The students and teachers most preferred physics textbook has almost nothing in it to .. National curriculum for senior secondary school. A total of 25 physics teachers and senior secondary three (SS3) physics students were However, senior secondary school physics textbooks (69%). PHYSICS. TEXT-BOOK FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS. W. R. Whitney. J. Am. Chem. Soc., View: PDF | PDF w/ Links. Related Content.
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Abstract- This paper presents a brief modern physics teaching proposal for high school students, with a view of modern physics in secondary level schools. Keywords: learning . Modern physics in textbooks: a counterpoint between PNLEM. Teaching physics at Czech secondary schools is based on the textbook Physics . of textbooks for secondary schools, The school physics 2/ a 3/, PdF . The Light and Matter series of introductory physics textbooks is designed for an The textbooks available for download are Newtonian Physics, Conservation Laws, FHSST (Free High School Science Textbooks) Physics is a free introductory physics textbook. You can download a pdf version of the entire textbook.
How adequate are the learning activities of the chemistry textbooks in use in Nigerian secondary schools? Universiti Brunei Darussalam. Grand Valley State University. One can blame the situation on the general poor attitude to reading that has been noticed among secondary school students in Nigeria. How readable are your texts?
Terver Udu. Regina Samba. Stella Iortim. Elizabeth Gyuse. Udu, 1Elizabeth Y. Gyuse, 1Regina M. Biology, Chemistry and Physics. Participants were Senior Secondary Two SS2 students purposively selected from three school types government-owned, mission-owned and private within the same science discipline in Makurdi Township of Benue State, Nigeria. Results obtained from the SMOG formula revealed a mean readability grade level of It was therefore, recommended that for the studied textbooks to be more helpful to the students, the books need to be revised as soon as possible and the difficult words be replaced with much simpler words to facilitate reading comprehension.
One would think that with the advancement in technology the use of textbooks would become old-fashioned and decrease, but not so, reiterated Petty However, if a teacher has a large curriculum to cover, as is often the case with our science curricula, encouraging students to read becomes a good option to make up for any deficiency. In science, students can read for information, criticism, discussion, debate or in preparation for activities and presentation.
Reading is a form of individualized learning but the books must be readable otherwise the reader can get lost and fail to understand or comprehend the content. To be readable therefore, the selected Biology, Chemistry and Physics texts must pass the test that indicates that students can read them with understanding. The Research Problem People read books for various reasons—good size print, attractive illustrations, easy language, etc.
For textbooks, this is even more important for students to want to read them. It is a fact that many students cannot afford their textbooks but for those who have them, are they reading them?
Are the textbooks we recommend for our Nigerian science subjects easily readable by our students? These are the interests of this research. Readability among different science disciplines cannot be easily compared because of the nature of each discipline. Biology for example, is a more descriptive subject than chemistry or physics.
Physics is more technical. On the other hand, the students in different types of schools or school location may give us some clue on how these could affect readability and achievement.
These are the questions this study sets out to answer. Conceptual Framework This section provides an explanation of the key terms, readability and reading comprehension. Meaning and comprehension are paramount in reaching the goal of reading. Oyetunde and Muodumogu , Prins and Ulijn describe reading as a process that involves interaction or negotiation between the reader, text and writer.
Comprehension, according to Hancock , p. Comprehension of text can be influenced by readability factors as well as the reading ability of the learner. Readability is what Pikulski defines as the level of ease or difficulty with which text material can be understood by a particular reader who is reading that text for a specific purpose. Many factors tend to influence readability, which Johnson ; DuBay ; Essem Educational Limited name to include typeface, font size, spacing and layout; reader factors such as prior knowledge, reading ability, interest and motivation of the reader; vocabulary difficulty; text structure; text coherence and cohesion; and syntax.
The teacher has the phenomenal task of recommending to his students reading materials that are neither too easy nor too difficult to read.
In other words, he has to match reading materials with their prospective readers. Literature Review Interest in and research on the readability of textbooks has been as old as mankind itself. Lawson attests that research on readability began as early as and cites a study by Lively and Perssey as a method for measuring the vocabulary burden of textbooks to support his claim.
Different readability studies Fatoba, ; Carapella, ; Instone, ; Yong, have yielded different outcomes. In the area of English language, Perekeme and Agbor recently found that junior school students in Bayelsa State, Nigeria were reading recommended texts at the frustration level even though the readability results showed that the texts were within their reading level. Perhaps, motivated by the success of this study on chemistry textbook, Fatoba extended the study on readability to Biology this time introducing variables of location and gender.
He did not find location and gender as having significant influence on readability of biology textbook. Yong found that the readability of high school science texts for Brunei Darussalam Book 1 matched the ability of the students but still majority of the students were found to be reading at the frustration level.
The variables of the present study on relationship and achievement make it similar to the studies reviewed above. Which is the most readable of the science texts and why?
Research Questions RQ1: Which are the most commonly used Biology, chemistry and physics textbooks?
How available are the science textbooks to the students? What is the readability level of Nigerian secondary school science textbooks? Which is the most readable of the science textbooks? What is the achievement level of the students in science?
