Moisture Distributions and the Hydraulic Diffusivity of Hardened Cement Pastes Modified by Partial Replacement with Condensed Silica-Fume. Fairhurst, D. SP Design Aids for Reinforced Concrete to IS byBureau of Indian that govern them. (For more information: 12 Tables of Code). Download SP 16 (): Design Aids for Reinforced Concrete to IS IS Code Book (Indian Standards) – We have compiled a Best.

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Building Code and various Indian Standards and other activities in the One of the explanatory handbooks identified is on IS: Code of practice for. IS (): Plain and Reinforced Concrete - Code of. Practice ( R••fflrmed , and it includedlimit state approach to design. This is the. 4 Fintel (Mark). it refers to IS: Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete (third revision). Ed. 4 Notations as per IS: are maintained.

From Table I. The line for fs. Universities Press. The values of Permissible bends as given in Table 67 are applicable shear stress in concrete are given in Table The strain in steel at the limit state of collapse will. New search for: Percentage of compression direct compression PC reinforcement.

Jn these tables. The total and the design moment exceeds the moment tensile reinforcement Ast is given by.. Since the additional tensile force is balanced by the additional compressive force.

Given the values taken as equal to x. The lever arm for the additional moment of centage. Actual bending moment of 9. As shown in Fig. The depth of neutral axis is. It will be noticed that we need the values of ment. Referring to Chart 4. Doubly reinforced sections are generally adopted A. Referring to Churf PO. Referring to Chart 2. Muslim XU. When the reinforcement is cold.

Actual moment of kN. Referring to Chart The section is to be designed as a doubly error. Values of Aat? These charts have been prepared for From Table D. Tables are given of 0. Tables 57 to 59 for three grades of steel. The The expression Bven in E The maximum moment of resistance is ob. When the flange thick-. When the thickness of flange is small.. Eorted 20 ness is greater than about 0. For simply supported or continuous spans larger than 10 m.

When drop panels conforming to A separate chart is drawn for ensure that they do. Such charts have been prepared. The factors and given in a form suitable for direct tn. In the case of cantilevers which are longer sion reinforcement Fig. Hence Example 4 Control of Deflection the span to effective depth ratio for doubly reinforced section is plotted Check whether the depth of the member against the tensile reinforcement in the following cases is adequate for control- percentage pt without specifically ling deflection: For continuous spans strength considerations.

Nom --The above method for flanged beams culated and then the percentage of alay sometimes give anomalous mwlts. Further modifying factors are given in In the chart. The percentage of compres. Actual ratio of span to effective depth is:. Actual ratio of span to effective depth is tion. For continuous slab. Cl Slab. Max value of 1 less than the allowable value. The section is satisfactory for control over a span of 4.

Therefore Span the section may be slightly modified or actual b Actual ratio of deflection calculations may be made to as- Etfective depth certain whether it is within permissible limits.

O O O 1. O O O l 1. O 0. E Ffg l o 0. YZ O o 3.

O O 8: Blanks indicate inadmissible reinforcement percentage see Table E. Blanksindicateinadmissible reinforcement pyceniage see TableE. This is particularly useful as an aid for deciding the sizes of columns All compression members arc to be designed at the preliminary design stage of multi- for a minimum eccentricity of load in two sforeyed buildings.

Clause After determining the eccentricity, the section The cross-sectional dimensions required will should be designed for combined axial load depend on the percentage of reinforcement.

However, as a simplifi- Assuming 1. Provide a section of 60 x 45 cm. Dividing both sides by A,, In the direction of the shorter dimension, 3. Hence the design of equations.

In the lower section of these the section by the simplified method of The combined use of the upper and pression members should be designed for. For purely axial compression, the for a moment which is not lessthan that due strain is assumed to be uniformly equal to the prescribedtinimum eccentricity. The strairidistributionlines for these 3. This to combined axial load and bending.

Z b of the Cole],. Neutral axis wlthln the scctlon. The centroid of the stress block will be found by taking moments about the highly compressed edge.

For diier- ent values of k. When the neutral axis lies outside the section. D-5 g 4.

Considering the geometric properties it b merally adaquatato considervalues of k up to about 1. For constructionof interactiond cams edge. D is the distance of the centroid of the corresponding to concrete grade M20 has concrete stress block.

