BY ERNESTO GUEVARA PDF "Pathfinder Press in publishing Che Guevara's Bolivian Diary has performed a major service for a Lee Anderson biography. Che Guevara - soundofheaven.info - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. Biography Of "The Icon of Revolution"-Che. Che Guevara Reader edited by David Deutschmann is the bestselling, most comprehensive selection of Che Guevara's writings, letters and speeches.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Arabic|
|ePub File Size:||25.35 MB|
|PDF File Size:||15.35 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
Page 1. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Ernesto "Che" Guevara was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author , guerrilla . His favorite subjects in school included philosophy, mathematics, engineering, political science, sociology, history and archaeology. Years later, a . Bolivian Diary (Malayalam) Paperback Books- Buy Bolivian Diary (Malayalam) By Che Guevara Language: Malayalam Author: Che Guevara These books are NOT available for reading online or for free download in PDF or ebook format. novels, story books, rare books, textbooks and books by popular authors.
Man ceases to be the slave and tool of his environment and converts himself into the architect of his own destiny. A Graphic Biography. If we wish to express what we want the men of future generations to be, we must say: Bonachea, Rolando E. In fact, there is very little evidence of the kind of dogmatism and ethnocentrism in his thinking that one associates with the thinking of most missionaries.
During this period, his mother tutored him at home, and Ernesto spent hours reading alone or playing chess with his father. Later on, when he was enrolled in school, his mother taught him to speak and read French, in which he was uent.
By this time the frequency of his asthmatic attacks had decreased considerably, and his attendance in secondary school was quite regular.
Despite his asthma, as he grew older Ernesto became involved in a wide variety of outdoor activities and sports. He swam, played soccer and golf, rode horses, took up target shooting, and loved biking and hiking Anderson Although he sometimes had to be carried home by his friends because of an asthma attack, he was determined to do everything his friends could do and refused to let his asthma limit him.
The administrator of his primary school, Elba Rossi de Oviedo, remembered him as a mischievous boy who exhibited leadership qualities on the playground Anderson She said: Many children followed him during recess. He was a leader, but not an arrogant person.
Sometimes he climbed up trees in the schoolyard. She also said he was an intelligent and independent person, who had the qualities necessary to lead a group, and he never sat at the same desk in the classroom, he needed all of them Caligiuri and Piccon Ernestos parents wanted their children to be freethinkers. At home, the parents never spoke of religion except to occasionally criticize the conservative hierarchy of the Catholic Church, and the children were given considerable freedom to think and talk about all kinds of subjects as well as indiscriminately associate with people from all classes Caligiuri and Piccon They were given no religious instruction, and his parents asked that their children be excused from religion classes in school.
Although he was baptized as a Roman Catholic when he was an infant to please his grandparents, Ernesto was never conrmed as a member of the church. His parents, especially his father, were critical of the hypocritical role played by the conservative Catholic clergy in Latin American society.
They felt strongly that their children should not be overprotected and that they should learn about lifes secrets and dangers at an early age. Their home life was somewhat Bohemian, and they followed few social conventions Anderson Ernestos mother, Celia, challenged the prevailing gender norms for women in Alta Gracia and was. She was the rst woman in town to drive a car, wear trousers, and smoke cigarettes in public.
She was able to get away with breaking many of the social norms in the socially conservative community because of her social standing and generosity. She regularly transported her children and their friends to school in the family car and started a daily free-milk program in the school for the poorer children, which she paid for herself. Ernestos father considered Celia to be imprudent from birth and attracted to danger and chided her for passing these character traits on to her son Anderson: Ernestos father in turn was known to have an Irish temper, and it appears he passed this trait on to Ernesto, who as a child could become uncontrollable with rage if he felt he was treated unjustly.
In temperament, however, Ernesto was more like his mother, who was his condant and at times his co-conspirator in criticizing what they considered to be the hypocritical and outmoded social norms of their provincial community.
Ernesto enjoyed playing soccer or football as it is called in Latin America and most of the world and rugby. In the former sport, he usually played the position of goalkeeper, always with an inhaler for his. However, it was at rugby that he really excelled. Hugo Gambini, in his biography of Che, claims that the position he played as a youth in this game helped to dene his personality Gambini It seems he played the position of forward, which is generally the key position in rugby since the majority of advances depend on it.
Ernesto played this position fearlessly, as though both his personality and his physical attributes had been made to order for it. Perhaps, as Gambini suggests, this game was instrumental in shaping Ernestos personality as a daring leader.