How do students in different school types within the same subject discipline compare? Hypotheses Ho1: There is no significant relationship between readability of science textbooks and science achievement of secondary school students. There is no significant difference in achievement between students in different school types within the same subject discipline. There is no significant difference between readability of science textbooks and achievement of secondary school boys and girls.
In the preliminary investigation, students volunteered to be part of the study, while in the main study, students consisting of males and females from 17 schools were chosen. The seventeen schools broken down as government, mission and private schools were purposively selected in Makurdi Township of Benue State, Nigeria. The three instruments for data collection were i. SMOG and Cloze are well known readability measures and were chosen because they are easy to use and are among the most commonly used readability formulas McLaughlin, Count 10 sentences in the middle.
Count 10 sentences near the end which gives you 30 sentences in all. The number that is derived is the reading grade level of the book. DuBay links the Cloze readability procedure with the works of Wilson Taylor after he faulted the difficulties noticed with the classic readability formulas such as the Flesch and Dale-Chall. Cloze testing is based on the theory that readers are better able to fill in the missing words as their reading skills improve DuBay, This is the advantage Cloze has over other readability formulae.
With this method, three different passages were randomly selected. Only appropriate words were counted as correct answers although spelling errors are ignored. The percentage of answers the reader gets correct is the measure of how readable the text is. The higher the percentage, the more readable the text.
So, three different passages each, representing the beginning, middle and towards the end of the SS2 biology, chemistry and physics textbooks, were selected and SMOG readability statistics used to calculate their readability levels. A preliminary survey, using a questionnaire, was conducted to find out: Results and Discussion RQ1: The preliminary findings revealed that the three most commonly used secondary school science textbooks were Senior Secondary Biology by F.
Ndu, P. Ababio Two hundred and fifty five students The three common reasons given for the difficulty were as follows: Science textbooks are difficult to understand; and iii. The rest of the results are presented in order of the research questions and corresponding hypotheses as follows: Only students This means that The SMOG readability statistics was used to calculate the readability level of the three science text books. Results are presented in Table 1.
The three passages for the chemistry textbook respectively yielded readability grade levels of This means the chemistry book is appropriate for the 12th grade level of students.
Results for biology yielded a readability grade level of Results for physics yielded a readability grade level of In determining the most readable of the three science textbooks, the overall reading level of participants in the three subjects was estimated using Cloze. The results are as presented in Table 2.
Table 2: Combined reading level of participants in three subjects estimated using Cloze Range of No of students Percent Cloze scores The number of participants multiplied by the three subjects gives us 1, Results indicate that Table 3: Cloze readability Results and categorization of reading levels of participants in the three subjects.
Subject Range of No. Reading level of students in three subjects as estimated by Cloze Test Table 3 and Figure 1 present Cloze readability scores and categorization of reading levels of participants in the three subjects. For Chemistry, For Biology For physics, Comparing the percentage of the students that read at independent level in the three subjects, physics with students equivalent of From the figure, majority of the students obtained credit passes in three subjects with a few with pass grades in the subjects.
There is no significant relationship between readability of science textbooks and achievement of secondary school students. To determine if there is any relationship between readability scores and science achievement scores Pearson Product Correlation coefficient was used and the results are presented in Table 4: Table 4: Correlation table for the relationship between readability score and science achievement.
Readability Achievement Readability Pearson Correlation 1. Students in the different school types within the same subject discipline were compared using one-way Analysis of variance ANOVA and the results are presented in Tables 5 and 6: Table 5: Between Groups Table 6: Gender N Mean t df p Readability Male 66 This means that the mean readability score of male is higher than that of female students. The result of the study indicates that a significant relationship exists between readability of textbook and achievement in science.
This result is consistent with the findings by Fatoba and Fatoba who used the Cloze technique to determine relationship between readability of Chemistry and Biology textbooks. Our study further merged the overall cloze scores of the participants for the three subjects in order to determine which of the textbooks is the most readable of the three texts.
Results indicated that the Physics textbook was the most readable and the Biology textbook the least readable of the three science textbooks.
It is often assumed that a Biology textbook would be an easier text to read compared to Physics and Chemistry because of its numerous narrative content. But our result shows that the Physics textbook was the most readable. This suggests that the Physics text contained much simpler vocabulary than the Chemistry and Biology texts. In other respects, the findings of our study make it different from other studies on readability reviewed.
For example, Fatoba and Fatoba investigated readability and achievement in separate science subjects. Our study did not examine the influence on location on readability, but Fatoba did. Our study also found that most of the participants read at the frustration level even though the texts matched the age level of the students who were using them. Similar findings were reported in a study by Yong who used Gunning, Fry, Flesch-Kincaid and Cloze methods in investigating the readability of secondary science for Brunei Darussalam Book 1.
Unlike our study, Yong had noticed that the readability of the text studied far exceeded the reading age of the students. Results The results of the study are presented in the tables in line with the research questions that guided this study. Research Question 1 How do the contents of chemistry textbooks in use in Nigerian Secondary Schools reflect the content specified of the core curriculum?