The stresses in the rein- forcement are also calculated from the i. Thereafter the resultant axial force and the moment about the centroid b When the neutral axis lies within the of the section are calculated as follows: Yi The second term within parenthesis repre.

The above expression can be written as pression. An accurate Yi is the distance from the centroid of the consideration of this term will necessitate section to the ith row of reinforce- the preparation of separate Charts for each ment. Thus we get the following r. This term is where usually neglected for convenience. OCd For each position of neutral axis. Ad Pi. Dividing both sides of the equation by 3. The line for fs.

The Charts for the reinforcement latter case have been prepared for a section Factored load kN with 20 bars equally distributed on all sides. The Charts for reinforcement: For points below this Percentage of reinforcement. Bending ing low values of k in the expressions given earlier.

An approximation is made for the value only. Assuming 25 mm bars with 40 mm cover. For the case of purely axial tension. Charts city to be less than the actual moment. Example 6 Square Column with Uniaxial hence the section is divided into strips and Bending summation is done for determining the forces and moments due to the stresses in Determine the reinforcement to be provided concrete.

For control which may be important for tension circular sections the procedure is same as members. Determine the reinforcement to be pro- vided in a circular column with the following Pu. According to Assuming 8 mm dia bars for the helix. Ash is the area of the bar forming the helix and sh is the pitch of the helix. From Chart Volume of helical reinforcement Volume of core Assuming 25 mm bars with 40 mm cover.

Chart 63 can be used for evaluating Puz. MUYl are the maximum uniaxial Hence. ExampIe 8 Rectangular colrmu. Moments due to minimum eccentricity are A6. Though this modification is optional ac- cording to the Code. The expression for k can be written as follows: Effective length for 5. In and i. The values given in Table 60 The expressions for the additional moments are based on the same assumptions as for can be written in the form of eccentricities members with axial load and uniaxial bending.

Determine the reinforcement required for a column which is restrained against sway. Example 9 Slender Column with biaxial Table 1 gives the values b or 3 for bending different values of slenderness ratio.

Code and greater value is to be taken as the initial moment for adding the additional For first trial. The additional moments calculated earlier. For Lz P Total moments for which the column used. Calculation of Pb: Moments due to minimum eccentricity: From Table I. Factored moment in the 30 kN.

Pu k. The assumed reinforcement of 3. Valora of k. For a bent up bar.. Separate Charts or Tables are not given 4.

The values the axis of the member. Example 10 Shear When rv exceeds 7c. After determining these. Vu kN 4. The multiplying given in the Code are based on the following factor works out to 1. The method of design for bd torsion is illustrated in Example Determine the reinforcements required for As the depth of the beam is more than a rectangular beam section with the following 45 cm.

W cm- V. As Mt is less than MU. Providing one Size of the beam 30 Y 6Ocm bar at the middle of each side.. Equivalent shear. Transverse reinforcement see Shear to be carried by stirrups. Hence longitudinal and transverse reinforcc. C yJ4 and mm.

E 1. The tables contain the where development length values for bars in tension as well as compression.

In the case of bars in tension. The anchorage reinforcement. Hooks and binds shall conform to the details given above. Clause 6. It is independent of a. Gil l-k 5. These charts have been l-ii made in accordance with Astt FIG. The compression reinforcement can be ex- 6. The table includes two values of ust. The Tables cover four grades of concrete and five values of uu. Tables are given for four grades of concrete and two grades of steel. The stress in the compression reinforcement is taken Values of this ratio have been tabulated for as I.

Doubly pressed as a ratio of the additional tensile reinforced sections are adopted when the reinforcement area Altp. The method of calculating development no design aids are given for designing such length is the same as given under limit state members-. The difference is only in the values of bond stresses. Development lenaths for 6. The method of design for shear and torsion by working stress method are similar to the Anchorage value of standard hoolcs and limit state method.

The values of Permissible bends as given in Table 67 are applicable shear stress in concrete are given in Table E O 0. O l iFg O l O 1. O O 0. O I. ALE l l 0. PC- 1. E O 1. E 2. O O x O O Sixty percent of the above moment is due to d is the effective depth. From 5. Span of cantilever 4. Deflections due to shrinkage and creep can is the cracking moment. Z of the Code. For flanged sections where the flange is in compression. Zmis the moment of inertia of the gross section neglecting the re.

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