All those who knew Ernesto Guevara as a youth were impressed by his intelligence and the ease with which he learned new things. However, he was not an exceptional student and he was not interested in getting high grades in school, since his interests lay outside of school.
He was preoccupied with hiking, football, rugby, and chess. In the case of chess, he was an excellent player and it became his main hobby. Ernesto also was an avid reader.
From his father he developed a love for books on adventure and history, especially the works of Jules Verne Taibo He had read nearly every book in his parents relatively large home library by the time he was in his early adolescence. Ernesto grew up in a highly politicized environment. Both his mother and father identied with the leftist Republican cause during the Spanish Civil War, and after the war they became close friends with two Spanish Republican families who had been forced to ee Spain and seek exile in Argentina after the fall of the republic when the dictatorship of General Francisco Franco was established.
The Guevara family was also ercely anti-Nazi. His father belonged to an anti-Nazi and proAllies organization called Accin Argentina, and Ernesto joined the youth wing of this organization when he was 11 Anderson She was leftist in her political orientation and far more progressive minded in her political views than his father, who was more of a libertarian conservative.
However, both of Ches parents strongly opposed the spread of fascism in Europe and Argentina and opposed the popular military strongman Juan Pern as he rose to political power in Argentina. During the. Because of his parents active support for the Republican cause in Spain and the Allied countries ghting against fascism in Europe during World War II, and their opposition to Peronism in Argentina after the war, Ernesto was caught up in his parents political activities at a crucial time in the early formation of his political consciousness Anderson: His familys involvement in anti-fascist and antiPeronist politics helped shape his view of the world as well as his political ideals and views.
According to those who knew him as a youth, many of the character traits for which he became famous as an adult were already present when he was a boy: However, at this stage in his life, his interest in politics was secondary to his other interests.
In the summer of , Ernesto and his family moved from Alta Gracia to the nearby city of Crdoba, to which he was already commuting daily by bus to attend a secondary school more liberal than the one in Alta Gracia. Largely because of his mothers wishes, their home in Crdoba had the same casual open-door policy as their home in Alta Gracia. All the friends and acquaintances of the Guevara children were always welcome, there was no regular schedule for meals and they ate when they were hungry, and there was nearly always a wide assortment of interesting guests Anderson: Although the Guevaras welcomed everyone into their home, Ernesto and his mother would tease mercilessly any visitor who showed any pretentiousness, snobbery, or pompous behavior.
Toms was Ernestos schoolmate, and Alberto was Tomss older brother. Alberto was a rstyear student in biochemistry and pharmacology at the University of Crdoba when they rst met. He was also the coach of a local rugby team.
Even though Ernesto was relatively inexperienced and his father was afraid he would suffer a heart attack from playing such a strenuous sport, Ernesto convinced Alberto to let him join the team; he soon. Alberto was impressed by his fearlessness and his determination to excel at the sport. He was also pleasantly surprised to discover Ernesto was an avid reader like himself. In fact, Alberto and Toms found it difcult to believe that the young teenager Ernesto had already read so many books.
He especially liked the poetry of Chiles famous poet Pablo Neruda, and his personal hero was Mahatma Gandhi, whom he deeply admired Taibo: Hilda Gadea his rst wife remembers that Ernesto told her he read everything in his fathers library when he was teenager: Ernesto told me how when he was still in high school he decided to start reading seriously and began by swallowing his fathers library, choosing volumes at random.
The books were not classied and next to an adventure book he would nd a Greek tragedy and then a book on Marxism. Gadea Although he read books on political topics and enjoyed discussing politics with his family and friends, most of his schoolmates remember him as being for the most part politically disinterested during his secondary school years Anderson: As for sex, he was denitely interested. In the mids in Argentina, good girls were expected to remain a virgin until they married and boys from the upper classes were expected by their families and the social norms of their class to respect the virginity of the girls they dated, especially if they were from their same social circles.
For their rst sexual experiences, therefore, boys from Ernestos class went to brothels or had sexual relations with girls from the lower classesoften the young maids who worked in their homes or the homes of their friends.
In Ernestos case, his rst sexual experience appears to have occurred with a young maid when he was Unknown to Ernesto at the time, Calica and a few of his friends spied on him while he had sex with the young woman.
The following is a brief account of Ernestos sexual initiation with La Negra: They observed that, while he conducted himself admirably on top of the pliant maid, he periodically interrupted his lovemaking to suck on his asthma inhaler.
