Removable orthodontic appliances. DEPARTMENT OF REVIEWS AND ABSTRACTS Edited by T. M. Graber, Kenihvorth, III. D.M.D., Ph.D. All inquiries regarding. OrthodonticOrthodonticappliancesappliancesMahmoud Saleh Mahmoud Fayed .. Name: Removable appliances with palatal spring. Orthodontic Appliances. Available Colours. Retainers. Space Maintainers. Expansion / Arch Development Appliances. Distalising Appliances. Spring Appliances.
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PDF | On Jan 1, , Mohammad Khursheed Alam and others published A to Z Orthodontics. Volume Removable Orthodontic Appliance. Active Plate for Arch Expansion. Active plate are most useful when a few p millimeters of space are needed ( mm side). The active element of expansion. Aim Removable appliances are a dependable choice for many patients but like all orthodontic appliances, they have some limitations in use.
Removable Orthodontic Appliances T. Adil Houem. Hook of the band. This is one of the few springs in which the c o i l is made to close rather t h a n to o p e n in action. It should continue this smooth.
First stage: This is made in two stages. Second stage: Each arrowhead is then squeezed lightly between the plier beaks Inset E to increase the sharpness of the arrowheads. This should not be carried to excess or the wire will later break at this point.
Over the contact point of the t o o t h a second. When the clasp has become slack in wear it is lightened by increasing the bend in the tag at a point immediately overlying the contact point of the t o o t h.
The tags should lie out of contact with the plaster so that they will later be completely surrounded by acrylic material. Finally the tags are completed by bending over the palate and the ends turned under and forced i n t o the plaster page It is essential that the bridge should not lie in contact w i t h the buccal surface of the t o o t h and these last bends should be increased if necessary to achieve this.
The minimum amount of heat should be used and the solder should not be heavily polished. Two central incisors can be clasped as shown. The incisor clasp B.
A single incisor can be clasped as shown in the left-hand diagram. Materials All clasps are made with 0. A second arrowhead is formed as shown and united to the bridge of the main clasp using hard solder and stain- less steel flux. Soldering may be carried out either on the model or after processing. Construction Adams clasps 0. A variation is to place arrowheads on the mesial of the second premolar and the distal of the molar as in diagram A This form of retention is of value in extraoraI anchorage page but for convenience of accom- modating adjustment loops of friction stops.
The Duyzings clasp C.
T w o stainless steel wires are bent over the m a x i m u m c o n t o u r of t h e t o o t h f r o m mesial and distal aspects and then curved back u p o n themselves so that the lower part lies below the m a x i m u m c o n t o u r a n d the ends are sprung i n t o the undercuts.
Prefabricated ball-ended wires are bent in the f o r m shown a n d sprung i n t o the angular undercuts. Materials B o t h clasps are made f r o m 0. The ball-ended clasp A.
Alterna- tively. On the tooth Owing to the tact that the palatal surface of an upper incisor tooth has a downward and forward slope.
In the case illustrated in diagram A the palatal surface is at 60 c to the horizontal and the thrust may be divided. It follows that the clasps on such an appliance must be placed. On the appliance Reciprocally. Reciprocally a forward and upward force is exerted on the appliance. The inclined plane of the t o o t h here exerts a backward and d o w n w a r d force on the anterior part of the appliance.
In diagram B a palatally placed spring is m o v i n g the incisors forward. There is a backward force on t h e incisor c o m - bined w i t h a downward force due to the inclined plane effect. A d d i t i o n a l clasps must be placed on the first premolars black to produce an upward c o m - ponent and prevent displacement. Only the f o r w a r d force is resisted by the clasped molar t o o t h black while the palate acts as a f u l c r u m and receives the u p w a r d force.
If the second molar is uncrupted the occlusal rest may be placed on the distal p o r t i o n of the first molar A clasp placed on the first premolar black acts as a f u l c r u m about w h i c h the appliance w i l l pivot.
The d o w n w a r d thrust is countered by placing an occlusal rest on the second molar t o o t h black. It may be expected. Only two teeth are being moved against an anchorage of eight teeth.
