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PDF | On Feb 1, , Endi Aulia Garadian and others published Bringing the ' Legend' Back in: Revolution Ideas in Saur Sepuh under New. PowerPoint Presentation: SAUR SEPUH 1: Satria Madangkara Buat yang pengen banget nonton film laga SAUR SEPUH 1: Satria. Singgasana Brama Kumbara (Brama Kumbara Throne) is an Indonesian historical-drama television series, produced by PT. Menaragading Citraperkasa ( Now Genta Buana Paramita). It is an adaptation of a popular radio series "Saur Sepuh" with some changes Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.
Under the early Soeharto government, religious symbols such as the jilbab and looser kerudung were often repressed in favor of more secular nationalistic symbols; for example, young women could not wear the veil with their school uniforms until United Nations: Soeharto dalam cerpen Indonesia. Candi Dewi Film. Saur Sepuh III: In such limited media, film posters or flyers for instance, which only have one or at most two sides that can be used to reach potential audiences, how are urban and other spaces depicted?
Log In Sign Up. Christopher A. I identified three categories of spatial representation: Depictions of rural spaces, conversely, emphasize the beauty or dangers of the natural world, as well as strong emotions and primitivism. These depictions suggest the prioritization of an orderly urbanity over a disorderly rurality, with more orderly rural spaces only being locations for travel.
People have abandoned their primarily agrarian rural lives in incredible numbers, moving to and living in settlements of sizes never before imagined.
Twenty-eight cities are now home to more than ten million people each, and the world's largest, Tokyo, has a population of almost 38 million in its metropolitan area United Nations, This holds true in Indonesia as well. The urban area including the country's capital, Jakarta, now boasts a population of Urban spaces, as well as the urban cultures which have developed within them, have affected all aspects of life: It is thus unsurprising that depictions of urban spaces in fiction, particularly that fiction produced since the Industrial Revolution which paved the way for this urbanization, has drawn considerable attention among academics and the general public.
In an Indonesian context, studies of depictions of urban spaces in fiction are common, both those focused on literature Rosidi, ; Fuller, and films Sasono, ; Author, These studies have another common thread tying them together: The studies do not ask what happens when depictions of urban spaces are limited, by their media, to more monolithic understandings.
In such limited media, film posters or flyers for instance, which only have one or at most two sides that can be used to reach potential audiences, how are urban and other spaces depicted? To answer this question, this study examines depictions of space in Indonesian film flyers produced and published during the New Order period, between and More than Indonesian film flyers have been consulted, covering a variety of genres, including horror, action, romance, drama, and comedy, and advertising films produced by more than thirty companies.
Although textual aspects of these flyers are considered, this research focuses on the visual representation of space and spaces in the flyers. Through this research, three categories of spaces presented through Indonesian film flyers are identified. The first two of these categories, those of urban or city spaces and rural or village spaces, are commonly positioned, both by academics and by the general public, in a state of binary opposition; stereotypes abound, for instance, of the sophisticated urbanite and the simple villager.
The third category, which we term "other space", is a dynamic space which offers the potential for a deconstruction of the urban rural opposition and challenges to expectations of order. This "other space" separates the concept of space from that of place, guiding viewers to recognize markers of urbanity and rurality outside of their normal context while also allowing for a direct combination of these markers.
What is in a Space Before examining the depictions of urban spaces, rural spaces, and "other spaces" in Indonesian film flyers, it is first necessary to understand the concept of space itself. Though long assimilated within the concept of place Agnew, Space is more general, a conceptualization or abstraction which includes within it both places and concepts attached to them, whereas place is understood as a specific, fixed, physical location.
Space can be understood as being similar to Soja's concept of thirdspace Woodrich Urban Spaces, Rural Spaces, and Other Spaces in Indonesian Film Flyers and the differential, structure and agency, mind and body, consciousness and the unconscious, the disciplined and the transdisciplinary, everyday life and unending history".
The concept of space thus "encapsulates not only physical location, but also abstract conceptual space" Upstone, It is both real and imagined Soja, , including actual physical locations Jakarta, Surakarta, etc.
These socially constructed concepts include within them specific markers of space, including architecture, codes of dress and conduct, economic systems, etc. Unlike place, space is shifting and indeterminate. Spaces are open to the possibility of transformation as they interact with each other throughout history; codes of fashion, of music, of entertainment, etc. Owing to the inherently important role of time in determining the boundaries of particular spaces, space "must be read alongside temporality as a factor of equal significance" Upstone, Space may cover numerous classes of place and even more specific locations.