The spectacle soon had them in stitches and remained a source of amusement for years afterward. By the time he graduated from secondary school, Ernesto had developed into an extremely attractive young man: By the time he was 17, he had developed a devil-maycare and eccentric attitude that was characterized by his contempt for formality and social decorum and a penchant for shocking his teachers and classmates with his unconventional comments and behavior.
He also bragged about how infrequently he took a bath or changed his clothes, and as a result he earned the nickname among his friends of El Chancho the Pig for his unkempt appearance and reluctance to bathe. What most of his friends did not realize was that he often had asthma attacks when he took a bath or shower, especially if the water was cold Taibo: In general, his grades in secondary school reected his interests.
He did best in the subjects that most interested him: He had no ear for music, and he was a poor dancer because he couldnt follow the music. In he took a serious. It contained in alphabetical order his notes on the main ideas and biographies of the important thinkers he had read and quotations of their denitions of key concepts such as love, immortality, sexual morality, justice, faith, God, death, reason, neurosis, and paranoia Taibo: It also contained his commentaries on these notes, which he often wrote in the margins.
Thanks largely to his mother Celias egalitarian informality, his home was a fascinating human zoo that was frequented by a diverse range of colorful people of all social classes, occupations, levels of education, and ages, who often ate there and sometimes stayed a week or a month at a time Anderson: His mother presided over this mlange of adults, teenagers, and children while Ernestos father came and went on his old motorbike named La Pedorra the Farter.
During this period, his parents became estranged but continued to live under the same roof. In , Ernesto graduated from secondary school. He and his friend Toms Granado Albertos younger brother made plans to study engineering the following year at the University of Buenos Aires, and in the meantime they obtained jobs working for the provincial public highways department after taking a special course for eld analysts.
Ernesto was hired as a materials analyst and sent to the north to inspect the materials being used on the roads around Villa Mara, where he was given free lodging and the use of a vehicle Anderson: While he was there he was confronted with the news of two tragedies: Before he left Villa Mara, he wrote a prophetic poem about his own death and his personal struggle to overcome his frequent asthma attacks.
The following is an extract from this free-verse poem: The bullets, what can the bullets do to me if my destiny is to die by drowning.
But I am going to overcome destiny. Destiny can be overcome by willpower. Die yes, but riddled with bullets, destroyed by bayonets, if not, no.
Drowned, no. This poem was written 20 years before he diedriddled with bulletsin During his absence from Crdoba, his family moved to Buenos Aires. His fathers business was doing poorly and the family was forced to sell their house in Crdoba and move into the apartment his grandmother.
Ana Isabel Guevara owned and lived in. By May his grandmother was on her deathbed, and Ernesto gave up his job in Villa Mara to be at her bedside. According to his father: Ernesto [was] desperate at seeing that his grandmother didnt eat [so] he tried with incredible patience to get her to eat food, entertaining her, and without leaving her side. And he remained there until [she] left this world. Many years later she observed that it must have been one of the greatest sadnesses of his life Anderson: Apparently, the painful death of his beloved grandmother and his personal interest in nding a cure for asthma led him to change his mind about pursuing a degree in engineering and to study medicine instead Anderson: His family believed he made this decision to change careers because of the shock of his grandmothers painful death and his desire to pursue a career that would alleviate human suffering.
But his choice of specialties and research interests in medicine suggested he was also motivated by a desire to nd a cure for asthma. Years later, he said he chose a career in medicine because I dreamed of becoming a famous investigator. In addition to his studies at the university, he held a number of parttime jobs. The one he held the longest was in the clinic of Dr. Salvador Pisani, where he also received treatment for his asthma Anderson: Pisani gave him the opportunity to work as a research assistant in the laboratory of his clinic, specically on the pioneering use of vaccinations and other innovative types of treatment for the allergies associated with asthma.
Ernesto became so enthralled in this research that he decided to specialize in the treatment of allergies for his medical. He became a xture of Dr. Pisanis clinic and his home, where the doctors mother and sister prepared a special antiasthma diet for Ernesto and took care of him when he suffered severe asthma attacks. What little spare time he had he devoted to rugby, chess, and travel. He registered for military service as required when he was 18, but he was given a medical deferment from military service because of his asthma.
As for his political orientation at this stage of his life, he was a progressive liberal who avoided afliation with any political organization Anderson: His political views were nationalist, anti-imperialist, and anti-American, but he was quite critical of the Argentine Communist Party and its youth organization at the university for their sectarianism intolerance of other political organizations and ideologies.
