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You can access many free to download PDF Civil Engineering Ready-made Project Construction of a Culverts Project Report for BTech Civil Engineering. of civil engineering and infrastructure projects; this guidance provides . Project/ contract managers will be required to report back on project performance to the. PDF | On Jun 1, , Theo Haupt and others published Report on Construction Management and Civil Engineering Education at Universities of Technology.
Bahria town Karachi is the most prestigious project of bahria town ever. Drinking water is part of making water suitable for living. The phases can be broken down by functional or partial objectives, intermediate results or deliverables, specific milestones within the overall scope of work, or financial availability. People from other city of Pakistan moving in Karachi for living better lifestyle and better opportunities, this has increase the demand of houses, apartments and lands to accommodate them. Low cost 2.
A project may also be terminated if the client customer, sponsor, or champion wishes to terminate the project. Temporary does not necessarily mean the duration of the project is short. Temporary does not typically apply to the product, service, or result created by the project; most projects are undertaken to create a lasting outcome.
For example, a project to build a national monument will create a result expected to last for centuries. Projects can also have social, economic, and environmental impacts that far outlive the projects themselves. Every project creates a unique product, service, or result.
The outcome of the project may be tangible or intangible. Although repetitive elements may be present in some project deliverables and activities, this repetition does not change the fundamental, unique characteristics of the project work. For example, office buildings can be constructed with the same or similar materials and by the same or different teams. However, each building Project remains unique with a different location, different design, different circumstances and situations, different stakeholders, and so on.
In contrast, because of the unique nature of projects, there may be uncertainties or differences in the products, services, or results that the project creates. Project activities can be new to members of a project team, which may necessitate more dedicated planning than other routine work.
In addition, projects are undertaken at all organizational levels. A project can involve a single individual or multiple individuals, a single organizational unit, or multiple organizational units from multiple organizations.
A project can create: The relationship among portfolios, programs, and projects is such that a portfolio refers to a collection of projects, programs, sub portfolios, and operations managed as a group to achieve strategic objectives. Programs are grouped within a portfolio and are comprised of subprograms, projects, or other work that are managed in a coordinated fashion in support of the portfolio.
Individual projects that are either within or outside of a program are still considered part of a portfolio. As Figure below illustrates, organizational strategies and priorities are linked and have relationships between portfolios and programs, and between programs and individual projects.
Organizational planning can direct the management of resources, and support for the component projects on the basis of risk categories, specific lines of business, or general types of projects, such as infrastructure and process improvement.
Structured approach for project execution that requires application of three sets of knowledge: Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.
Project management is accomplished through the These five Process Groups are: Managing a project typically includes, but is not limited to: The specific project characteristics and circumstances can influence the constraints on which the project management team needs to focus.
The relationship among these factors is such that if any one factor changes, at least one other factor is likely to be affected. For example, if the schedule is shortened, often the budget needs to be increased to add additional resources to complete the same amount of work in less time. Project stakeholders may have differing ideas as to which factors are the most important, creating an even greater challenge. Changing the project requirements or objectives may create additional risks.
The project team needs to be able to assess the situation, balance the demands, and maintain proactive communication with stakeholders in order to deliver a successful project. Progressive elaboration involves continuously improving and detailing a plan as more detailed and specific information and more accurate estimates become available. Progressive elaboration allows a project management team to define work and manage it to a greater level of detail the project evolves.
A program is defined as a group of related projects, subprograms, and program activities managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits not available from managing them individually.
Programs may include elements of related work outside the scope of the discrete projects in the program. A project may or may not be part of a program but a program will always have projects. Program management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to a program in order to meet the program requirements and to obtain benefits and control not available by managing projects individually.
Projects within a program are related through the common outcome or collective capability. If the relationship between projects is only that of a shared client, seller, technology, or resource, the effort should be managed as a portfolio of projects rather than as a program.
Program management focuses on the project interdependencies and helps to determine the optimal approach for managing them.
Actions related to these interdependencies may include: An example of a program is a new communications satellite system with projects for design of the satellite and the ground stations, the construction of each, the integration of the system, and the launch of the satellite.
The project manager is the person assigned by the performing organization to lead the team that is responsible for achieving the project objectives. The role of a project manager is distinct from a functional manager or operations manager.
Typically the functional manager is focused on providing management oversight for a functional or a business unit, and operations managers are responsible for ensuring that business operations are efficient. Depending on the organizational structure, a project manager may report to a functional manager. In other cases, a project manager may be one of several project managers who report to a program or portfolio manager who is ultimately responsible for enterprise-wide projects.
In this type of structure, the project manager works closely with the program or portfolio manager to achieve the project objectives and to ensure the project management plan aligns with the overarching program plan. The project manager also works closely and in collaboration with other roles, such as a business analyst, quality assurance manager, and subject matter experts.
In general, project managers have the responsibility to satisfy the needs: As project management is a critical strategic discipline, the project manager becomes the link between the strategy and the team. Projects are essential to the growth and survival of organizations.
Projects create value in the form of improved business processes, are indispensable in the development of new products and services, and make it easier for companies to respond to changes in the environment, competition, and the marketplace. However, understanding and applying the knowledge, tools, and techniques that are recognized as good practice are not sufficient for effective project management.
In addition to any area-specific skills and general management proficiencies required for the project, effective project management requires that the project manager possess the following competencies: Personal effectiveness encompasses attitudes, core personality characteristics, and leadership, which provides the ability to guide the project team while achieving project objectives and balancing the project constraints.
Project managers accomplish work through the project team and other stakeholders. Effective project managers require a balance of ethical, interpersonal, and conceptual skills that help them analyze situations and interact appropriately.
Appendix X3 on Interpersonal Skills describes important interpersonal skills, such as: A stakeholder is an individual, group, or organization who may affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision, activity, or outcome of a project. Stakeholders may be actively involved in the project or have interests that may be positively or negatively affected by the performance or completion of the project.
Different stakeholders may have competing expectations that might create conflicts within the project. Stakeholders may also exert influence over the project, its deliverables, and the project team in order to achieve a set of outcomes that satisfy strategic business objectives or other needs.
Project governance enables organizations to consistently manage projects and maximize the value of project outcomes and align the projects with business strategy. It provides a framework in which the project manager and sponsors can make decisions that satisfy both stakeholder needs and expectations and organizational strategic objectives or address circumstances where these may not be in alignment. The project team includes the project manager and the group of individuals who act together in performing the work of the project to achieve its objectives.
The project team includes the project manager, project management staff, and other team members who carry out the work but who are not necessarily involved with management of the project. This team is comprised of individuals Project teams include roles such as: The members of the team who perform project management activities such as scheduling, budgeting, reporting and control, communications, risk management and administrative support.
This role may be performed or supported by a project management office PMO. The members of the team who carry out the work of creating the project deliverables. Supporting experts perform activities required to develop or execute the project management plan. These can include such roles as contracting, financial management, logistics, legal, safety, engineering, test, or quality control. Depending on the size of the project and level of support required, supporting experts may be assigned to work full time or may just participate on the team when their particular skills are required.
Sellers, also called vendors, suppliers, or contractors, are external companies that enter into a contractual agreement to provide components or services necessary for the project. Business partners are also external companies, but they have a special relationship with the enterprise, sometimes attained through a certification process.
Business partners provide specialized expertise or fill a specified role such as installation, customization, training, or support. A project life cycle is the series of phases that a project passes through from its initiation to its closure.
The phases are generally sequential, and their names and numbers are determined by the management and control needs of the organization or organizations involved in the project, the nature of the project itself, and its area of application. The phases can be broken down by functional or partial objectives, intermediate results or deliverables, specific milestones within the overall scope of work, or financial availability.
Phases are generally time bounded, with a start and ending or control point. A life cycle can be documented within a methodology.
The project life cycle can be determined or shaped by the unique aspects of the organization, industry, or technology employed. While every project has a definite start and a definite end, the specific deliverables and activities that take place in between will vary widely with the project. Project life cycles can range along a continuum from predictive or plan-driven approaches at one end to adaptive or change-driven approaches at the other.
Projects vary in size and complexity. All projects can be mapped to the following generic life cycle structure Starting the project, Organizing and preparing, Carrying out the project work, and Closing the project. This generic life cycle structure is often referred to when communicating with upper management or other entities less familiar with the details of the project.
It should not be confused with the Project Management Process Groups, because the processes in a Process Group consist of activities that may be performed and recur within each phase of a project as well as for the project as a whole.
The project life cycle is independent from the life cycle of the product produced by or modified by the project. However, the project should take the current life-cycle phase of the product into consideration. This high-level view can provide a common frame of reference for comparing projects even if they are dissimilar in nature. This application of knowledge requires the effective management of the project management processes. A process is a set of interrelated actions and activities performed to create a pre-specified product, service, or result.
Each process is characterized by its inputs, the tools and techniques that can be applied, and the resulting Outputs.
The project manager needs to consider organizational process assets and enterprise environmental factors. These should be taken into account for every process, even if they are not explicitly listed as inputs in the process specification. Enterprise environmental factors may constrain the project management options.
In order for a project to be successful, the project team should: The project processes are performed by the project team with stakeholder interaction and generally fall into one of two major categories: These processes ensure the effective flow of the project throughout its life cycle.
These processes encompass the tools and techniques involved in applying the skills and capabilities. Product oriented processes are typically defined by the project life cycle and vary by application area as well as the phase of the product life cycle. The scope of the project cannot be defined without some basic understanding of how to create the specified product. For example, various construction techniques and tools need to be considered when determining the overall complexity of the house to be built.
Basically this chapter provides the procedure of relevant literatures collected from the various sources to understand the management process, different knowledge areas and their types to know the brief Information about methodology that has used in developing Bahria Grand Mosque management report, various formulas, reports and different forecasting models studies done so far for this data.
Different relevant literature which is collected for project is mainly focus on the work happeing at the site. The total number of literature papers that has been collected were sixty.
The literature was collected from the research journals, articles, books, handbooks, guides and manuals to understand the management areas apply on a big scale projects. Several visits to site were also done to get the accurate data.
Project Procurement Management includes the processes necessary to purchase or acquire products, services or results needed from outside the project team.
The organization can be either the buyer or seller of the products, services, or results of a project. Project Procurement Management includes the contract management and change control processes required to develop and administer contracts or purchase orders issued by authorized project team members. Project Procurement Management also includes controlling any contract issued by an outside organization the buyer that is acquiring deliverables from the project from the performing organization the seller , and administering contractual obligations placed on the project team by the contract provides an overview of the Project Procurement Management processes which include the following: The process of completing each project procurement.
These processes interact with each other and with processes in other Knowledge Areas. The Project Procurement Management processes involve agreements, including contracts, which are legal documents between a buyer and a seller. An agreement can be simple or complex, and may reflect the simplicity or complexity of the deliverables or required effort. A procurement contract includes terms and conditions, and may incorporate other items that the buyer specifies as to what the seller is to perform or provide.
Depending upon the application area, a contract can also be called an agreement, an understanding, a subcontract, or a purchase order. Most organizations document policies and procedures specifically defining the procurement rules and specifying who has authority to sign and administer such agreements on behalf of the organization. Although all project documents may be subject to some form of review and approval, the legally binding nature of a contract or agreement usually means it will be subjected to a more extensive approval process.
In all cases, the primary focus of the review and approval process is to ensure that the contract language describes the products, services, or results that will satisfy the identified project need. The project management team may seek support in early phases from specialists in contracting, purchasing, law, and technical disciplines. The various activities involved in the Project Procurement Management processes form the life cycle of an agreement. By actively managing the agreement life cycle and carefully wording the terms and conditions of a procurement, some identifiable project risks may be shared or transferred to a seller.
Entering an agreement for products or services is one method of allocating the responsibility for managing or sharing potential risks. A complex project may involve managing multiple contracts or subcontracts simultaneously or in sequence. In such cases, each contract life cycle may end during any phase of the project life cycle. Project Procurement Management is discussed within the perspective of the buyer-seller relationship.
The buyer-seller relationship may exist at many levels on any one project, and between organizations internal to and external to the acquiring organization. Depending on the application area, the seller may be identified as a contractor, subcontractor, vendor, service provider, or supplier.
The seller can be viewed during the contract life cycle first as a bidder, then as the selected source, and then as the contracted supplier or vendor. The seller will typically manage the work as a project if the acquisition is not just for shelf material, goods, or common products.
In such cases: The buyer becomes the customer, and is thus a key project stakeholder for the seller. The contract can contain the inputs e. It is also assumed that a formal contractual relationship will be developed and exists between the buyer and the seller. Plan Procurement Management is the process of documenting project procurement decisions, specifying the approach, and identifying potential sellers.