Upstone, for instance, identifies five types of space, based on the scale of place covered: The most important of these for the current research project is what she terms city space, a subnational space which is better identified here as a "settlement" space, one which is commonly recognized in terms of both urban space and rural space. The settlement space includes not only the physical locations themselves, but also stereotypical abstractions of the cultures they contain, including but certainly not limited to codes of dress baseball caps, woven bamboo hats , of architecture skyscrapers, barns, etc.
Subnational settlement space "is often seen to be represented so as to act metonymically as a reflection of national tensions", but may also "be seen to offer its own specific geopolitics" Upstone, In other words, though these spaces are often viewed as metonyms of the nation -space , such that for instance the fictional Duckburg and its despotic leader Uncle Scrooge of "Paman Gober" Seno Gumira Ajidarma, can be understood as a criticism of Indonesia under President Soeharto Anwar, Both metonymic and specific spatial considerations shall be examined in this article.
Urban Spaces: Imagining the City Urban spaces are frequently depicted in the film flyers examined. This is not surprising, given the Soeharto government's well noted prioritization of development and construction. These flyers delineate urban space through their depictions of cities as places and locations, depictions of human factors and interactions, and depictions of cities as sites where technology is used and developed.
Figure 1: Depictions of idealized skylines in Tahu Beres and Gadis Malam Several flyers depict the city space by emphasizing the physical city itself. Jakarta, the main setting albeit often implicitly for most Indonesian films, is a common subject for flyer backgrounds particularly the city's skyline Figure 1 though it is not reproduced faithfully.
In Tahu Beres , the physical contours of the buildings depicted resemble those along Sudirman Street in the early s.
This playful reproduction of the Hollywood sign connects modern Jakarta, which was then undergoing a period of great construction, 1 with 1 Mann Woodrich Urban Spaces, Rural Spaces, and Other Spaces in Indonesian Film Flyers modern Los Angeles, which was already recognized as a global city and was a hub of international film production.
Gadis Malam , meanwhile, combines the nighttime skyline of a bustling urban center with an image of a rolling sea to create a modern seaside urban center suggestive of Hong Kong or New York. In both of these cases, the buildings which make up the skyline are obscured in shadows, drawing attention away from individual buildings' features. Furthermore, the distant views of the city's buildings are suggestive of an order not apparent in the interactions of the films' main characters the shocked faces of Tahu Beres, the promiscuity of Gadis Malam.
Other cities are often identified as well.
These tend to be present in both the films' titles and in the actual illustration, either explicitly by naming the city, such as Putri Solo  or implicitly by referring to a noted landmark, as with Jembatan Merah . The flyer for Putri Solo, for instance, includes a street scene framed between the film's two main characters. Central to this scene is a series of large Surakarta-style gapura, or gates, harkening to the large gates which welcome visitors in Gladag, the north entrance to the Sunan's palace.
The flyer for Jembatan Merah, meanwhile, features the titular bridge and its distinctive metalwork prominently, despite being dominated by images of the two main characters. In both of these cases the flyers are illustrated, and the depictions of these landmarks is idealized.
Order is introduced to the throngs of people passing through the gates, who walk through the gates almost in file. These people are separated from the only vehicle shown, a horse- drawn carriage suited for the "traditional" setting, unlike an automobile , by a curb and a streetlight. The Red Bridge of Surabaya, meanwhile, is shown as being empty except for one person: The flyer depicted the Yogyakartan street in an abstracted manner, as being full of unnamed shops and orderly shoppers either on foot or in automobiles.
Examples of films from this period named after cities include Lenggang Djakarta , Putri Solo , and Putri dari Medan Clothing worn by the characters depicted is indubitably westernized, even in cities identified as "traditional" contrast, for instance, the clothing worn by the female lead of Putri Solo with the depiction of Surakarta itself.
Upper-class characters may wear suits or short-cut party dresses,3 the latter often shimmering as if embedded with sequins or made from satin. Middle-class youth may be identified with jeans or exercise clothing, a trope spotted in flyers for such varied films as Gejolak Kawula Muda and Makin Lama Makin Asyik Though both middle- class and lower-class characters may wear cotton pants and shirts, more traditional Figure 2: Inem Pelayan Sexy 3 3 Compare with the suit and long party dress worn by the main characters of Lenggang Djakarta; though fashions changed between the s and the s, the tendency to identify the city with "modern" or "Western" markers did not.
Woodrich Urban Spaces, Rural Spaces, and Other Spaces in Indonesian Film Flyers clothing such as the peci4 or sarung appears, in these depictions of secular urban space at least, limited to lower-class comic relief figures, a denigration of tradition for the sake of a Westernized "modernity".