Although these will inevitably undergo some slight forward movement. When the canines alone are retracted the incisors take part in the anchorage. The canines now being in the fully corrected positions. Distal movement of a buccal segment Following extraction of an upper second molar the first molar and both premolars of that side may be moved distally. The labially displaced canine is not included in either part of the appliance. The proper application of extraoral traction A At the commencement of extraoral traction designed to move ail the upper teeth posteriorly f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t i o n of second molars, the labial arch is bent away f r o m the labial segment.
A l l the extraoral force is then directed against the cheek teeth, which w i l l move distally. At the completion of distal movement of the cheek teeth the labial arch is bent back to rest against the labial segment, not to press against it. When the extra- oral force is applied the labial segment will move posteriorly. At the next visit the labial arch w i l l be seen to stand away f r o m the incisors Until the extraoral force is applied.
It can then once more be adjusted to rest against the anterior teeth. If the labial arch is adjusted via the U-loops to press against the incisors, application of t h e extraoral force will increase pressure on the incisors, but w i l l not release the forward force on the cheek teeth produced by the tension in the U-loops.
The anchorage problem generated within the appliance is not removed by the application of extraoral force. Parrs of the spring A, A simple cantilever spring consists of three parts. The tag is embedded in the acrylic resin of the supporting baseplate.
The coil is the active part of the spring and is normally made so that it tends to open, rather than close, in use. The arm of the spring undergoes only slight bending and may be regarded as a rigid lever. Direction of pressure B. As friction between the spring and the t o o t h can be ignored, the direction of pressure will always be at right angles to the a r m of the spring and, if the spring has to work over a l o n g angular range, this will change con- siderably during t o o t h movement.
The longer the arm of a spring the greater will be its range of action. A short spring not o n l y has a short range of action but, as it moves, its tip describes an arc of a small circle. As its length increases so this arc becomes straightened and its path of action is nearer to a straight line. As length increases, so the spring must be made of thicker wire to exert the same force,.
This produces a slight flattening of the curve. The bite is raised on the cheek teeth either by a thickness of acrylic resin or. Ihe coil is set as far away as possible from the tooth to be moved The tag is short and well within the thickness of the acrylic.
Full palate The arm of the spring is set at right angles to the intended path of the tooth to be moved and is lelt long so as not to lose contact with the tooth towards the end of its movement. This is used where the thickness of acrylic capping see Inset A would be too little to stand the bite with- out fracture.
Inset B shows the same spring adapted to move two teeth Construction Springs: A check should then be made to ensure that the spring has free travel without Fouling any projection of the base- plate.
It should extend beyond the tip of the spring and should have a smooth outline. It should continue this smooth. As the teeth move forward so the control excited by the capping is lost. The guide is made of 0. It is possible lo use instead a guide wire. This can be advanced as the teeth move by squeezing the sides with pliers. It should have a smooth.
At the time the spring is constructed and tacked to the plaster model with wax. Construction Springs: Continued over all check teeth as capping Inset A This lateral view shows boxed-in spring and just sufficient clearance to allow the upper incisors to move f o r w a r d w i t h o u t f o u l i n g the lowers. Inset B A double cantilever spring may be used as an alternative for the same t o o t h movement 0. Full palate capping on cheek teeth if the lateral incisors must pass over the bite Inset A Lateral movement is produced by opening the right-hand coil Inset B Forward movement is produced by opening the left hand coil Construction Springs.
Full palate capping on cheek teeth if the canine must pass over the bite Inset The position of the spring at completion of tooth move- ment Construction Spring: This is overcome by kinking the spring. Construction Left side Right side Springs: Adams clasps on any cheek teeth not being moved Baseplate: Full palate. Materials Clasp: On the left an upper molar is being m o v e d. The springs are n o t covered by the baseplate. This diagram shows distal movement.
Here the springs are boxed-in. Full palate in A Full palate cut away in B This diagram shows mesial movement. B o t h springs are uncovered and c o n t r o l l e d by guide wires. Hanney the spring is kinked in the middle of the arm and the baseplate is corre- spondingly cut away.
The spring thus has the protective advantages of boxing-in yet the patient can engage the kink w i t h a fingernail and so compress the spring to facilitate insertion of the appliance. Bile platforms where necessary Inset To avoid sliding d o w n the mesial slope of the canine the spring is carefully bent so as to f i t between the lateral incisor and canine and to take advantage of the flat mesial surface of the t o o t h.