While he was not a Marxist, he did already have a special interest in Marxs writings and in socialist thought. At this stage of his life he was an engaging and intelligent nonconformistan oddball who most of his friends and acquaintances found difcult to categorize. Since he was not quite 18 when the national election was held that elected Juan Pern to the presidency of Argentina in , he was not able to vote in this historic election, but like most other students of his generation, he did not support Pern.
His views regarding Pern have been characterized as a-Peronism Castaeda: However, he reportedly told the maids who worked for his family that they should vote for Pern since his policies would help their class.
It is not clear what he thought of Argentinas popular female political gure during this periodthe beautiful blond radio actress Evita who was Perns controversial mistress until he married her a few months before his election to the presidency in During the years Ernesto was a university student, Eva Evita Duarte Pern became the darling of Argentinas popular classes because of her charismatic populist speeches and her highly publicized personal crusade for labor and womens rights EPHRF While her husband was president, she ran the Argentine federal governments ministries of labor and health; founded and led the Eva Pern Foundation, which provided charitable services to the poor especially to the elderly, women, and children ; and created and served as the president of the.
After her death from cancer in , Evitalike Che Guevara laterbecame a powerful icon in the political culture of Argentina and Latin America. However, there is no evidence there was ever any personal or political connection between these two historic gures.
After living in his deceased mothers apartment for a year, Ernestos father sold his mat plantation and gave the money to Celia to buy a modest home in Buenos Aires at the edge of the desirable Palermo district Anderson: However, to make ends meet, the older children had to nd jobs. Despite the now obvious separation between his parentshis father slept on the sofa in the living room of the new houseErnesto maintained his close and open relationship with both parents, his father fondly describing their relationship during this period as follows: We joked with one another as if we were the same age.
He teased me continuously. As soon as we found ourselves at the table in our house, he would goad me with arguments of a political character. Ernesto, who at that time was twenty years old, surpassed me in this area, and we argued constantly. Those who overheard us might have thought we were ghting.
Not at all. Deep down there existed a true camaraderie between us. She presided over the household in Buenos Aires in much the same way she did in Crdoba and Alta Graciashe showed a complete disregard for social decorum and housekeeping but generously offered informal hospitality to all manner of guests.
There was very little furniture and few decorations in the house, books were everywhere, and the walls in the kitchen gave electrical shocks because of a chronic short circuit in the electrical wiring.
Ernesto often went to his Aunt Beatrizs and deceased grandmothers apartment to study, and his father went there often to sleep, be-. Ernesto had a special relationship with his spinster aunt, who loved to mother him.
She would prepare meals for him and, according to his father, his Aunt Beatriz didnt sleep while Ernesto studied; she always had his mat ready to prepare for him and accompanied him when he took a break, and she did this all with the greatest of affection quoted in Anderson: She was quite conservative and proper, so Ernesto loved to scandalize her with his ideas and stories but always in an affectionate and respectful manner.
According to a cousin who accompanied him frequently to his aunts apartment, Ernesto secretly seduced her maid without their aunt knowing anything about it Anderson: From this period of his life, there is a photograph of Ernesto with his classmates in one of the classrooms of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Buenos Aires.
A careful examination of this photograph provides some clues to Ernestos character, state of mind, and his relationships at the time. In the photograph 28 white-coated students stand in three rows on different levels behind a naked cadaver with an open chest cavity on a metal table in the foreground. A few of the students are smiling at the camera and the rest have assumed a serious professional look, but in the third row is one student who is looking open-eyed at the camera with a broad joking smile it is Ernesto.
All the men are wearing ties, except for Ernesto, who is wearing a white shirtprobably the one white nylon shirt he owned and which he called La Semanera the Weekly One because he wore it all the time and washed it once a week. There are only three women in the group photograph, one of whom is Berta Tita Infante, with whom Ernesto had a deep but platonic relationship.
She is looking at the camera with an intense gaze. Tita and Ernesto met in an anatomy course and became very close friends and condants. It appears she wanted more from the relationship than he did or at least more than he was willing to give at the time. What follows is her description of Ernesto: By his accent he was a provincial, by his appearance he was a beautiful and uninhibited young man. A mixture of shyness and arrogance, maybe the audacity hid his profound intelligence.