Human interactions including fighting, running, and playing are central to these flyers' depictions of both urban and rural space. One form of interaction sexual intercourse, or at least the hint of it is considerably more prominent in depictions of urban spaces.
Though depictions of sexual intercourse are generally centered on the bodies of the man and woman never two men or two women ,5 as in Ranjang Pemikat , in one instance the flyer for Gadis Malam the sexual tryst is depicted in front of an urban backdrop. A woman, dressed in a strapless black dress, sits on the lap of a young man and gazes into his eyes. Though both figures are fully dressed and sitting in a manner which precludes intercourse, the act of penetration is still suggested using a symbol which simultaneously represents Westernization, modernity, and sexuality: This is particularly evident in the flyer for Anak-Anak Buangan , which starkly contrasts the three main characters and their conformist peers, who are crowded in a group on a staircase.
Using a mixture of forced perspective and superimposed images, the flyer depicts the main characters as being some six times taller than their peers. As a result, the main characters' faces are clearly identifiable, whereas the members of the crowd have indistinct or even inexistent features.
The blue jeans of the two men stand in stark contrast to the swathes of black and white worn by the crowd.
Furthermore, the three main characters are ascending the staircase, whereas the anonymous crowd are, as one, descending it. The implication of this contrast is clear: Under the early Soeharto government, religious symbols such as the jilbab and looser kerudung were often repressed in favor of more secular nationalistic symbols; for example, young women could not wear the veil with their school uniforms until See Effendi The peci meanwhile, remained more accepted, and indeed it was common in official presidential and vice-presidential portraits.
During the period studied here, homosexuality was frequently depicted as a deviancy, one which often went hand-in-hand with crimes such as rape Remaja Lampu Merah, and murder Istana Kecantikan, or mental diseases such as manic depression Tinggal Bersama, Interestingly, these films depicting homosexuality were often but not always, see Titian Serambut Dibelah Tujuh, set in the cities.
Those who refuse to conform, as with the titular characters, become exiles. Meanwhile, in the advertisement for Inem Pelayan Sexy 3 ; Figure 2 , the titular character is depicted as speaking at a packed political rally, under a banner reading "Maids Ready to Support Development": She speaks in front of a large crowd of people who, though again relatively indistinct as individuals, can be assumed to be maids owing to their simple dress and attendance at the rally.
Both speaker and audience make full use of then- modern technology, allowing them greater interconnectivity. Audience members hold large photographs of the speaker over their heads, presumably rendered affordable through advances in printing technology and the ready availability of materials in urban areas.
The speaker, dressed in markers of the upper class including a boa , stands before them on a podium. Urban technology in these flyers is not limited simply to communications technology. Transportation technology, including automobiles Sepandjang Malioboro , motorcycles Doea Tanda Mata, , helicopters Inem Pelayan Sexy 3 and trains Demi Anakku, , is readily visible.
Artificial lighting is another common feature in these flyers, being included in such advertisements as Gadis Malam and Jembatan Merah. Overall, this use of technological markers presents an identification of urban spaces with "modernity". The technology used is not, however, entirely "modern": These are generally used in contexts where a non-modern theme is being evoked for instance, a father wearing glasses has connotations of an older, less modern, generation.
Life in the Countryside Figure 3: Romanticized fields and forests Kembang Padang Kelabu  and Seruling Senja  Generally, depictions of rural spaces in the flyers surveyed neglect human elements aside from the characters central to the image. Furthermore, the focus of depictions of rural spaces is consistently not the village as a place of human settlement,8 and works of human engineering and technology are rarely but not never, as indicated by the lighthouse in Pulau Cinta and mountaineering equipment in Ranjau-Ranjau Cinta shown.
Rather, these depictions focus on the beauty of the nature found outside of cities, which offers characters universally given markers of modernity such as Western clothing a chance to escape from the distractions of the city and to focus on their emotions or desires.
Fields and forests are common representations of rural space in the flyers surveyed. Mencari Cinta and Tak Seindah Kasih Mama , for instance, have panels depicting a young man and woman holding hands as they move through a well-cultivated 8 This appears to have changed since the s, when Satria Desa showed a single house located amidst the rice fields and backgrounded by mountains.
Further investigation as to the reasons for this perceived shift is required. The city was narrated by the New Order government as being central to all aspects of an Indonesian national identity, with other areas, no matter how populous, being referred to as daerah 'the provinces'.