This is one of the few springs in which the c o i l is made to close rather t h a n to o p e n in action.
The c o i l lies in the labial sulcus. Points to note 1. The end of the spring should be bent at a r i g h t angle before being shaped to the curve of the t o o t h , like a golf-club. The loop should lie as high as possible in the sulcus w i t h o u t interfering with any f o l d of soft tissue c o m m o n l y f o u n d in this area. The tag should lie as close as possible to the second premolar, and the posterior arm should not cut across the first premolar position where it would interfere w i t h retraction of the canine.
Full palate, cut away to allow movement of canines. Inset A Shows 1 Posterior arm in contact w i t h second pre- molar and passing over the contact point of this t o o t h. Inset B Shows 1 Path of action. Sleeve passed over the posterior arm. Sleeved portion bent over to complete the posterior arm and form the tag. Sleeve prepared upper end chamfered. Materials Spring: Labial Wire Bite Planes Expansion Appliance Clinical Adjustments Zuhair Murshid, BDS. Active Plate for Arch Expansion Active plate are most useful when a few millimeters of space are needed 1.
The active element of expansion plate is a jackscrew placed so that it holds the parts of the plate together. The screw produces a heavy force that decays rapidly. Most screws open 1 mm per complete revolution, so single quarter turn produces 0.
We should not exceed 1 mm per month i. Anterior expansion of maxillary incisors. Tongue Guard. Type of malocclusion: Anterior Open bite. Posterior cross bite. Posterior collapse of maxilla. Flaring of the upper incisors. Retroclination of lower incisors. High palatal vault. Narrow V-shaped Palate. Expansion screw.
Active Removable treatmentAppliance. Treatment of malocclusion Related to patient withThumb sucking or tongue thrusting which includeinclude: Lower acrylicLower acrylic capPosterior Acrylic Plate. Lower Removable functionalTreatment Appliance. Mode of Action: Forward Positioning of themandible which will stretch the muscles andaccelerate the mandibular Growth. Lower acrylic cap: Posterior Acrylic Plate: Fixed-Removable Active treatmentAppliance.
High pull: It restrict the maxillary growthin the Young patients Orthopedic or movethe teeth in Older Patient Orthodontic. Head strap high pull , Cervical or Occipital strap low pull. Inner Bow: Outer Bow: Removable Active treatmentAppliance.
It restrict the mandibulargrowth in the Young patients Orthopedic. It accelerate the maxillarygrowth in the Young patients Orthopedic. Fixed treatment appliance.
Mode of application: UL 30 Means: Upper Left Size 30Orthodontic tubes for different sizes of theOrthodontic tubes for different sizes of theorthodontic wiresorthodontic wiresMahmoud Saleh Mahmoud Fayed It should be precisely fit with the molar whichcan be tested by slight resistance on removal.
Band usually cemented to the tooth structure byglass ionomer due to: The orthodontic band composed of hook whichis directed Disto-gingivalDisto-gingival to allow the properapplication and removal of Orthodontic wires.
NoNo fluoride releasing capacity So provide NoNoanti-cariogenic effect. Color Code: Poor esthatics. According of the material of construction: Early Discoloration. More esthetic than metal and plastic Brackets. High resistance to Discoloration. High cost. Brittle and easy to fracture. Causing wearing in the opposing teeth. Difficult to remove without fracture of thebracket itself. Upper Passive active if with a loop Fixed treatment appliance.
Upper Passive Fixed treatmentappliance. Orthodontic bands: Acrylic Button or Plate3. Complication Of Acrylic Button: Food Accumulation. Mini Screw. Passive Fixed treatment appliance. Site Of Action: Passive active if with a loop Fixedtreatment appliance. Lingual Arch.
Passive Fixed Retentionappliance. MaintainMaintain the space between theteeth and prevent the crowding to allow theEruption of the permanent tooth. Orthodontic Band. Space Regainer. Active Fixed Treatmentappliance. RegainRegain the space between thedrifted teeth to allow the Eruption of thepermanent successor of the early lostdeciduous tooth. NiTi Wire: