ABRAHAM soundofheaven.info MOTIVATION. PERSONALITY. PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION. MASLOW. MOTIVATION. PERSONALITY. PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor. Motivation and Personality is a book on psychology by Abraham Maslow, first published in "The History of Positive Psychology: Truth Be Told" (PDF).
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ABRAHAM soundofheaven.info MOTIVATION. PERSONALITY. PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor ception of the human personality by reaching into the "higher" levels of. ception of the human personality by reaching into the "higher" levels of human nature. . The motivation theory presented in Chapters 3 throllgh 7, and to. Motivation and Personality by Maslow PDF Motivation and Personality by Abraham H. Maslow is one of his major works. It was first published in.
New methods. Self-Actualizing People: This chapter. Certainly this is something that we were not pteporel for fifteen or twenty years ago. In good theory there is no such entity as a need of the stomach or mouth.
Healthy persons exist even though not in great numbers. Nor do I think we can ever understand irreducible human evil until we explore more fully than I did the "incurable" sins and the shortcomings of the best human beings we can find. That is. If you demand a perfect leader or a perfect society. One remembers the little girl who.
For those who prefer seeing to being blind. Health with all its values-truth. Not only is it correct and truc. I am finding. In addition. I think that great social and educational changes could occur almost immediately if. In this sense. Severin It is more frankly normative than it was. This revised edition is an example of the increasingly firm rejection of traditionally value-free science-or rather of the futile effort to have a value-free science.
Bugental Toward a Pcychology of Being see For those who are willing to take these questions seriously enough to work hard at them. The same is true of a good marriage. Also recommended is my Psychology of Science for the same reasons.
For uneasy graduate students I would still recommend this last chapter in the first edition. Hobbesian both because of biological. Thc demonstration that wonderful people can and do exist-even though in very short suppiy.
For the reader who would like to taste for himself. I would recommend the Eupsychian Netwok. I think a good sampling of the people. Theory Y is "better" than living in a jungle society Theory X. For addresses of the appropriate schools. A positive psychology is at least available today though not very widely.
Not only arc these desired preferred. The humanistic psychologies. Preface xxiii goodness was better than evil. To some this will seem like an assault upon the science that they. Lt is possible to love one's baby even before it is born. It takes great love to be able to leave something alone. One can love it enough to trust also its becoming. This is achieved simply by enlarging our con- ception of objectivity to include not only "spectator-knowledge" laissez- faire.
There are many. I accept that their fear is sometimes well founded. I claim. A priori plans for the child. That this dichotomizing is sophomoric is at once by the simple fact that it is best to get col-recE inFormation even when you are fighting an enemy. They represent demands upon the child that it become what the purent has PDF compression. The simple model of Taoistic objectivity comes from the phenom- enology of disinterested love and admiration for the Being of the other B-love.
Embracing the one means for them necessarily rejecting the other. I believe it can be shown that normative zeal to do good. One caii love one's child that purely.. But quite beyond this self-defeating foolishness. PDF compression. Growth toward self-actualization and full-humanness is made possible by a com- plex hierarchy of "good preconditions. At many points in this book.
I too believe this: This is a humanistic-scientific version of "Not my will but Thine be done. Truth also can be born into an "invisible straitjacket. I trust that the world will be more bene- fited by the truth of the future than by the political convictions which I hold today. One can believe that the uncontaminated. Preface xxv already decided it should become.
Such a baby is born into an invisible straitjacket. I trust what will be known more than I trust my present knowledge. But this is not at all a necessity for the more Taoistic scientist who can love the truth- yet-to-be.
I have assumed that the actualization of a person's real potentialities is condi- tioned upon the pesence of basic-need satisfying parents and other people.
I am again and again astonished that so few psychologists are even aware of the work of. The scientist of course will resist these all-or-none tendencies to dichotomize and rubricize. So also will he be accused from one side of being hereditarian. Ins ead i will refer the reader to some of my writings on the subject Argyris It is now quite clear that these problems-what is the good person and what is the good society-fall well within the jurisdiction of.
The investigator here is almost certain to be caught in a cross-fire of accusations both interpersonal and intrapsychic. Organization Theory. Bennis Likert Political groups will certainly try to plaster him with one or another label.
I have written a good deal on the subject since when this book first appeared. Management Theory. He will try as hard as he can to be receptive to the data. And simultaneously one is heartened by the fact that self-actualizing persons do in fact exist.
The implications of these theories. It is possible already to start thinking about the transhuman. I wish to say a word about this book as a transition to human- istic psychology.
Preface xxvii social psychology. Immature though it yet is from a scientific point of view. Among such phenomena I include not only higher and more positive states of consciousness and of personality.
If I were to choose a single journal to recommend to the person who wishes to keep in touch with the current developments in this area. This is yet to come. Already a new Journal of Trans- personal Psychology has begun publishing on these subjects..
Without this fellowship I would not have undertaken it.
Laughlin Charitable Foundation for granting me a resident fellowship which gave me the time and freedom to do this revision. I wish also to thank Mrs. Hilda Smith. Thinking xxix PDF compression. I wish also to acknowledge with thanks the fellowship granted to me for the year by the Fund for the Advancement of Education of the Ford Foundation.
George Middendorl of Harper Row suggested to me this revised edition and now I am glad that he did. I wish to thank the many friends-too many to mention-who helped me by listening. Theoretical work of this kind-thinking problems through to their depths-is a full-time job.
Kay Pontius did not only all the secretarial work that the book entailed but helped with the Bibliography. I wish to acknowledge her hard work and to thank her for it. I have acknowledged many of my intellectual debts in my other books. Marylyn Morrell generously helped with the Bibliogra- phy. This was all donc efficiently. My wife. I wish here to thank her for her help and to marvel at her patience. Its origins are in human motives. A psychological interpretation of science begins with the acute realization that science is a human creation.
I wish first to spell out some of the more important truisms on which this thesis is based. Some implications and consequences of the thesis will then be presented. Its laws. The psychologist. The misguided effort to make believe that this is not so. To date it seems as if all other needs or desires or drives are either means to the basic ends listed above. Obviously the cognitive needs are of most concern to the philosopher of science.
The feeling of identification and belongingness with people in general. But the other motives are certainly also involved in science at all its stages. Bacon These are the needs that are best known to psychologists for the simple reason that their frustration produces psychopathology. Less studied but knowable through common observation are the cognitive needs for sheer knowledge curiosity and for understanding the philosophical.
Some people go into science. It is too often overlooked that the original theorizers of science often thought of science primarily as a means to help the human race. A chronic discrep- ancy or antagonism between conation and cognition is usually itself a product of social or individual pathology.
It may serve as a living. A fuller. Aristotle did not see that love is quite as human as reason. I refer here not only to the obvious atom bomb example but also to the more general fact that science itself implies a value system. The Greek respect for reason was not wrong but only too exclusive. It can happen that the pure. It is easily possible to have fun in science and at the same time to do good. Human nature dictates both and they need not even be dichotomized.
The occasional instances in which there is temporary conflict between cognitive need gratification and emotional need gratificaton set us a prob- lem of integration. A Psychological Approach to Science And then finally we must recognize that any other human need may serve as a primary motivation for going into science. After all. In most persons. It is safest to assume that in any single scientist his work is motivated not only by love. The noni-ational is not necessarily irrational or antirational.
Man's need for love or for respect is quite as "sacred" as hi need for the truth. Science for science's sake can be just as sick as art for art's sake. Impulse is not necessarily in contrast with intelligent judgment. This is not less true for tastes in fields of science. Some seek safety in science. It is also true. WTe can differentiate out in science at least the following functions: Its problem-seeking questionasking. Its administrative.
Its history-collecting. Tastes reflect and express character and personality. Its testing. Its publicizing and educational functions 8. Some like trail breaking and pioneering. Its technological side. Just as we can approve of marriage in general and still leave individual choices to individual tastes. No Inore than we can describe the ideal wife can we describe the ideal science or scientist.
Its organizing. There is some- thing in science for all. Divi- sion of labor calls for different kinds of people. Some seek lawfulness primarily. Its applications to human uses 9.
Some seek in it immediately humanistic ends. Even the schizo- phrenic can be peculiarly useful. Clearly we need the same kind of tolerance and accept- ance of individual differences among scientists as we do in other human realms. The monistic pressure is a real langer in science because of the fact that often "knowledge about the human species" really means only "knowl- edge about oneself.
So does science in its broadest sense become possible through differences in taste. Since science as an institution is partly a magnified projection of certain aspects of human nature. We may quite reasonably expect them. It is fortunate that we have different tastes in scientific pursuits in the same way that it is fortunate that not all of us love the same climate or the same musical instrument. We all complement and need each other in science.
If everyone pre- ferred physics to biology. Because some like violins. Science needs all kinds of people I say this rather than. The gratification of any such need is a "value. Of course even more primary are the questions we have already nien- tioned. Human emotional. Motivation and Personality in our culture. By contamination.
The aesthetic satisfactions of succinctness. Such a statement must include also the most generalized tendencies of all human beings to abstract. These are quite al art from the fact that as scientists we share the basic values of our culture and probably will always have to. This exclusion is quite as necessary today as it was at the time of the Renais- sance because we still want our facts as uncontaminated as possible. I mean the confusion of psychic determinants with reality determinants.
Clearly "objectivity" and "disinterested observations" are phrases that need redefining The study of values. If organized religion today is only a feeble threat to science in our country.
A philosophy is not constructed in the same way as a bridge. Granted that the ideal of science is to reduce to a minimum these human determinants of theory. It should reassure the uneasy pure scientist to know that the point of all this disquieting talk about values is to achieve more efficiently his goal.
A family and a crystal must be studied in different ways. We must understand that while nature gives us clues to classification. We must often create or impose a classifica. The human being. The fact that humans live in the natural world does not mean that their rules and laws need to be the same.
To organize our perceptions under various rubrics "to rubricize" in this way is desirable and useful in some ways and is undesirable and harmful in other ways. Lion upon nature. This we do in accordance not only with nature's sug- gestions but also in accordance with our own human nature. A Psychological Approach o Science 7 and reshuffle it in accordance with human interests. To know this reality as it is rather than as we should like it to be. This is the reality that would persist if all human beings disappeared-a not impossible happening.
This nonhuman reality is independent of the wishes and needs of human beings. Kant was certainly correct in claiming that we can never fully know PDF compression. The classical example is the therapist who made the salite mistake through his whole life time and then called it "rich clinical experience.
The scientist who is also something of a poet. If scientists are determined in part by cultural variables. If we are led by this psychological pluralism to think of Science as an orchestation of diverse talents.
If he is supposed to be turning out bicycles. The philosopher of sci- ence who occupies himself with criticism and analysis of the concepts of I Perhaps the main differences today between the idealized artist and thc idealized scientist can be phrased in tite following way: There are results by which his claims can be judged.
To what extent science needs the contribution of men of other cultures. These last functions are ordinarily the exclusive responsibility of tite scientist. Ritt tite teacher. The creative artist.. In this respect. But while this makes the point that the scientist-nonscientist dichot- omy is. The man who teaches chemistry in a junior college considers himself a chemist even though he has never discovered anything new in chemistry.
The generalized. The clinical psychologist or the physician who makes a careful study of the individual case may get more nutrition from the novelist than from his abstracting.
In a word we may expect the scientist who is also a bit of an artist to be a better scientist than his colleague who is not also a bit of an artist. Yet he will wish to call himself a scientist. The historian of science may be either a historian or a scientist.
The drama- List or poet who presents an organized theory of human nature is certainly closer to the psychologist than the latter is to the engineer. A Psychological Approach to Science science is surely closer to the scientist who is also interested in pure theory than the latter is to the purely technological scientist. He may be less a scientist than a bright year-old student who is systematically curious in his basement.
Our great PDF compression. If we use the case-history method. One cannot even tise as a criterion the pursuit of experimental research. In what respect does the chairman of a research institute remain a scientist? I see no way of sharply defining off scientists from nonscientists.
II you don't have the time. First of all the scien- tist or better. This chapter. IO Motivation an 1 Personality scientific figures ordinarily have had extensive interests and certainly have not been narrow technologists. From Aristotle to Einstein.
We must conclude that a psychological pluralism in science teaches us that there are many paths to knowledge and truth. There are at least three implications of this fact. We already acknowledge as a fact that better social conditions tend to help the searcher for knowledge by our pressure for academic freedom. The neurotic person distorts reality.
A Reconnaissance Personal Knowledge by Michael Polanyi If you have not studied this book. In its unsophisticated form. Almost any candidate for the Ph.
This chapter will attempt to show that many of the weaknesses of orthodox science and particularly of psychology are consequences of a means.
By means centering. With the one major exception of Lynd's brilliant analysis Q Through the last decade or two. Means centering at the highest intel- lectual levels usually takes the form of making synonyms of science and scientific method. I refer to the tendency to consider that the essence of science lies in its instruments.
It is not usually stressed that good research ideas are also desirable. Some ober specialist might sooner or later make use of them. Once he forgets this. What mattered was that the facts that they found had not been known before.
The student is encouraged to identify science with directed manipulations of apparatus. Modern Library. I wish only to point out that even in science. A methodologically satisfactory experiment. Harper k Row. I do not wish to underplay method.. The Ph. As a consequence it is possible for completely and obviously uncreative people to become "scientists.
Original research they called. The specialists in all the universities wrote for one another. The working scientist must. I do not recall seeing.
Indeed criticism in the scientific literature seems usually to mean only criticism of method. Thus Spake Zarathustra. A bold.
Nowhere is he taught that a scientist is different from a technician or from a reader of books about science. It is easy to misunderstand the point of these contentions. It is only the goals or ends of science that dignify and validate its methods.
Means centering lends to push into a commanding position in sci- i "But even the scholars were likely to work most at big monographs on little subjects. Three 11'orlds. Without wishing to create an extreme and unreal dichotomy. Means Centering in Science 13 ence the technicians. From the point of view of a problem- 2 "We tend to do the things that we know how to do. Means-centered scientists tend. Such an assumption of hierarchy is possible only on the basis of elegance.
Ultimately this must remind us of the famous drunk who looked for his wallet. This trend is doubly dangerous because laymen under. While such people have been no more than a nuisance in the past. This must be true because of the greater stress of means-centered science on how statements are made rather than on what is said.. Elegance and precision are then counterposed to pertinence and breadth of implication. Which are the most pressing.
Science and Man. How else explain the fact that most run-of-the-mill scientists spend their life-times in a small area whose boundaries are defined.
Their beginning question tends to be Which problems can I attack with the techniques and equipment I now possess? These former individuals. Means centering tends strongly to overvalue quantification indis- criminately and as an end in itself. Means centering tends strongly to create a hierarchy of sciences.
And it would be well for science if it had more men like Loeb. If we define science as a search for truth. It is the questions that we do not know. But these desiderata are clearly discouraged by the philosophy that makes the scientist into a tech- nician and an expert rather than a venturesome truth seeker.
And yet it would clearly be better for science if this gap between the scientist and the poet and the philosopher were less abysmal than it is today. Means centering in science creates too great a cleavage between scien- tists and other truth seekers. Means centering simply puts them into different realms. If scientists looked on themselves as question askers and problem solvers rather than specialized technicians. Means centering tends to compartmentalize the sciences too strongly.
J acques Loeb. The Hamlet of il. Why is it that there is so little traffic across these departmental borders? How does it happen that a hundred scientists prosecute physical or chemical research for every dozen who pursue the psychological problems?
Which would be better for mankind. The biographies of most great "You must love the questions themselves"-Rilke. If the laws of scientific method have already been formulated. Tradition in science can be a dangerous blessing.. Such an attitude is especially dangerous for the psychological and social sciences.
These then are termed the "laws of scientific method. Means Centering in Science 15 scientists show that the latter is more nearly true than the former.
How PDF compression. Gestalt psychology. Hence we have the tendency among many psychologists and social scientists to imi- tate old techniques rather than to create andinvent the new ones made necessary by the fact that their degree of development.
Here the injunction to he truly scientific is usually trans- lated as: Use the techniques of the physical and life sciences. The question of the past are no longer questions. The expectation of such hostility probably is partly to blame for the fact that there have not yet been invented the relational.
The ques- tions of the future have not yet come into existence. Problem Gen cling s. Questions and problems in science can rarely be formulated. Ror- schach testing. New methods. Many of the greatest scientists have themselves been also artists and philosophers. But it is possible to formulate and classify the methods and techniques of the past. In the hands of he less creative.
Loyalty is an unqualified peril. Is it implied that the psychologists are stupid and tise physicists intelligent?
But on what grounds can such an PDF compression. Orthodoxy means the denial of help to the heterodox. What can we do with scientific method as we know it? Since few of the heterodox. On what possible basis could tisis statement have been made if not an exclusive respect loi. This tendency can go to the most incredible and dangerous extremes. When there is no collaboration. How shall I as a psychologist translate this and other similar jibes from my physicist friends?
Ought I to tise their techniques? But these arc useless for my problems. How would that get the psychological prob- lems solved? Ought they not be solved? Or ought scientists to abdicate from the field completely and give it back to tise theologians? Or is there perhaps ais ad Ilosnz?. We may expect heterodox ideas to be held tip for long periods of weary neglect or opposition. Not only does it block the development of new tech- niques.
It forces conserva- tive rather than radical approaches to the not-yet-known. Methods are ethically neutral. Which impression is more valid? I am afraid that I can see no other possible explanation except one that covertly gives the primary place to technique-perhaps the only place.
I'roblem Centering vs. It makes the normal business of the scientist seem to be moving ahead inch by inch on the well-laid-out road rather than cutting new paths through the unknown. Overstress on methods and techniques encourages scientists to think 1 that they are more objective and less subjective than they actually are. Tue Yogi and Ehe Corn missar. It tends to make him into a settler rather than a pioncer. This is where a problem- oriented science would have him be as often as necessary.
Means-centered orthodoxy encourages scientists to be "safe and sound" rather than bold and daring. But as we have seen in Chapter 1. And this is where he is discouraged from going by a means-stressing approach to -science.
Not only does the neurotic pay a huge sub- jective price for his vain attempt. Means Centering in Science 17 inherently improbable statement be iiiade?
Then I must report my impression that there arc as many fools in any one scientific group as in any other. One way of avoiding the problem of values is to stress the techniques of science rather than the goals of science. All the mistakes listed in this chapter and in the previous one attest to the dangers of attempting to neglect the short- comings of human nature.
To raise new questions. Lion and marks real advance in science. There could be only technically well-prosecuted experi- ments and technically poorly prosecuted experiments. If science were no more than a set of rules and procedures. The journals of science are full of instances that illustrate the point.. An inquiry concerning the characteristics of man. Of course. If means-centering philosophies were ex- treme which they rarely are.
Simon and Schuster. The Evolution of Physics.
These I feel need re. Some of these propositions are so true as to be platitudinous. Others may be found less acceptable and more debatable.
Dealing with John Smith's hunger as a function merely of his gas- trointestinal tract has made experimenters neglect the fact that when an 19 PDF compression. Furthermore satisfaction comes to the whole indi- vidual and not just to a part of him. This theoretical statement is usually accepted piously enough by psythologists. That it is an experimental reality as well as a theoretical one must be realized before sound experimentation and sound motiva- tion theory are possible.
Food satisfies John Smith's hunger and not his stomach's hunger. It is John Smith who wants food. In good theory there is no such entity as a need of the stomach or mouth. In motivation theory this proposition means many specific things. There is only a need of the individual.
It is fair to predict now that this will never be. What are the more common immediate motiva- tions? We can find these easily enough by introspecting during the course of an average day.
In actuality these are far more important for us and they are far more common. The typical drive or need or desire is not and probably never will be related to a specific. His memories change he is more apt to remember a good meal at this time than at other times. The typical desire is much more obviously a need of the whole person.
Customarily these have been phrased as secondary or cultural drives and have been regarded as of a different order from the truly "respectable" or primary drives. Hi emotions change he is more tense and nervous dian he is at other times. It would therefore be well to make one of them paradigm rather than the hunger drive.
And this list can be extended to almost every other faculty. In other words. The common assumption lias been that all drives will follow the example set by the physiological drives. It would be far better to take as a model for re- search such a drive. It can be seen upon closer analysis that the hunger drive is more a special case of moti- vation than a general oiic. The content of his thinking changes he is more apt to think of getting food than of solving an algebraic problem.
His perceptions change lic will perceive food more readily than he will at other times. The PDF compression. Considering all the evidence now in hand. Indeed a stronger statement is possible. The study of symptoms in themselves is quite unim- portant.
The appearance of simplicity can be obtained by selecting isolated cases. Usually when a conscious de- sire is analyzed we find that we can go behind it. Why then take an activity that is not at all average in this sense. In turn we want an automobile because the neighbors have one and we do not wish to feel inferior to them.
We want money so that we may have an automobile. The hunger drive. It is well in this connection to recall the critical analysis of the con- cept of simplicity that has been made so often by the Gestalt psychologists. Preface to Motivation Theory 21 fundamental one. An important activity can easily be shown to have dynamic relationships with almost everything else of importance in the person.
The symptoms are important. It may then be that. Since these goals are not often seen directly in consciousness. These facts imply another necessity for sound motivation theory. In other words then. It is characteristic of this deeper analysis that it will always lead ultimately to certain goals or needs behind which we cannot go. The main reason for this is that two different cultures may provide two completely different ways of satisfying a particular desire.
Apparently ends in themselves are far more universal than the roads taken to achieve those ends. Psychoanalysis has often demonstrated that the relationship between a conscious desire and the ultimate unconscious aim that underlies it need not be at all direct. We may then assert that sound motivation theory cannot possibly afford to neglect the unconscious life. In one society. We may then assert that it would be more useful for psychologists to combine these two seemingly disparate conscious desires into the same category rather than to Ilift them into different categories on purely behavioral grounds.
Careful study of the conscious motivational life alone will often leave out much that is as important as or even more important than what can be seen in consciousness. These needs have the particular quality in the average person of not being seen directly' very often but of being more often a kind of conceptual derivation from the multiplicity of specific conscious desires.
Indeed the relationship may actually be a negative one. But we now know that this is not correct. Such a feeling has repercussions throughout the whole organism both in its somatic and PDF compression. Let us emphasize that it is unusual. A static psychology would be content to put a period to this statement.
In one individual sexual desire may actually mean the desire to assure himself of his masculinity. Consciously the sexual desire in all these individuals may have the same content.
To take either the conscious wish in the first example or the overt symptom in the second in a purely behavioral fashion means that we arbitrarily throw out the possibility of a total understanding of the behavior and of the motivational state of the individual. Another line of evidence supporting this same point is the finding that a single psychopathological symptom may represent at one and the same time several different.
A hysterically para- lyzed arm may represent the fulfillment of simultaneous wishes for revenge. There are several ways of showing this. This holds true for either preparatory or consummatory behavior. Preface to Motivation Theoy 23 roads are determined locally in the specific culture. It may in other individuals represent fundamentally a desire to impress. But a dynamic psychology would imply very many more things by this statement with full empirical justification.
Human beings are more alike than one would think at first. Sound motivational theory should. We should never have the desire to compose music or create mathematical systems. It is a characteristic of the human being throughout hi whole life that he is practically always desiring something.
This appearance practically always depends on the state of satisfaction or dissatisfaction of all other motivations that the total or- ganism may have. Current conceptions of motivation proceed ordinarily. As one desire is satisfied. We are faced then with the necessity for studying the relationships of all the motiva- tions to each other and we are concoittitantly faced with tise necessity of giving up the motivational units in isolation if we are to achieve the broad understanding that we seek for.
Wanting anything in itself implies already existing satisfactions of other wants. Preface to Motivation Theory 25 Proper respect has never been paid by the constructors of motivation theories to either of these facts: Or another analogy might be that of a description of a histological section under various degrees of magnification. They arrange them- selves rather in a hierarchy of specificity.
This is incorrect because the probability of any one desire emerging into con- sciousness depends on the state of satisfaction or dissatisfaction of other prepotent desires.. Thus we can speak of a need for gratification or equilibrium.
Of course they are not isolated in any such fashion. With such a con- fusion it is understandable that some lists should contain three or four PDF compression. Secondly such a listing implies an isolatedness of each of these drives born each of the others.
There are great differences in probability of appear. Such listings are foolish also because drives do not range themselves in an arithmetical sum of isolated. For several different reasons such lists are theoretically unsound. First of all they imply an equality of the various drives that are listed. The true picture is not one of a great many sticks lying side by side. What is meant by this is that the number of drives one chooses to list depends entirely on the degree of specificity with which one chooses to analyze them.
Considerations that we have already dis- cussed should support this statement without much further proof.
It is only the fundamental goals that remain constant through all the flux that a dynamic approach forces upon psychological theorizing. But there is not mutual exclusiveness. An individual going through the whole process of sexual desire. It should also be pointed out in any critique of drive theory that the very concept of drive itself probably emerges from a pre- occupation with the physiological needs.
It is very easy in dealing with these needs to separate the instigation. The specific goal object is not a good basis for classification for the same reason. The drive as it appears introspec- tively in consciousness. There is usually such an overlapping that it is almost impossible to separate quite clearly and sharply any one drive from any other.
Cer- tainly motivated behavior is not a good basis for classification. A human being having a desire for food. If we wished. Here the drive. But it is not easy to distinguish the drive from the goal object when we talk of a desire for love.
There are certain further considerations that are pertinent to my contention that motivation theory must be anthropocentric rather than aiimalcentric.
As we go up the phyletic scale there is a steady trend toward disappearance of the instincts so defined. Preface to Motivation Theory 27 foundation on which to base a dynamic classification of the motivational life of the human being.
In the human being. Young arbitrarily excluded the concept of purpose or goal from motivation theory because we cannot ask a rat for his purpose: Is it necessary to point out that we can ask a human being for his purpose?
Instead of rejecting purpose or goal as a concept because we cannot ask the rat about it. It is a truism to say that a white rat is not a human being. In the monkey the sexual instinct has definitely disappeared. Thus if we examine the sexual life of the human being we find that sheer drive itself is given by heredity but that the choice of object and the choice of behavior must be acquired or learned in the course of the life history. First let us discuss the concept of instinct. Once this is granted it remains to caution the theorizer against too great preoccupation with the exterior.
Psychologically there is no such thing as a barrier. Any theory of motivation must of course take account of this fact.
It is my impression that extreme or exclusive situation theory flour- PDF compression. We must remember that the individual partly creates his barriers and his objects of value. It certainly must be pointed out that a child who is trying to attain a certain object of value to him. It is now necessary to say at least a word about the situation or environment in which the organism finds itself.
That is to say there is much less variability. Our central object of study here is. If then we have to use animal data let us realize these facts. Harlow and many other primatologists have amply demonstrated Finally as we go up the phyletic scale and as the instincts drop away there is more and more dependence on the culture as an adaptive tool.
We must certainly grant at once that human motivation rarely actualizes itself in behavior except in relation to the situation and to other people. I know of no way of defining or describing a field universally in such a way that this description can be independent of the particular organism functioning within it. It is easy to go to thc'cxtreme in situation theory of making the organism just one additional object in the field.
But when the threat is overwhelming or when the organism is too weak or helpless to manage it. To avoid unnecessary argument. Maslow's book is perhaps the best known contemporary work on human needs. Maslow postulated a hierarchical pyramid of human needs stretching from basic physical needs at the bottom to spiritual or transcendental needs at the top.
In Motivation and Personality , Maslow argues that, in order for individuals to thrive and excel, a health-fostering culture must be created.
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