Based on the data collected from the textbooks the ITC index of topical coverage was determined as presented in Table 1. In the table Tt represents Number of topics sufficiently covered by the textbook, Ts is number of topics specified in the syllabus, St is number of subtopics sufficiently covered by the text while Ss is number of subtopics in the syllabus.
Table 1: Bajah et al 3 Chemistry for senior secondary 70 89 88 0. Oyeyiola et al 4 Pure chemistry for west African 67 96 90 0.
C et al 5 A New Certificate Chemistry 7th 90 98 0. It is however necessary to note that Chemistry for senior secondary school certificate by V. Oyeyiola and Pure chemistry for west African schools by B. Oluba fall below the baseline. Bajah was adjudged to have attained minimum standard, there is a serious need for upgrade of the text. Research Question 2 How adequate are the learning activities of the chemistry textbooks in use in Nigeria Secondary Schools? Based on the data obtained from the textbooks, the learning activity index LAI was calculated and presented in Table 2.
Note that A represents number of sentences requiring the learner to perform some activity while P is number of sentences requiring the learner only to receive information with no other activity. Table 2: Bajah et al 30 0. This implies that none of the five chemistry textbooks contained learning activities as specified in the core — chemistry curriculum.
Research Question 3 How appropriate are the chapter summaries of the chemistry textbooks in use in Nigeria Secondary Schools? In Table 3 Js is number of statements in the summary which re-present major points covered in the chapter, Jc is number of major points covered in the chapter, Ns is number of statements in the summary which re-present minor points covered in the chapter while Nc is number of minor points covered in the chapter Table 3: The results reveal that all the five chemistry textbooks evaluated are within the acceptance range of chapter summary.
Research Question 4 How adequate are the study questions of the chemistry textbooks in use in Nigeria Secondary Schools? The data obtained from the textbooks were used for the computation of the study questions index SQI. The computation of the SQI was based on the study questions found in each of the five chemistry textbooks evaluated. The results are presented in Table 4. Note that T is number of questions that require students to engage in real thinking while R is number of questions that require students to merely recall knowledge.
Table 4: Bajah etal 76 25 0. This implies that all the textbooks evaluated contained appropriate study questions. Research Question 5 What are the illustrations index of the chemistry textbooks in use in Nigerian secondary schools? The data obtained on illustrations found in each of the five chemistry textbooks evaluated were used for the computation of the illustrations index ILI. The results are presented in table 5. Note also that La is number of illustrations requiring the learners to perform some activity while Lb is number of illustrations requiring the learners to only view.
Table 5: Bajah etal 56 69 Oyeyiola 47 52 Research Question 6: What is the Readability Index of the chemistry textbooks in use in Nigerian secondary schools? The mean readability scores of the five chemistry textbooks evaluated were computed and presented in table 6.
Table 6: Bajah It is expected that all the textbooks be very readable. Chemistry for senior secondary certificate by V. Research Question 7 What is the under representation population index of the chemistry textbooks in use in Nigeria secondary schools?
The data obtained from the five chemistry textbooks on under-representation of populations were used to answer research this question. The results of the data analysis are presented on table 7. Table 7: BK 3 by Bajah 16 0. Research Question 8 What is the teacher perception index of the chemistry textbooks in use in Nigeria secondary schools? The results obtained are presented on table 8. Table 8: The range of acceptance of the value is 3. Any value below 3.
The grand mean scores for the five chemistry textbooks evaluated are within the acceptance range of 3.
Although the teachers agree that these textbooks are helpful to them in their instructional delivery they failed to score them very high. As we can see the teacher perception indices for each of the five textbooks are slightly above 3. Summary Results presented for this study reveal that only three out of the five chemistry textbooks evaluated are within the acceptance range of topical coverage. It is necessary to note that Chemistry for senior secondary school certificate by V.
Oyeyiola and pure chemistry for West African schools by B. Bajah was adjudged to have attained minimum standard, there is a serious need to upgrade of textbooks.
The study also reveals that none of the five chemistry textbooks evaluated are within the acceptance range of learning Activity coverage.
Furthermore, the evaluation shows that all the five chemistry textbooks evaluated are within the acceptance range of chapter summary. In terms of study question result of data analysis reveals that all the five chemistry textbooks evaluated are within the acceptance range of study questions index and also that their illustrations are very adequate.
Finally, although the teachers agree that these textbooks are helpful to them in their instructional delivery they failed to score them very high. As shown in Table 8 the teacher perception indices for each of the five textbooks are slightly above 3. Recommendations Based on the findings and conclusions of this study, the researchers made the following recommendations 1. Scientific knowledge and discoveries are increasing everyday; it is necessary that all the chemistry textbooks in use in secondary schools in Nigeria should be revised periodically.
Chemistry textbook authors and publishers should consult core-curriculum in chemistry when writing and publishing their books. This will help them to choose topics, performance objectives, contents and learning activities from the specified core-curriculum. This would help the authors to achieve high topical coverage, learning activities, study questions and chapter summaries indices.
References Ababio, O. Nigeria edition Altbach, P. Eds Textbooks in the third world: Policy, content and context. New York: Garland publishing Inc. Bajah, S. Emereole, H. U and Rammiki, R. Cambridge University press. Holderness, A and Lambert, J.