Their friendship lasted beyond medical school, and he corresponded almost as frequently with her after he left Argentina as he did with his mother and Aunt Beatriz. As for Ernestos own reection on this period of his life, years later he said the following: When I began to study medicine, the majority of the concepts that I have as a revolutionary were absent from the storehouse of my ideas. I wanted to succeed, like everyone; I dreamed of being a famous researcher, dreamed of working untiringly to succeed at doing something that could be denitively placed at the disposal of humanity, but in that moment it was a personal achievement.
I was, as we all are, a child of my environment. Ernesto loved to travel. His father wrote that with time he came to understand his obsession with travelling was just another part of his zeal for learning Guevara However, Ernesto disguised this motivation for his early trips by talking casually about his travel plans and by at least pretending to be motivated primarily by the desire for adventure.
His diary of his now famous trip Guevara throughout South America is written primarily in this vein. However, his subsequent trip throughout South and Central America was clearly motivated by more serious intentions, especially after he reached Central America see chapter 3.
Ernestos rst noteworthy journey on his own took place in , when he toured all of central and northern Argentina by motorbikea trip of some 4, miles Gambini He was 21 and a medical student at the University of Buenos Aires at the time.
On his journey he stopped off in Crdoba to visit his friends Toms and Alberto Granado. Alberto was conducting research on lepers at a leprosarium near San Francisco del Chaar, and because Ernesto was intrigued by Albertos research he spent several days with Alberto at the leprosarium. From there he headed north and met an interesting assortment of hobos, vagabonds, seasonal workers, poor indigenous inhabitants, and other socially marginalized people along the way.
He often stayed overnight in police stations and provincial hospitals where he asked if he could sleep in vacant jail cells or empty hospital beds. As a result, for the rst time in his adult life, Ernesto. What he learned from this trip to the poorer northern region of his country was that Argentinas more modern and supercial European culture was a luxurious faade under which the countrys true soul lay; and that soul was rotten and diseased.
It was from this region of the country that the Argentine Indians, commonly referred to as coyas, and the mixed-blood cabezitas negras little black heads ed in steadily increasing numbers, pouring into the cities in search of work and setting up shantytowns like the one in front of the Guevaras home in Crdoba Anderson They were the social class of domestic servants and day laborers called descamisados shirtless ones whom Pron and his wife Evita promised to incorporate into the nation and whom Argentinas white elite still exploit and despise.
When Ernesto returned to Buenos Aires from this trip he took the motorbike back to the store where he bought it in order to have it reconditioned. When the store owner discovered the details of the trip, he was astounded and asked Ernesto to give him a letter attesting to his having made such a fantastic trip using the particular brand of motorbike that he used. This letter, along with a picture of Ernesto sitting on his motorbike, was published in a local sports magazine as an advertisement for this type of motorbike Taibo Ernesto returned to his studies in medical school, resumed playing rugby, and continued working in Dr.
Pisanis clinic. He also fell in love for the rst time. The object of his affection was the year-old daughter of one of Crdobas wealthiest families. Her name was Mara del Carmen Chichina Ferreyra, and they met in October at a wedding in Crdoba attended by Ernesto and his family. By all accounts, she was a strikingly beautiful, intelligent, and charming young woman, who was as infatuated with him as he was with her Taibo: However, this ro-. Chichinas family lived in an imposing French-style chateau with parklike gardens in Crdoba and on a large estate called La Malagueo outside of the city.
According to her cousin, Dolores Moyano: The family visited the village church every Sunday for Mass, worshipping in a separate alcove to the right of the altar with its own separate entrance and private communion rail, away from the mass of workers.
In many ways, La Malagueo exemplied everything that Ernesto despised. Yet, unpredictable as always, Ernesto had fallen madly in love with the princess of this little empire, my cousin Chichina Ferreyra, an extraordinarily beautiful and charming girl, who, to the dismay of her parents, was equally fascinated by Ernesto.
Ernesto was madly in love with Chichina and wanted to marry her. But the differences in their age and social class, her parents disapproval of him, and the distance between them began to strain their relationship. At the beginning of , Ernesto needed to earn some money, so he signed up to serve as a ships nurse on Argentinas merchant marine freighters and oil tankers Taibo: Between February and June , he made various trips back and forth between Argentina and Brazil, Venezuela, and the Caribbean islands.
These trips gave him plenty of time to study for his medical exams and exposed him to life at sea as well as most of the ports of call on the Atlantic Coast of South America and in the Caribbean. At the end of June , he went back to medical school. On one of his visits to Crdoba to see Chichina he also visited his friends the Granado brothers. In the course of a conversation with Alberto.
Granado while working on his motorcycle, nicknamed La Poderosa the Powerful One , the idea of making a yearlong trip together took shape. Ernestos account of this momentous occasion is as follows: Our fantasizing took us to far away places, sailing tropical seas, travelling through Asia.
And suddenly, slipping in as if part of our fantasy, came the question: Why dont we go to North America? North America? On La Poderosa, man.
Thats how the trip came about, and it never deviated from the general principle laid down then: My task before leaving was to take as many exams in as many subjects as possible; Albertos to get the bike ready for the long journey.
At that stage the momentousness of our endeavor hadnt dawned on us, all we could see was the dusty road ahead and us on our bike devouring kilometers in the ight northward.
Guevara Alberto had quit his job, and Ernesto was tired of medical school, hospitals, and studying for exams. He was also frustrated by the opposition of Chichinas parents to their relationship. For these reasons, they both wanted to take a break from their existing circumstances. Thus, in December , when he lacked only one year of receiving his medical degree, Ernesto and his friend Alberto Granados decided to set out to explore all of Latin America by motorcycle.
Ernestos Motorcycle Diaries Guevara , which were published many years after his death, provide a valuable personal narrative of this journey. They shed light on a little known period in his young adulthood and provide important insights into his personality and the development of his views about the world. Written while he was traveling around South America in his early 20s, they allow the reader to gain an intimate portrait of him at an important and formative period in his life. Ironically, most of this trip was not made on a motorcycle.
In fact, Ernesto and Alberto traveled on just about every mode of transportation available at the timehorses, railroads, buses, trucks, cars, ships, ferries, boats, rafts, and airplanes and of course on their feet. After their motorcycle died in Chile, they were forced to walk, hitchhike, and use whatever means was available to make their way from one end of the South American continent to the other.
Ernestos lucid and brief accounts in his diary enable the reader to almost hear his thoughts, view the world through his eyes, and sense his spirit. In a certain sense they allow the reader to travel back in time to meet the man before he made his grand entrance on the stage of world history as one of the most charismatic and emblematic revolutionaries of all time.
They had increasing problems with the motorcycle as they traveled over the Andes and through southern Chile. As they neared the Chilean capital of Santiago, the motorcycle nally gave out and they had to continue the rest of their trip on foot.
They also quickly ran out of money. They were forced to panhandle, freeload, and work at numerous odd jobs in order to continue their journey northward through Chile to Peru, through Peru to Colombia, and nally to Venezuela.
Along the way, Ernesto developed a critical social consciousness based on the many instances of social injustice, human exploitation, and racial and ethnic discrimination he witnessed in all the countries he visited. He also developed a Latin American identity as he discovered that the people in these countries shared common values, aspirations, and sociohistorical conditions. When Ernesto announced his travel plans to his family they were surprised to learn he planned to be away for a whole year, particularly because of his love affair with Chichina Guevara When his father asked him about her, Ernesto said: If she loves me, shell wait.
Years later, his father reected on Ernestos motivations for this trip in the prologue he wrote for the so-called Motorcycle Diaries.
He said he really did not understand his sons motivations at the time and it was only many years later that he realized what truly motivated him. He wrote: I was puzzled. I didnt understand Ernesto. There were things about him I couldnt quite fathom. They only became clear with time. I didnt realize then that his obsession with travelling was just another part of his zeal for learning. He knew that really to understand the needs of the poor he had to travel the world, not as a tourist stopping to take pretty pictures and enjoy the scenery, but.
Years later, thinking back over his continuous. However, through reading his letters and later his diaries, his father realized his son was following a true missionary impulse which never left him and possessed a mystical and certain knowledge of his own destiny Guevara The choice of the term missionary is somewhat misleading, since Ernesto at this stage was certainly not concerned with propagating a specic ideology or doctrine.
He was very open-minded, quite secular in his thinking, and generally respectful of the cultural differences he encountered in his travels. In fact, there is very little evidence of the kind of dogmatism and ethnocentrism in his thinking that one associates with the thinking of most missionaries. His father had to suffer in silence the fears he had for his son when he learned he was planning to take a year away from his studies to go on the incredible transcontinental odyssey he and his friend Alberto Granado had planned.
When he told me of the journey he planned with Granado, I took him aside and said: Youve some hard times ahead. How can I advise against it when its something Ive always dreamed of myself? But remember, if you get lost in those jungles and I dont hear from you at reasonable intervals, Ill come looking for you, trace your steps, and wont come back until I nd you. He and Alberto started out on their journey on January 4, midsummer in the Southern Hemisphere.