The key benefit of this process is that it determines whether to acquire outside support, and if so, what to acquire, how to acquire it, how much is needed, and when to acquire it. Plan Procurement Management identifies those project needs that can best be met or should be met by acquiring products, services, or results outside of the project organization, versus those project needs which can be accomplished by the project team. When the project obtains products, services, and results required for project performance from outside of the performing organization, the processes from Plan Procurement Management through Close Procurements are performed for each item to be acquired.
The Plan Procurement Management process also includes evaluating potential sellers, particularly if the buyer wishes to exercise some degree of influence or control over acquisition decisions. Thought should also be given to who is responsible for obtaining or holding any relevant permits and professional licenses that may be required by legislation, regulation, or organizational policy in executing the project.
The requirements of the project schedule can significantly influence the strategy during the Plan Procurement Management process.
Decisions made in developing the procurement management plan can also influence the project schedule and are integrated with Develop Schedule, Estimate Activity Resources, and make-or-buy analysis. The Plan Procurement Management process includes evaluating the risks involved with each make-or-buy analysis.
It also includes reviewing the type of contract planned to be used with respect to avoiding or mitigating risks, sometimes transferring risks to the seller.
Inputs 2. The project management plan describes the need, justification, requirements, and current boundaries for the project. It includes, but is not limited to, the scope baseline contents: Project scope statement. The project scope statement contains the product scope description, service description and result description, the list of deliverables, and acceptance criteria, as well as important information regarding technical issues or concerns that could impact cost estimating.
Identified constraints may include required delivery dates, available skilled resources, and organizational policies. The work breakdown structure WBS contains the components of work that may be resourced externally.
WBS dictionary. The WBS dictionary and related detailed statements of work provide an identification of the deliverables and a description of the work in each WBS component required to produce each deliverable. Important information about project requirements that is considered during planning for procurements, Requirements with contractual and legal implications that may include health, safety, security, performance, environmental, insurance, intellectual property rights, equal employment opportunity, licenses, and permits—all of which are considered when planning for procurements.
Updates to the risk register are included with project document updates described inform the Plan Risk Responses process. Stakeholder Register The stakeholder register provides details on the project participants and their interests in the project. Marketplace conditions; Products, services, and results that are available in the marketplace; Suppliers, including past performance or reputation; Typical terms and conditions for products, services, and results or for the specific industry; and Unique local requirements.
The organizational process assets that influence the Plan. Procurement Management process include, but are not limited to: Formal procurement policies, procedures, and guidelines. Most organizations have formal procurement policies and buying organizations. When such procurement support is not available, the project team should supply both the resources and the expertise to perform such procurement activities.
Management systems that are considered in developing the procurement management plan and selecting the contractual relationships to be used. An established multi-tier supplier system of prequalified sellers based on prior experience. All legal contractual relationships generally fall into one of two broad families: Also, there is a third hybrid type commonly in use called the time and materials contract.
The more popular contract types in use are discussed below as discrete types, but in practice it is not unusual to combine one or more types into a single procurement. This category of contracts involves setting a fixed total price for a defined product, service, or result to be provided. Fixed-price contracts may also incorporate financial incentives for achieving or exceeding selected project objectives, such as schedule delivery dates, cost and technical performance, or anything that can be quantified and subsequently measured.
Sellers under fixed-price contracts are legally obligated to complete such contracts, with possible financial damages if they do not. Under the fixed-price arrangement, buyers need to precisely specify the product or services being procured.
Changes in scope may be accommodated, but generally with an increase in contract price. The most commonly used contract type is the FFP. It is favored by most buying organizations because the price for goods is set at the outset and not subject to change unless the scope of work changes.
Any cost increase due to adverse is the responsibility of the seller, who is obligated to complete the effort. Under the FFP contract, the buyer should precisely specify the product or services to be procured, and any changes to the procurement specification can increase the costs to the buyer. This fixed-price arrangement gives the buyer and seller some flexibility in that it allows for deviation from performance, with financial incentives tied to achieving agreed upon metrics.
Typically such financial incentives are related to cost, schedule, or technical performance of the seller. It is a fixed-price contract, but with a special provision allowing for pre-defined final adjustments to the contract price due to changed conditions, such as inflation changes, or cost increases or decreases for specific commodities. The EPA clause needs to relate to some reliable financial index, which is used to precisely adjust the final price. The FP-EPA contract is intended to protect both buyer and seller from external conditions beyond their control.
This category of contract involves payments cost reimbursements to the seller for all legitimate actual costs incurred for completed work, plus a fee representing seller profit.
