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In Pramoedya called for the strengthening of "the Jakarta-Peking Friendship Line," a strategic alliance that included "Cambodia, Democratic Korea, Vietnam, and the patriots in the Malay Peninsula. Farrington, Grove Press, New York original edition, Essay en Interview Breda: For example, in an interview conducted in , he laughingly dismissed the observation that his novel, The Girl from the Coast [Gadis Pantai], expressed a love and under- standing of Java and its culture: The new Pramoedya had an unambiguous political stance. After the conference Pramoedya, who was the head of the Indonesian delegation, returned home via China. Diam kau.

The similarity surfaces briefly in his observation that the supernatural terms raksasa [a mythological demonic giant] and gaib [invisible] are used to describe both colonial capitalism and the anticolonial nationalist at- tempts to organize themselves.

Moreover, Cheah overlooks the fact that in the Javanese cultural context, harmful supernatural entities such as the raksasa and invisible spirits are associated with the uncultivated forest where they dwell and wild animals whom they resemble in character and appearance — both of which, in the Western tradition, carry associations with organic life.

Throughout all four novels, the development of the individual out of selfishness and into selflessness, out of indi- vidualistic self-absorption and into community-mindedness, and out of a capitalistic mindset and into a socialist mindset is figured as the development from animal- ism and to humanity.

Although most contemporary Western readers may most readily associate the animal-to-human developmental model with scientific theo- ries of biological evolution, the model also plays a key role in traditional Javanese conceptions of ideal individual development and Marxist conceptions of ideal social development.

In the context of the Javanese cosmological order, the attainment of a Javanese standard of humanity would bestow increased power, and in the con- text of the Marxist cosmological order, the attainment of a Marxist standard of humanity would result in a successful proletariat revolution. However, in the context of an environment ruled by the laws of Darwinian struggle, evolving out of animalism into humanity instead requires relinquishing success and even life itself, both of which, in this setting, carry negative associa- tions with animalism.

However, in my own reading, it is this will to live that needs to be overcome because it taints all endeavours to achieve true humanity with animalism. This acceptance of certain death thus proves necessary in reforming and redeeming Javanese and Marxist models of human evolution by evacuating them of the animalistic desire for power that ultimately compromises them.

Human evolution according to the Quartet Scholars have read the Quartet as a tale of socio-cultural evolutionary progress — one following the birth and development of Indonesian nationalism and socialist awareness.

In fact, the narrator and protagonist of the first novel, This Earth of Mankind, introduces himself as a monkey. That one, whose moustache is beginning to sprout, but whose chest looks weak!

The attainment of truly modern humanity necessarily involves re- jecting the rapacious animalism of modern capitalism and imperialism, which Minke learns about in the preceding novel from the Chinese nationalist Khouw Ah Soe and the radical Dutch journalist Ter Haar. Strong individuals should band together to lift up those among their people who were weak, to provide a lamp to those in darkness, and to give eyes to the blind. There are a number of sources that may have inspired Pramoedya to portray humanity in the Quartet as the final stage of an evolution out of animalism.

With regard to literary inspirations, the underlying bestial nature of human- ity formed a prominent theme in many of the European naturalist works Pramoedya read in his youth, such as those by Zola and Balzac. Pramoedya grew up in a very traditional Javanese-Islamic community in East Java. His mother was the daughter of a respected Islamic leader, and was herself very religious.

Growing up, Pramoedya would have been expected to conform to standards of alus-ness and shun the kasar. Being alus in character and behaviour requires politeness, sensitivity, and above all constant self-control, whereas uncontrolled passion and desire are kasar and are associated with animals and animal-like beings: Children, who lack self-control, are considered durung Jawa — not yet Javanese and, in a sense, not yet human, for to be human is to be cultured and civilized in the mould of the Javanese ideal.

The Islamic education undergone by Javanese children thus encourages a spiritual development out of animalism and into humanity that reinforces the acculturation process undergone by children to banish their kasar-ness and mould them into alus beings.

Rather, becoming alus through self-denial promotes the acquisition of greater abilities, and it is this aspect of the attainment of alus-ness that becomes especially promi- nent in the classical pre-Islamic myths and folklore which provide the primary material for traditional forms of entertainment, such as the wayang [shadow-pup- pet] performances that Pramoedya grew up watching, and which remain popular today among the Javanese community.