They went rst to the Atlantic Coast of Argentina to visit one of Ernestos uncles in Villa Gisell and then to the beach resort city of Miramar to say good-bye to Chichina, who was vacationing there with one of her aunts. Ernesto brought with him a puppy for Chichina whom he signicantly named Come Back. He ended up staying eight days in Miramar, and Al-. Ernesto wrote the following in his diary about this romantic interlude at the outset of their long journey: The trip hung in the balance, in a cocoon, subordinate to the word which consents and ties.
Alberto saw the danger and was already imagining himself alone on the highways and byways of America, but he said nothing. The tug of war was between her and me. The two days Id planned stretched like elastic into eight and with the bittersweet taste of goodbye mingling with my inveterate halitosis I nally felt myself wafted away on the winds of adventure. Several weeks later in the Andean mountain resort of Bariloche, Ernesto found a letter from Chichina waiting for him at the local post ofce, where they had previously arranged he would pick up his mail.
In this letter, she informed him she had decided not to wait for him. In his diary, he wrote the following about his reactions: I read and re-read the incredible letter. Suddenly all my dreams of home, bound up with the eyes which saw me off in Miramar, were shattered, apparently for no good reason page Although he was clearly hurt and wanted at rst to write a weepy letter, he realized it was hopeless to convince her to change her mind.
He also wrote: I thought I loved her until this moment when I realized I couldnt feel, I had to think her back again. The next day Ernesto and Alberto crossed a mountain lake into Chile on a leaking ferry boat that they kept aoat by pumping out the bilge water in return for their free passage. On this boat they met some Chilean doctors who told them there was a leper colony on Easter Island Rapa Nui, or Isla de Pascua , some 2, miles from mainland Chile in the southeastern Pacic.
As Ernesto wrote in his diary: It was a wonderful island, they said, and our scientic appetites were whetted page They resolved to travel to the island and asked one of the doctors to give. With their money running low, they were forced to freeload their way through southern Chile.
In the southern port city of Valdivia they dropped in on the local newspaper, which interviewed them for an article about their journey. As a result, they decided in a gesture of great magnanimity to dedicate their trip to the city since it was celebrating the th anniversary of its founding.
At their next stop, in the picturesque central Chilean town of Temuco, they were interviewed again by the local newspaper, which was printed under the title: Ernestos account in his diary of this article and their short stay in Temuco reveals some of the avor of their trip at this point as well as his tongue-in-cheek view of their freeloading style of travel.
We had asked permission to leave the bike in the garage of a man who lived on the outskirts and we now made our way there, no longer just a pair of reasonably likeable bums with a bike in tow. No, we were now the experts, and thats how we were treated. We spent the day xing the bike and a little dark maid kept coming up with edible treats. At ve oclock, after a sumptuous snack laid on by our host, we said goodbye to Temuco and headed north. They were worried they would have to spend the night in the open, but as Ernesto recounts in his diary: We werent just anybody now, we were the experts; we soon found a railway worker who took us to his house where we were treated like kings page They xed the tire at a garage the next day and resumed their trip, but they soon encountered more trouble.
Without any warning, their motorcycle veered sideways and threw them off. The crash broke the bikes steering column and smashed its gearbox. This was the beginning of the end of La Poderosa. Although they managed to weld the steering column and x the gearbox at a local garage, the bike was never the same again. While they were working on the bike at this garage they bummed something to eat and drink at the homes of the curiosity seekers who dropped by to see the two famous travelers working on their motorcycle.
Their last night in Temuco they were invited by the mechanics at the garage to have drinks with them and go to a village dance, where Ernesto got drunk and caused an altercation on the dance oor.
He wrote the following account of this incident in his diary: Chilean wine is very good and I was downing it at an amazing rate, so by the time we went on to the village dance I felt ready for anything. One of the mechanics from the garage, a particularly nice guy, asked me to dance with his wife because hed been mixing his drinks and was the worse for wear.
His wife was pretty randy [feeling horny] and obviously in the mood, and I, full of Chilean wine, took her by the hand to lead her outside. She followed me docilely but then realized her husband was watching and changed her mind.
I was in no state to listen to reason and we had a bit of a barney [quarrel] in the middle of the dance oor, resulting in me pulling her toward one of the doors with everybody watching. She tried to kick me and as I was pulling her she lost her balance and went crashing to the oor.
Since they had now worn out the hospitality of their local hosts, they left the next day, but only after having lunch at the house of the family that lived next to the garage.