Cost-reimbursable contracts may also include financial incentive clauses whenever the seller exceeds, or falls below, defined objectives such as costs, schedule, or technical performance targets.
A cost-reimbursable contract provides the project flexibility to redirect a seller whenever the scope of work cannot be precisely defined at the start and needs to be altered, or when high risks may exist in the effort. The seller is reimbursed for all allowable costs for performing the contract work, and receives a fixed-fee payment calculated as a percentage of the initial estimated project costs.
A fee is paid only for completed work and does not change due to seller performance.
Fee amounts do not change unless the project scope changes. The seller is reimbursed for all allowable costs for performing the contract work and receives a predetermined incentive fee based upon achieving certain performance objectives as set forth in the contract. The seller is reimbursed for all legitimate costs, but the majority of the fee is earned only based on the satisfaction of certain broad subjective performance criteria defined and incorporated into the contract.
The determination of fee is based solely on the subjective determination of seller performance by the buyer, and is generally not subject to appeals. Time and material contracts are a hybrid type of contractual arrangement that contain aspects of both cost-reimbursable and fixed-price contracts. They are often used for staff augmentation, acquisition of experts, and any outside support when a precise statement of work cannot be quickly prescribed.
These types of contracts resemble cost-reimbursable contracts in that they can be left open ended and may be subject to a cost increase for the buyer.
NitinAgrawal for his valuable teachings and the suggestions along with guideline which really help me in completing this project. We want to thank our Project Head Mr. Krishna Kant Thakur for his dedication and the valuable time which he has spent with us during the completion of project.
We are really thankful to entire faculty of theDepartment of Civil Engineering for the help and support we have got from them in any form. And lastly we want to thanks to all the members of group for all the cooperation and help we have got from them. Thanking You! The external examiner has checked and taken the oral viva — voice on the project report. My blessing are always with him for his bright future. Lecturer 6. The objectives of the project are: In the ancient times human required water for drinking, bathing, cooking etc.
In ancient times every individual or family was responsible to arrange for their water supplies. There was no collective effort by the whole community for it. But as the community developed it became essential to have public water supply soon the inhabitants realized that their local sources of water supply such as shallow wells, springs, cisterns etc are inadequate to meet the demand of the town, they started to collect the water from distant large sources and conveyed it to the town through aqueducts, canals etc.
In addition to these sourcesof water, having good quality was less readily available. These all situations led to the development of public water supply schemes. Water treatment involves science, engineering, business, and art.
The treatment may include mechanical, physical, biological, and chemical methods. As with any technology, science is the foundation, and engineering makes sure that the technology works as designed. The appearance and application of water is an art.
Millipore, a Fisher Scientific partner, offers many lines of products to produce 8.
Internet sites of these companies offer useful information regarding water. An environmental scientist or consultant matches the service provider, modify if necessary, with the requirement. Softening hard water for boiler, cooler, and domestic application is discussed therein.
These treatments prepare water so that it is suitable for the applications. Drinking water is part of making water suitable for living. Thus, this link gives some considerations to drinking water problems. Pre- application treatment and water treatment offer a special opportunity or challenge. Only a general consideration will be given to some industrial processes. Every urban centre requires such a facility. It can determine a precise location, access, best orientation for the site and the location of obstacles.
The type of site survey and the best practices required depend on the nature of the project. Examples of projects requiring a preliminary site survey include urban construction,specialized construction such as the location for a telescope and wireless network design.
The most important thing under the water supply schemes is the selection of source of water , which should be reliable and have minimum impurities. After the selection of source water, the next step is to construct intake works in order to collect the water and carry to the treatment plants, where this water will be treated. Type of treatment processes directly depend upon the impurities in water at the source and the quality of water required by the consumers. When the water is treated, it is stored in clear water reservoir , from where it is distributed to the consumers.
The distribution system will also depend on the elevation of clear water reservoir and the elevavtion of distribution area.
It include the following things: This unit will help in main ting the wanted oxygen levels in water, remove dissolved iron and ,manganese, remove CO2 and H2S gases as well as the colour and tastes caused by volatile oils etc. The raw water reaching the plant will be pumped into the the aerator tank through a mm dia pipe and will outflow through 4no. The requisite alum dose shall be mixed in two polyethylene tanks of L each, which shall be interconnected.
The raw water shall first be added in one tank where the alum dose of shallbemixed manually.