Wayang heroes are invariably alus. Mem- bers of royalty or warriors of the satria caste, they are delicate-looking, slight in frame, and most importantly, able to exercise the ascetic levels of discipline and self-control — fasting, sexual abstinence and concentrated periods of spiritual edu- cation — which enable them to accumulate and concentrate the power they need to defeat their monstrous enemies Peacock, , p ; Anderson, , pp 51, In contrast, their enemies — demonic giants, ogres, wild men — invariably lose because of their innate kasar-ness.

Further calls for Islamic reform have occurred periodically since then, two of the more recent ones occurring in the s and in the current post-Suharto era. Thus, in the Javanese cosmological order, virtue — alus-ness — invariably results in greater power and eventual vic- tory.

The truly alus do not experience defeat. Only conscious organization of so- cial production, in which production and distribution are carried on in a planned way, can lift mankind above the rest of the animal world as regards the social aspect, in the same way that production in general has done this for men in their aspect as a species. Pramoedya would have also found similar tropes of animalism and humanity in the works of the Leftist Chinese writer, Lu Xun, who was highly acclaimed by the Communist Party.

In vain, he exhorts those around him to give up eating the flesh of their fellow men and to cease this evolu- tionary regression: But their thinking changed, developed over time, and some of them stopped — they were determined to become human, genuinely human. But they remain reptiles at heart…. Although virtuous humanity is not re- warded quite as directly or immediately as in the context of the Javanese universal order, both Javanese and Marxist cosmologies do assume that humanity will tri- umph sooner or later and bring to those who have attained it deserved power and success.

Overwhelmed by the wilderness The conceptualization of the human as essentially a type of animal, distinguish- able from other animals only by virtue of self-restraint and altruism, preoccupied Pramoedya greatly during his incarceration on Buru, as documented in The Lonely Song of a Mute [Nyanyi Sunyi Seorang Bisu] — a collection of personal notes and letters he penned during his imprisonment. In a letter to his daughter Nen, he speaks enthusiastically of the theory of evolution espoused by Pierre Teilhard de Chardin — a twentieth- century philosopher, Jesuit priest and anthropologist who postulated that all the different races of mankind had originated with different ancestral forms, and were converging towards a common higher evolutionary stage: Na- ture, spread out before me now, was like a textbook without contents, and this journey upstream left an impression on me.

Usually, big rivers were seedbeds for ancient societies and cultures…. At other points, he describes the natives in anthropologist-like fashion, noting their partially nomadic lifestyle, their lack of agriculture and their dietary restrictions. As the prisoners puzzle over how to make the land yield food without the help of any modern tools, Pramoedya feels foolish for even imagining a civilized Indo- nesia: De plicht van een mens is mens te zijn — the task of the human is to become human.

The brutal living conditions on Buru make civilized, humane living almost impossible to sustain, serving as a small-scale metaphor for conditions in Indonesia as a whole, which make the attainment of true humanity punishable by imprisonment and death. Such were the conditions that gave birth to the Buru Quartet, composed orally as a tale for the other prisoners before Pramoedya was finally permitted access to writing materials.

For in a similar way, the characters of the Buru Quartet who do successfully attain modern humanity find themselves powerless and weak in an environment that rewards animal behaviour and dooms the unnatural hu- man to extinction.

However, it is this new understanding of the deep-seated ani- malism in human nature that compels the Buru Quartet to modify existing Javanese and Marxist ideals concerning humanity in order to advocate an even more alus form of Javanese humanity and an even more resilient form of socialist humanity. The power of the wilderness in the Buru Quartet There is a sense throughout the entirety of the Quartet that the characters inhabit a world fundamentally antagonistic to human endeavours to civilize themselves and their surroundings.

Undomesticated nature, such as that which Pramoedya faced in Buru, is associated with the brutal, the animalistic and the primitive. Minke emerges from his imprisonment many years later, penniless and friendless. His wife missing, his assets repossessed by the government, and forgotten by the very nationalist movement he founded, Minke eventually sickens and dies — murdered, it is implied, by his lifelong enemy, Robert Suurhof b, p In the world of the Quartet, animalistic nature proves unconquerable and untameable.

The achievement of humanity becomes incommensurable with continued survival. By taking any personal benefit away from the Javanese alus ideal and the Marxist socialist ideal, the novels challenge their readers to achieve humanity for its own sake rather than for any external reward. According to traditional Javanese thought, however, the denial of the self is rewarded with greater strength and ability.