List of monarchs of Java - Wikipedia ; This is a partial list of the identified hereditary rulers on the Indonesian island Java, together with those of the adjacent island Madura. Included are some states and rulers whose existence remain open to conjecture, due to inadequate historical evidence, while others are historically verifiable. Kerajaan Majapahit was a thalassocracy in Southeast Asia, based on the island of Java part of modern-day Indonesia , that existed from to circa Oleh karenanya mahasiswa butuh referensi judul dan contoh skripsi tentang ilmu komunikasi yang lengkap untuk dijadikan penelitian terdahulu.
Majapahit reached its peak of glory during the era of Hayam Wuruk, whose reign from to was marked by conquest which List of monarchs of Java - Wikipedia ; This is a partial list of the identified hereditary rulers on the Indonesian island Java, together with those of the adjacent island Madura.. In his essay. Endi brought School of Government and Global Affairs a fascinating original work of analyzing the idea of revolution embedded in a radio Universitas Pelita Harapan.
Ideas such as revolution. This particular development is important because it expanded the scholarly Socio-Political Implications: From Post-Independence to Post-Reformasi. His but nonetheless important individuals.
There are also essays that discusses subjects rarely political prisoner. Cartoon became a powerful tool for these often hidden public emotion expressions of anxieties. From Colonial to Reform Period: Editorial Cartoon Track History in difficult times. Re- Indonesia through the dynamics that happened outside of Java.
Endi argues that despite the tight state censorship of the New Order regime. Let these in tracking the history of Indonesia. These essays were selected from arguments and depth in showing the diverse aspects within Indonesian history. That fact was not coincidental because since the Along with these three superb essays. The winners and honorable mentions awardee of this historical essay competitions All of these essays selected in the competition were judged based on their originality.
The essay focuses on the unfailing determination The annual ISRSF history essay competition has become a stimulating event where behind one of the most famous Indonesian writers who struggled to keep writing original ideas and topics on Indonesian history being written and emerge from public.
While we agree that one of the factors that makes Indonesia unique is its For the first prize winner. These variety drama. Java has become the center of power and politics of Indonesia. He argues that the published cartoons served the past struggles be reminder for everyone that maintaining the diversity of Indonesia purpose for the editor of the publication to portray the underlying attitude and public does not come easy and it is always have to be fight for.
Act of Writing: Maretta attention to other places in Indonesia. Baskara T. Using the widely-listened radio drama series called Saur Sepuh. Wardaya SJ Historian. Sanata Dharma University. Well done. Brama Kumbara. David T. Sejarah Indonesia Modern Jakarta: Serambi Ilmu Semesta.
J Vatikiotis. Krishna Sen. Culture and Politics in Indonesia Jakarta: Equinox Publishing. From Monologue to Dialogue: Radio and Reform in Indonesia Leiden: Though this play was mostly arrayed by the stories of battle between warriors and kingdoms. Michael R. Qualifying the censorship. Self-Censorship in Indonesian Journalism.
Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man New York: Indonesian Politics under Suharto: Steven Drakeley. Peter Schumacher. Merle C. This depicted the bloody journey of an invincible warrior. The History of Indonesia Westport. Greenwood Press. For radio programs context. There was also no exception for radio programs as they. So that. Understanding Media 1 Intro The tight censorship regulations in New Order era showed one indication that such regime was so authoritarian in the context of freedom of speech.
Ross Tapsell. Media-Politics in Indonesia. Suharto instead using national radio as propaganda tools6. Krishna Sen and David T Hill. Sandiwara Radio Saur Sepuh: Tuttle Publishing. Raden Samba. The good relationship among the warriors.
Ardalepa was a Kuntala official that actually hated the oppression and persecution Saur Sepuh was broadcasted through the airwaves in the s in Indonesia.
A History of Modern Indonesia Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. April Perjalanan Berdarah in Bahasa. James N. At At the moment of leading the revolution. Episode 2 Perjalanan Berdarah Babak 2. Saur Sepuh could be understood by all from his teacher as well as grandfather.
Saur Sepuh. Tim Hannigan. Tim Crook. Adrian Episode 2 Perjalanan Berdarah Babak 4. Ardalepa was more intimate to Madangkara drama play. This radio against small people. But thanks to the support of the people. In radio. University of New South Wales Press. Tumenggung Ardalepa and Gayatri. Political consolidation was also conducted how the radio was used as a medium to ground the notions of tyranny state in the by Brama with his compatriots.
I argue that the playwright is a people in Madangkara. A long-lasting back and strike back the invaders from his homeland. Brama led the revolution troops and the people who by the New Order.
I only delve one of the episodes of Saur Sepuh. For that reason.