixed ration is formulated as per need of the animal based on nutrient specifications of the available dry roughages and concentrate feedstuff. This will provide balanced diet to the growing animals and will conserve the energy wasted by the sheep and goats during grazing.
The feed additives like anticoccidials are incorporated in the ration to overcome coccidiosis problems. The green fodder is supplied to the animals in limited quantity just to fulfil their vitamin needs.
The concentrate feedstuffs which are used for the feeding of livestock are described as under: Concentrate The cereal concentrates are those feeds which are low in fibre and high in energy.
These are rich in energy and are highly palatable. The protein content of cereals is generally percent and TDN percent. In Pakistan cereals are not ordinarily used for feeding livestock except poultry because of their value as human feed.
However, by products of the cereal milling industry, particularly, wheat, maize and rice bran and rice polishing, are used as protein concentrates. The choice of particular feedstuff is determined primarily by availability, price, nutritional and antinutritional factors associated with these. The features of commonly used feedstuff in feed for fattening of sheep and goats are explained.
Maize Maize is the most popular and palatable feedstuff for all kinds of livestock. Yellow maize is the only grain with appreciable carotene. In addition to its high energy yield per acre, maize is the cereal with highest digestible energy contents for animals.
It is very palatable, and contains no intrinsic toxic factor, thus it can be regarded as best feed grain for feedlot fattening. The grain may be used to replace up to one half of the maize in rations for fattening of animals without materially affecting their performance.
Sorghum There are many varieties of sorghum but the composition of their grain does not differ enough to affect the feeding quantities to any great extent. Most common varieties are similar to shelled corn maize grain in chemical composition except that most sorghum is slightly higher in protein but low in oil than maize.
The grains are ground before feeding to all classes of livestock except for sheep which like to masticate the grain more thoroughly. Oats have highest protein content and quality of any cereal grain. It has low importance simply because the yield of energy per acre is much lower than other grains.
Bajra Bajra is relished by all livestock. It resembles in feeding value to that of sorghum. It has a protein content of 13 per cent and about 65 per cent TDN. Wheat bran is rich in niacin, vitamin B-1, phosphorus and iron. Rice Polishing Rice polishing is finely-powdered material obtained in the polishing of rice kernels after the hulls have been removed. Due to high fat content, it tends to become rancid when stored for a longer period.
However, this is excellent source of energy for feeding of sheep and goats and other livestock. Cane Molasses Molasses is the residual product after crystallisation of sugar from sugarcane crop. It is chiefly a carbohydrate feed and has value in increasing the palatability and utilisation of feeds, especially containing poor quality roughages. It can also be used with NPN sources such as urea, ammonium compounds and organic wastes in the form of poultry littler and droppings, to provide most of the require energy and protein for the fattening of sheep and goats.
It is also rich in niacin and pantothenic acid. Beet Molasses The use of beet molasses is generally restricted to NWFP province, which produces most of this country's sugar beet. When properly used, this type of molasses has the same feeding value as molasses. However, care should be taken when using beet molasses because it has highly laxative properties due to its high mineral content.
Beet Pulp It is residue remaining after sugar beets have been pressed to remove the sugar containing juice. It is a palatable feed and may be reconstituted with water to produce highly palatable moist feed.
Often molasses is added back to it, which further increases its energy content and palatably. Cottonseed Cake and Meal The whole pressed cotton seed cake undecorticated and dehulled decordicated solvent extracted variety cotton seed meal, are protein source for ruminants. Moreover, it has rumen bypass protein characteristics as well, which is beneficial for rapidly growing animals. It has anti-nutritional factor cyanogenic compounds and slightly bitter taste which creates problem if used at higher levels.
Corn Gluten Feed and Meal This is the part of commercial shelled corn that remains after the extraction of starch and germ by the wet milling manufacture of corn starch or corn syrup, and may contain either corn globules or corn oil meal. It is one of the important vegetable protein concentrate and is generally used for feeding of livestock. Corn gluten feed contains about 20 crude protein while corn gluten meal may contain per cent crude protein depending upon the blending of the meal with maize bran.
Maize Oil Cake This is residual by-product after the extraction of oil from corn germ. It contains about 18 percent crude protein and percent oil and can be used as source of protein and energy for growing and fattening of sheep and goats. Sunflower Meal Sunflower meal contains phenolic compounds that have an adverse effect on palatability and may reduce protein digestibility.
Moreover, it has high levels of mycotoxins, which limit its higher level use in livestock feed. Its protein content varies from 28 to 34 percent depending upon the presence of seed hulls. The compound is capable of absorbing large amounts of water which results in higher retention time in the rumen and gives better digestibility. Sesame Cake Sesame cake, also know as 'til cake', contains percent high grade protein and 0.
It is an excellent for growing lambs and fattening sheep. When urea enters the rumen it is rapidly hydrolysed to ammonia by bacterial urease and the ammonia thus produced can be utilised by rumen bacteria to synthesize bacterial proteins. However, urea does not contain any energy content of its own and best utilized along with readily available source of energy like molasses or grains in fattening diets to allow utilisation of the ammonia as it is released.
Molasses and starch are most satisfactory sources of energy as they are fermented at similar rates as urea. A level of 1 kg of starch per g of urea is often suggested. Wheat Straw This by-product is available after harvesting the grain and forms the main bulk of roughages in Pakistan. This treatment enhances crude protein and dry matter digestibility of the straw.