In the myths, asceticism enables the hero to vanquish his enemies. Such awareness and attuning have their indirect benefits: Yet, as one follows the actions and fates of the characters who do manage to achieve modern humanity, one cannot help but notice that there is something very Javanese about the definition of humanity they ascribe to and the ascetic means by which they go about doing it.

Mei also begins depriving herself of sufficient sleep and food, growing even paler and thinner. Finally, she contracts hepatitis, which goes undiagnosed until it is too late save her.

It seems that self-destructive asceticism is also required of Minke as he gives up his selfish impulses in order to unite the people of the Indies and fight against the capitalist and colonial powers that be. As previously mentioned, even eating and sex — which one might perceive as simply necessary for survival — bear traces of base animalism and must be con- trolled by the modern human being.

This Earth of Mankind lays the foundation for such associations in the rest of the Quartet.

Sexual inter- course is similarly tainted with animalism. Notably, she also stops coming home entirely, the implication being that she has given up sexual relations with Minke in order to devote herself more wholeheartedly to the Chinese people.

Kartini has no desire to get married, preferring to retain her freedom of movement in society as a single woman. For both these characters, abstinence from food and sex seems to come as a matter of course; but for Minke, suppressing such kasar animalism seems to be far more difficult. At one point in Footsteps, Minke must politely suppress his overwhelming hunger and patiently wait for a new acquaintance to arrive before he can start his meal: Over the course of the tetralogy, he marries three times, pursuing each of his wives in turn because of his attraction to her beauty: And Lu Xun as presented in the light of official Chinese interpretation apparently cast an impact upon Pramoedya's views.

After returning to Indonesia, Pramoedya characterized Lu Xun not only as a great intellectual, but as a fighter who was "the father of China's socialist realism. He told an Indonesian reporter that compared with his experience in Europe, he found it much easier to establish cordial contact with the Chinese and he felt very happy with his stay in China. On one occasion, Pramoedya and his hosts even continued their zealous discussion after the dinner, without prior schedule, at Ba Ren's residence.

Two major themes emerged in these meetings. Lu Xun, for example, was hailed by the Chinese as "a great pioneer and representative of socialist realism. The Chinese writers also spent a substantial amount of time debunking the notion of "art for the sake of art. His discussions with the PRC architects of "socialist realism" and "art serving the people" were likely to enhance his understanding and, perhaps a greater appreciation, of these literary doctrines.

Pramoedya's impressions from his first China trip were overwhelming. He was fascinated by China's rapid social and economic progress and believed that this progress was made possible by the Chinese people, who "are making history. Here, people have to be greedy in order to survive; over there, the greedy instinct has been annulled and totally eliminated.

As noted earlier, it was one of the central issues Pramoedya had tried to come to grips with.

Karya toer pdf pramoedya ananta

The Chinese practice provided him with not only a mirror reflecting what went wrong in Indonesia, but a viable model for what ought to be done. One of Pramoedya's favorable observations regarding China was the high social and political status of writers and artists.

He wrote, Chinese writers occupy a high place. Their voices are heard by the society. Together with politicians, they constitute the spiritual leaders, who hold an extremely important role in the nation building of our age. This helps explain why writers are very well treated by the society.

This was certainly not small change. Prior to , Pramoedya had complained repeatedly the low economic rewards Indonesian writers received from their creative work. On the other hand, PRC practices made Pramoedya realize that the social and political status of intellectuals was contingent upon their contributions to the nation. He was convinced that Chinese writers' high respectability was a direct result of their involvement in political transformation. Pramoedya felt strongly that Chinese writers set an example in understanding society and the current situation rather than being occupied with their own egotistical interests.

See also Hsin Pao, November 17, In order to barely survive, Indonesian writers had to publish at least ten stories every month and they often had to seek other part-time employment. Perbandingan Antarnegara," Siasat 11, January 20, The attitude of a detached bystander could only further jeopardize writers' position in society.

The China trip also provided Pramoedya with opportunities to study methods of organizing writers in their efforts to partake in the nation-building process. Before going to China, Pramoedya had advocated that writers needed to be organized in the combat against examples of a decadent social atmosphere such as corruption. Yet he was very disappointed at the lack of effective organization, which he thought was a major difficulty facing Indonesian intellectuals.

Shortly after returning to Indonesia, Pramoedya wrote an essay detailing the role of the Writers' Union. He discussed five major functions of the Writers' Union and the methods of achieving its goals. These functions ranged from "organizing writers to participate in and experience life" to "conducting cultural exchanges with the progressive countries.

As noted earlier, Pramoedya's previous attitude toward the two extremes of cultural perspectives-"art for the art's sake" and "art for the people"-had been ambivalent. However, after the end of , he came to place a greater preference for the latter. According to Pramoedya, Seen from the stand-point of international literature, China's literary works are somewhat formalistic. However, seen from the perspective of the [Chinese] state, there is no reason for much criticism, because China is now in the process of massive construction; writers write for the purpose of educating the masses rather than for money.

By this time, it was a new Pramoedya, mainly because of the transformation of his cultural and political thought following his return from China in November see below. China was also different at this time; the start of the Great Leap Forward and the People's Commune movements changed the landscape of the country and the moods of the people.

Consequently, Pramoedya looked at this new China from a new political and cultural perspective. China continued to be a source of inspiration, and his second trip accelerated the process of his shift to cultural radicalism. After the conference Pramoedya, who was the head of the Indonesian delegation, returned home via China. During this trip, which lasted approximately one month, he visited the cities of Peking, Wuhan, Chengdu, and Kunming. By this time, the Chinese authorities no longer considered Pramoedya to be an "aimless and frustrated writer.

The second theme was the propagation of China's experiences and achievements in carrying out massive economic development. The third theme was the principle of "politics is the commander" in the cultural sphere. Other topics also emerged in Pramoedya's meetings with Chinese writers and cultural officials.

Zhou Yang, for instance, spoke of the new Chinese cultural doctrine of "revolutionary romanticism,"57 while other Chinese emphasized that "writers must follow Mao Tse-tung's road. Pramoedya appears to have taken these topics seriously and have agreed with the Chinese on major issues discussed. During his first China trip, his attitude toward art and intellectuals' social role had been ambivalent, his perceptions of China primarily characterized by the sense of amazement and admiration.

The second China trip evoked in him an appreciation of profound political implications, and he openly expressed his political opinions on a variety of matters. In other words, Pramoedya's China became a political rather than a cultural symbol. He continued to praise the role of Chinese writers as "engineers of the human spirit. For example, colonialism and imperialism constituted the central aspects of his criticisms of Western influence.

He called for the establishment of a united front, centered in Peking "a symbol of Asia and Africa" , in the struggle against imperialism and colonialism. He stated clearly that art should be responsible to the people. Writers should be not only the conscience of society, but also participants in the battle on the front line. Indonesian people, not bourgeois, can learn a great deal from China, especially in terms of nation building.

Never in history has such a gigantic construction happened within so 55 Yindunixiya Wenhua Gaikuang, p. See for details in D. Mouton, , pp.

Karya ananta toer pramoedya pdf

Such a revolution has changed the face of the earth and human beings! And this is the People's Republic of China. His participation in the "steel-making" process is a case in point. As mentioned earlier, was the beginning of China's Great Leap Forward movement, which was characterized by collective utopianism and a nationwide optimism. One of the vital goals of this movement was to produce 3,, tons of steel in , which was one dimension of the efforts at "surpassing the British and catching up with the Americans" in the industrial field.

Chinese intellectuals took part, on a massive scale, in this primitive steel-making, which utilized something like backyard blast furnaces. Pramoedya was very enthusiastic about this practice. I myself once suggested to the Indonesian government that the efforts of steel-making and iron-making should be spread," Pramoedya wrote three days after arriving in Peking.

In the future I may extend this new experiment to Indonesia. It was an indication that Pramoedya had gone beyond the stage of detachment and disillusionment; he had started the endeavor to change society not only by pen but, more significantly, by action. During his trip an episode occurred in Pramoedya's personal life which may shed some light on his perceptions of the PRC.

According to his biographer, Bahrum Rangkuti, Pramoedya had a romantic relationship with his Chinese interpreter. Bahrum Rangkuti wrote, One [experience] that is no less important, which can clarify other aspects of Pramoedya's preference, is his close friendship with a Chinese woman who is fluent in Indonesian and a university graduate.

For weeks both of them were in close contact, which turned friendship into love. But in the end, both of them recognized that their respective interests must take a back seat for the sake of the family and nation. This kind of situation resulted in extraordinary activities in their correspondence, which contain extensive treatment of literature, culture, and the meaning of life.

Gadis Pantai

Bintang Press, , p. Renmin Wenxue 12 According to Ge Baoquan, a member of the central leadership of the Writers' Union, Pramoedya participated twice in steel-making during his second China trip.

Pramoedya appears to have had a very good impression of her.

After returning to Indonesia, he told a reporter that he was amazed that Chen Xiaru, who "had graduated from college only two years earlier and had never been to Indonesia," was able to translate Abdul Muis's Salah Asuhan [A Wrong Upbringing] into Chinese and have it published in China.

A picture of Chen was included in one of Pramoedya's articles about Chinese writers and the Writers' Union. As Boen Oemarjati has pointed out, Pramoedya's work has "a very strong autobiographical strain and his books are his personal experiences molded into literature.

Although these novels are primarily based on the experiences of the Indonesian nationalist Tirto Adhi Suryo who is the fictional Minke, the novels' central character , there is a certain degree of identification and confluence between the views of Minke and those of Pramoedya himself. Minke's passionate admiration for Ang San Mei led him to propose to her. It was, however, a tragic and short-lived marriage: Ang San Mei died of disease approximately three years after they were married.

The Transformation of Pramoedya: Chen Xiaru recalled that she received a letter from Pramoedya in , informing her that he would stop in Peking for a couple of days on his way back to Indonesia from a visit to East Europe. They did not meet this time, because Chen Xiaru was assigned to work in a farm in the outskirts of Peking when Pramoedya arrived.

And she later learned information from an internal report of the Writers' Union concerning Pramoedya's short stay Interview, September 20, In a interview with a Dutch scholar, Pramoedya revealed that during his third visit he was denied the opportunity to see his Chinese friends, because his Chinese hosts insisted that "national discipline is more important than friendship. Essay en Interview Breda: De Geus, , p. I am thankful to Dr. Go Gien Tjwan for calling my attention to this document and Dr.

William Frederick for helping me with the Dutch text. In his written speech for the acceptance of the Ramon Magsaysay Award September 4, , entitled "Literature, Censorship and the State: How Dangerous are Stories?

Bardsley, who has kindly informed me that this speech has been published in Suara Independen, 04, I September After the end of , Pramoedya changed from a detached writer to an active fighter; his universal humanism was replaced by devout socialist realism. From Detachment to Involvement The first major transition of Pramoedya was political; he was transformed from a detached intellectual into a political activist.

Before the end of , Pramoedya w disappointed at the results of Indonesia's postcolonial development. The feeling of frustration was a main reason for Pramoedya's aloofness from society. He not onl disassociated himself from any political organizations, but also ruled out ideologic and political means for solving Indonesia's problems. The best way of achieving a just society, Pramoedya believed, was through cultural or social accommodation rather than through reforms in political institutions.

He was no longer preoccupied with the cultura approach to socio-political change. Instead, he came to the conclusion that politica restructuring was essential not only for solving political problems, but also for coping with the cultural quandary, which had been manifested in the "crisis in literature" debates.

The new Pramoedya had an unambiguous political stance. The significance of this essay lay not only in its timing and the forum of publication, but in its manifestation of the author's political allegiance. In addition to pledging his firm support for Sukarno's concept of political restructuring, Pramoedya unveiled his new understanding of the PKI and its role in Indonesian history.

Pramoedya admitted that in the past he had misunderstood the PKI. His anti-communist attitude, he wrote, had been formulated through reading economic and socio-political accounts by Westerners. Since Indonesian independence, Pramoedya maintained, many political parties had betrayed the people and the ideals of the revolution.

The only exception was the Communist Party, which not only held steadfastly to the revolution and distanced itself from rampant corruption, but served as the sole and true representative of the people's interests. Here Pramoedya fundamentally redefined the meaning of the people. They were no longer faceless, undifferentiated, and passive "little guys. Over the past centuries, it has also been workers who built roads and created national wealth.

However, since the transfer of sovereignty, they have been abandoned Wang Gungwu Canberra: Indonesian Politics Ithaca: Cornell University Modern Indonesia Project, Pramoedya ceased to be a disengaged intellectual who only attempted to use his pen to mirror social realities.

Instead, he started to be directly involved in the political change process as a devoted cultural radical. The February essay represented a point of no return in Pramoedya's career as a cultural intellectual. In March , Pramoedya, together with the painter Henk Ngantung and film director Kotot Sukardi, led a delegation of sixty-seven artists and writers to meet Sukarno in the National Palace, where they expressed their enthusiastic support for his "Conception.

It was a political statement for Pramoedya when he formally sided with the left-leaning political and cultural movement. For example, colonialism and imperialism constituted the central aspects of his criticisms of Western influence. He called for the establishment of a united front, centered in Peking "a symbol of Asia and Africa" , in the struggle against imperialism and colonialism. He stated clearly that art should be responsible to the people. Writers should be not only the conscience of society, but also participants in the battle on the front line.

Indonesian people, not bourgeois, can learn a great deal from China, especially in terms of nation building. Never in history has such a gigantic construction happened within so 55 Yindunixiya Wenhua Gaikuang, p. See for details in D. Mouton, , pp. Such a revolution has changed the face of the earth and human beings! And this is the People's Republic of China. His participation in the "steel-making" process is a case in point. As mentioned earlier, was the beginning of China's Great Leap Forward movement, which was characterized by collective utopianism and a nationwide optimism.

One of the vital goals of this movement was to produce 3,, tons of steel in , which was one dimension of the efforts at "surpassing the British and catching up with the Americans" in the industrial field. Chinese intellectuals took part, on a massive scale, in this primitive steel-making, which utilized something like backyard blast furnaces.

Pramoedya was very enthusiastic about this practice. I myself once suggested to the Indonesian government that the efforts of steel-making and iron-making should be spread," Pramoedya wrote three days after arriving in Peking. In the future I may extend this new experiment to Indonesia. It was an indication that Pramoedya had gone beyond the stage of detachment and disillusionment; he had started the endeavor to change society not only by pen but, more significantly, by action. During his trip an episode occurred in Pramoedya's personal life which may shed some light on his perceptions of the PRC.

According to his biographer, Bahrum Rangkuti, Pramoedya had a romantic relationship with his Chinese interpreter. Bahrum Rangkuti wrote, One [experience] that is no less important, which can clarify other aspects of Pramoedya's preference, is his close friendship with a Chinese woman who is fluent in Indonesian and a university graduate.

For weeks both of them were in close contact, which turned friendship into love. But in the end, both of them recognized that their respective interests must take a back seat for the sake of the family and nation. This kind of situation resulted in extraordinary activities in their correspondence, which contain extensive treatment of literature, culture, and the meaning of life.

Bintang Press, , p. Renmin Wenxue 12 According to Ge Baoquan, a member of the central leadership of the Writers' Union, Pramoedya participated twice in steel-making during his second China trip. Pramoedya appears to have had a very good impression of her. After returning to Indonesia, he told a reporter that he was amazed that Chen Xiaru, who "had graduated from college only two years earlier and had never been to Indonesia," was able to translate Abdul Muis's Salah Asuhan [A Wrong Upbringing] into Chinese and have it published in China.

A picture of Chen was included in one of Pramoedya's articles about Chinese writers and the Writers' Union.

As Boen Oemarjati has pointed out, Pramoedya's work has "a very strong autobiographical strain and his books are his personal experiences molded into literature. Although these novels are primarily based on the experiences of the Indonesian nationalist Tirto Adhi Suryo who is the fictional Minke, the novels' central character , there is a certain degree of identification and confluence between the views of Minke and those of Pramoedya himself.

Minke's passionate admiration for Ang San Mei led him to propose to her. It was, however, a tragic and short-lived marriage: Ang San Mei died of disease approximately three years after they were married. The Transformation of Pramoedya: Chen Xiaru recalled that she received a letter from Pramoedya in , informing her that he would stop in Peking for a couple of days on his way back to Indonesia from a visit to East Europe. They did not meet this time, because Chen Xiaru was assigned to work in a farm in the outskirts of Peking when Pramoedya arrived.

And she later learned information from an internal report of the Writers' Union concerning Pramoedya's short stay Interview, September 20, In a interview with a Dutch scholar, Pramoedya revealed that during his third visit he was denied the opportunity to see his Chinese friends, because his Chinese hosts insisted that "national discipline is more important than friendship. Essay en Interview Breda: De Geus, , p. I am thankful to Dr. Go Gien Tjwan for calling my attention to this document and Dr.

William Frederick for helping me with the Dutch text. In his written speech for the acceptance of the Ramon Magsaysay Award September 4, , entitled "Literature, Censorship and the State: How Dangerous are Stories? Bardsley, who has kindly informed me that this speech has been published in Suara Independen, 04, I September After the end of , Pramoedya changed from a detached writer to an active fighter; his universal humanism was replaced by devout socialist realism.

From Detachment to Involvement The first major transition of Pramoedya was political; he was transformed from a detached intellectual into a political activist. Before the end of , Pramoedya w disappointed at the results of Indonesia's postcolonial development. The feeling of frustration was a main reason for Pramoedya's aloofness from society. He not onl disassociated himself from any political organizations, but also ruled out ideologic and political means for solving Indonesia's problems.

The best way of achieving a just society, Pramoedya believed, was through cultural or social accommodation rather than through reforms in political institutions.

He was no longer preoccupied with the cultura approach to socio-political change. Instead, he came to the conclusion that politica restructuring was essential not only for solving political problems, but also for coping with the cultural quandary, which had been manifested in the "crisis in literature" debates. The new Pramoedya had an unambiguous political stance.

The significance of this essay lay not only in its timing and the forum of publication, but in its manifestation of the author's political allegiance. In addition to pledging his firm support for Sukarno's concept of political restructuring, Pramoedya unveiled his new understanding of the PKI and its role in Indonesian history.

Pramoedya admitted that in the past he had misunderstood the PKI. His anti-communist attitude, he wrote, had been formulated through reading economic and socio-political accounts by Westerners. Since Indonesian independence, Pramoedya maintained, many political parties had betrayed the people and the ideals of the revolution.

The only exception was the Communist Party, which not only held steadfastly to the revolution and distanced itself from rampant corruption, but served as the sole and true representative of the people's interests. Here Pramoedya fundamentally redefined the meaning of the people.

They were no longer faceless, undifferentiated, and passive "little guys. Over the past centuries, it has also been workers who built roads and created national wealth. However, since the transfer of sovereignty, they have been abandoned Wang Gungwu Canberra: Indonesian Politics Ithaca: Cornell University Modern Indonesia Project, Pramoedya ceased to be a disengaged intellectual who only attempted to use his pen to mirror social realities.

Instead, he started to be directly involved in the political change process as a devoted cultural radical. The February essay represented a point of no return in Pramoedya's career as a cultural intellectual. In March , Pramoedya, together with the painter Henk Ngantung and film director Kotot Sukardi, led a delegation of sixty-seven artists and writers to meet Sukarno in the National Palace, where they expressed their enthusiastic support for his "Conception.

It was a political statement for Pramoedya when he formally sided with the left-leaning political and cultural movement. From that time on, until his arrest in , Pramoedya was to be closely associated with Lekra.

Ananta pdf toer pramoedya karya

In January , shortly after coming back from his second China trip, Pramoedya was elected to Lekra's central leadership. He also served as editor of the Lentera, the literary forum of the daily Bintang Timur, which was the major cultural apparatus in the battles with non-Lekra intellectuals between and In the transition from a detached writer to a devout fighter, Pramoedya was deeply influenced by what he observed in China.

His admiration for and identification with the PRC significantly facilitated his shift to the Left.

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It was not a coincidence that Pramoedya formulated his new vision for Indonesia at the same time when he wrote extensively about Chinese cultural practice and the respected role of Chinese intellectuals. Pramoedya employed the Chinese expression "writers are the engineers of human souls" as a metaphor to demonstrate the need for intellectuals to be responsible to society and the nation. In a speech to school teachers in Padang, Pramoedya stated that "artists are architects and engineers of the nation who occupy an important place in society and in shaping national spirit.

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In this speech Pramoedya also attacked Western individualism and called for the support of Guided Democracy. In his January report to Lekra about the Tashkent Asian- African Writers Conference, Pramoedya reiterated some of the central themes he first expounded two years earlier. He admitted that in the past he had considered literature as only an expression of personal thinking, without realizing that the individual was a social entity. After acknowledging Lekra's help in shaping his views of the people, Pramoedya went on to declare that writers had an important duty in changing society.

In he planned to spend the next ten years writing a creative work and had started library research for it. This two-hundred-page meticulously documented book was written in late , at the height of the anti-Chinese movement in Indonesia.

It was composed of nine lengthy letters addressed to Chen Xiaru, which first appeared in the weekly Bintang Mingguan. In this book which was dedicated to Chen Xiaru , Pramoedya came to the defense of the Hoakiau or Huaqiao, the overseas Chinese , who were loosely referred to as those ethnic Chinese living in Indonesia.

Pramoedya argued forcefully that those Indonesians who initiated the anti-Chinese movement were motivated by their own political agendas and supported by the imperialists. By quoting extensively from Dutch, Indonesian, and English materials, he demonstrated that the Indonesian Chinese should not be viewed as foreigners, because they had long been integrated with the Indonesian people.

Pramoedya further contended that the Hoakiau had made significant contributions to Indonesia's economic, social, and cultural development; they should be taken as "comrades-in- arms" of the Indonesian people. This book's adapted Chinese translation appeared in Indonesia, China, and other Southeast Asian countries, and the PRC government praised Pramoedya's courage in seeking justice for the overseas Chinese.

From Universal Humanism to Socialist Realism Prior to the end of , Pramoedya's cultural thought had been basically within the framework of universal humanism. He had displayed a genuine concern for the disadvantaged members of Indonesian society, and "the people" in Pramoedya's creative writings were undifferentiated. Like many other members of the intellectual elite of the time, he did not see Indonesian society as being divided by class.

He also accepted the basic elite cultural tenet that the priyayi elite , no matter how imperfect they could be, were "superior" to the wong-cilik little guys. According to this view, "it is the priyayi who are depicted to be ones with idealism and dedication, while the wong-cilik when they are not depicted as 'docile' are the ones who are capable of committing atrocious acts.

As demonstrated earlier, one of the major impressions he acquired from China was the vital importance of the people in 75 Savitri Scherer, "From Culture to Politics," p.

The PRC cultural doctrine of "art should serve the people" reinforced Pramoedya's conviction that the people were not idle objects of oppression. He started paying greater attention to the theme of class differentiation within society and its cultural ramifications. This shift of focus began while he was still in the PRC. In the end of his first visit to China, Pramoedya gave a talk about Indonesian literature in Canton [Guangzhou].

A few new themes appeared to have surfaced in this speech. His translation of The White-haired Girl, a Stalin Prize-winning Chinese play depicting rural class conflicts, signaled the emergence of a newfound class consciousness. Acknowledging the importance of "living with peasants and workers" in order to accurately interpret their life, Pramoedya "went down" to the countryside of the Banten area, where he met peasants and miners at the end of The novel had a strong political coloring, depicting class confrontation between the oppressed and the exploiters.

An underlying implication was that the little guys were not merely objects of exploitation; if they united and fought against injustice their fate could be changed for the better. Although this novel was criticized as "shoddily written,"81 its political ramification overshadowed its literary imaginativeness. Pustaka Bahasa Asing, It was reported that this play was showed at Medan by Lekra's local branch.

Interview with Shannu who lived in Medan in the late s , July 8, , Peking. By the end of , Pramoedya had reached a radical break from his previous belief in universal humanism and his detached attitude toward politics. He came to subscribe unambiguously to the central notion that literature and art should be effectively used for the betterment of the life of the people.

In reformulating his visions for Indonesia, Pramoedya was profoundly inspired by his observations and understanding of PRC cultural doctrines and practices. China constituted a metaphor, not only mirroring his own disappointment at the undesirable results of Indonesia's postcolonial transformation, but serving as a viable model for what could be done.

Put in a broader context, this new Pramoedya was a product of the complex political change of the time. President Sukarno's efforts at fundamentally restructuring Indonesian political system, also partly influenced by his own favorable views of the PRC example,83 provided Pramoedya with a new domestic political framework within which his fresh insight for Indonesia could be articulated.

It was perhaps not a coincidence that Pramoedya was among the first formerly centrist intellectuals to pledge firm support for Sukarno's concept of Guided Democracy. Concluding Remarks: Partly as a result of the intensified and divisive political struggle during the early s, the debates on culture were increasingly politicized and polarized.

Pramoedya himself was keenly aware of this situation. As he put it in , The birth of Lekra sounded the deathknoll [sic] for the Generation, already in a state of serious disorder after having been infected by Dutch cultural infiltrations During the first years of its existence, the Lekra was involved in a difficult struggle to evolve the correct forms for its easthetic [sic] expression to be welded with political or ideological consciousness.

Beijing Daxue Chubanshe, , pp. The Periphery as the Center," in idem, ed.