While incorporating wheat straw in the total mixed ration for sheep and goats, it should be grinded or finely chopped. Feed Additives These are not classified as nutrients but are added to various feeds to achieve better growth rate and feed utilization.
The commonly used feed additives in the feed for fattening of sheep and goats are growth promoter antibiotics and anticoccidials. Both are organic compounds produced as a result of microbial fermentation. These are considered to stimulate growth, improve feed utilization and control coccidiosis.
The following feed formulae for total mixed rations are presented for guideline of the farmers. The chemical composition and nutritional value of green fodders are variable and depends upon the species of the plant, stage of growth, soil condition, fertilizer application, availability of water for irrigation, and climatic conditions. When fodders are harvested at later stages of growth, their DCP and TDN decrease while CF and lignin increase considerably, which adversely affects the digestibility of the fodders for livestock.
The fodders are of two types 'kharif' or summer crops, and 'rabi' or winter crops.
The fodder calendar for summer and winter crops is suggested below along with practices involved such as preparation of soil, seed rate, sowing time, fertilizer application and production per acre. The desired changes in this plan can be made as per local soil and agro-climatic conditions. Loomy soil. Clayy soil. Fertile soil. Clay soil. Maize is major fodder crop in the irrigated tracts and areas of high rain fall, mostly in Punjab and parts of Sind and NWFP provinces.
It thrives in warm and temperate climates, requires a rich, well-manured soil. The fodder is ready after days. The DCP Digestible crude protein content of maize fodder is 0. To get a more nutritious fodder, it is often grown with cowpeas. There are several varieties of sorghum but generally the sweet varieties are cultivated for fodder production.
The yield and nutritive value varies according to the type, variety, rainfall or irrigation. The DCP at early to full bloom of the crop is 0. Jumboo or Sorghum hybrid: This is a hybrid of sorghum and sudan grass, a multi cut fodder available most of the time during summer season.
This fodder is excellent quality, and its leafiness makes it very palatable to sheep and goats. It is suitable for sowing in the barani areas as welll as irrigated regions of the country. It is an important crop of the area where rainfall is low, and grows well even on poor soil. It makes excellent green fodder and is cultivated alone or in combination with cowpeas or guara.
The DCP contents at early and full bloom stage of the crop are 0. The cereal fodders are not very palatable for sheep and goats. Whenever they are to be fed they should be chopped first as the full plant will be spoiled by these animals. This is a quick growing legume that can be grown on all type of soils, but is susceptible to water logging.
This can be grown alone or in combination with non-leguminous fodders like maize or jowar. When grown mixed with maize the fodder gives about 1. This crop is more palatable for sheep and goats and also suitable for grazing by these animals. This is an important leguminous crop which is drought resistant and therefore suitable for dry areas, and is generally cultivated with bajra and jowar.
It cannot tolerate water logging. It must be harvested before flowering for better palatability and nutritional profile. This is a suitable crop for gazing of sheep and goats. Heavy loamy soil. This is one of the most important leguminous fodder crop in Pakistan and is abundantly cultivated in irrigated tracts and area of high rainfall, but it can not be grown under drought conditions.
Berseem contains percent DCP and TDN, because of high moisture content berseem is fed with dry roughages like wheat straw to sheep and goats. When fodder is surplus, it can be converted into hay of high nutritional value. This is valuable perennial leguminous crop which can provide nutritious fodder for years.
It is grown both as an annual and perennial crop and it has deep roots and can resist drought. The crop is generally grown in irrigated areas and gives better yields in well drained and properly manured loamy soil. The fodder can be converted into hay of high nutritional value about 2 months after sowing. It is cultivated in irrigated tracts and areas of high rainfall.
Different varieties of oats are cultivated alone or in combination with berseem. Oats are of high nutritive value when cut at flowering stage and contain 1. Even in the irrigated area of Pakistan, vast marginal lands, canal bank, and communal grazing strips are used for grazing of small ruminants. During periods of fodder scarcity, trees are lopped for feeding to sheep and goats. Phulai Acacia modesta: This is extremely useful forage species since it is very palatable and nutritious.
This is a medium sized leguminous plant found on most of the range areas of the country. New growths take place in March, and the pods ripe in autumn. Kikar Acacia nilotica: This is a common mostly evergreen tree, but for a short period it drops leaves. Flowering occurs during rainy season June to September ; pods ripen from April to June. The leaves and pods are used as fodder for sheep and goats.
Khor Acacia Senegal: This is medium size thorny tree, It is widely distributed throughout the arid and semiarid regions of Sindh, Punjab, and Balochistan. It grows well in area of low rainfall.
Its foliage is highly palatable and very rich in protein and fed to sheep and goats during periods of fodder scarcity. Siris Albizia lebbek: This is a large leguminous tree. It grows on different types of soil and can tolerate salt. The tree sheds leaves in summer, but pods persist for longer time.
The foliage is highly palatable and very rich in protein. Ipil-ipil Lucaena leucocephala: This plant is found widely in Pakistan and can grow into a tall tree, but bush type varieties are also found.
Growth is best in humid areas or where plenty of irrigation is available, but it has ability to grow on different types of soils and climatic conditions.
The leaves and pods are highly nutritious. During periods of fodder shortage, the leaves and shoots are lopped and fed to sheep and goats. Mulberry Morus alba: The editor is a powerful tool which can rearrange, delete or paste pages, merge or split documents, edit properties and a lot more. The PDF editor contains a lot of useful features and is very easy to use. The PDF creation process is as follows: Create your document in your favourite application e.
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