On the road north to Santiago, they had another bad spill on the motorcycle and they had to repair it once again. Shortly thereafter, the bike nally gave its last gasp going up a steep hill, and they had to hitch a lift on a truck going to the town of Los Angeles.
They arranged to stay in a volunteer re station in Los Angeles and in a few days found a truck to take them and the bike to Santiago, where they left the corpse of La Poderosa at a garage. At this point in their journey Ernesto noted they ceased being motorized bums and became non-motorized bums page From this point forward they had to rely on their freeloading skills to hitch rides, bum meals and lodgings, work at odd jobs when they could,.
Ernesto noted in his diary their transition to this new stage in their journey: We were used to attracting idle attention with our strange garb and the prosaic gure of La Poderosa II, whose asthmatic wheezing aroused pity in our hosts.
All the same, we had been, so to speak, gentlemen of the road. Wed belonged to a time-honored aristocracy of wayfarers, bearing our degrees as visiting cards to impress people. Not any more. Now we were just two tramps with packs on our backs, and the grime of the road encrusted in our overalls, shadows of our former aristocratic selves. While they were in Valparaso they made friends with the owner of a bar named La Gioconda the name of a famous Italian opera and another name for the Mona Lisa painting.
The bar owner would not let them pay for their food or drink and even let them sleep in the kitchen. He was found of saying: Today its your turn, tomorrow itll be mine page While they were there, he asked Ernesto to visit one of his elderly customers who was suffering from asthma and a bad heart.
Ernestos comments in his diary about this old woman reveal a great deal about his social views at this stage in his life. He observed that the poor thing was in an awful state, breathing the smell of stale sweat and dirty feet that lled her room, mixed with the dust from a couple of armchairs, which were the only luxuries in her house page Such circumstances, he said, made a doctor feel powerless and long for change that would end the social injustices of the present order.
He noted that in such cases we see the profound tragedy which circumscribes the life of the proletariat [working class] the world over, since the poverty of their existence makes them at the end of their lives a bitter burden for the poor family members who have to take care of them. His concluding comments were these: How long this present order, based on an absurd idea of caste, will last I cant say, but he added it was time for governments to spend more money, much more money, funding socially useful projects.
From Valparaso, Ernesto and Alberto stowed away on a boat that was headed for the northern port of Antofagasta. They were discovered after the boat was at sea and forced to do menial chores such as cleaning the latrines and the decks. However, at night the captain invited them to drink and play cards with him. When they arrived in Antofagasta they tried to stow away on another boat headed farther north, but they were caught before it sailed and put onshore.
Instead, they traveled north overland through the desert by hitching rides on trucks.
So it was that they ended up visiting Chiles largest copper mine at Chuquicamata. On the way they made friends with a married couple who were mine workers and members of the Chilean Communist Party. The husband told them about his three months in prison as a result of the Chilean governments proscription of the party and persecution of its members, and about his starving wife who followed him with exemplary loyalty, his children left in the care of a kindly neighbor, his fruitless pilgrimage in search of work and his comrades who had mysteriously disappeared and were said to be somewhere at the bottom of the sea page According to his diary, when Ernesto and Alberto encountered the couple, they were numb with cold, huddling together in the desert night without a single miserable blanket to sleep under, so we gave them one of ours and Alberto and I wrapped the other around us as best we could.
Ernesto saw them as a living symbol of the proletariat the world over and wrote that its really upsetting to think they use repressive measures against people like these, since what motivated them to join the Communist Party was nothing more than the natural desire for a better life and their protest against persistent hunger.
He observed that this motivation had led them to adopt Communist ideology, whose real meaning he felt they could never grasp, but when it was translated into bread for the poor was something that they could understand and that gave them hope for the future page When he and Alberto visited the huge U. In his diary, he wrote: The bosses, the blond, efcient, arrogant managers, told us in primitive Spanish: Ill get a guide to give you a half-hour tour around the mine and then please be good enough to leave, we have a lot of work.
He also noted that a strike was being planned at the mine and wrote in his diary that their guide, who he called the Yankee bosses faithful lapdog, told us: Stupid gringos, they lose thousands of pesos every day in a strike so as not to give a poor worker a couple of extra centavos. Ernesto noted in his diary that Chile offers economic possibilities to anyone willing to work as long as hes not from the proletariat, since the country had enough mineral resources copper, iron, coal, tin, gold, silver, manganese, nitrates, etc.
However, he observed that the main thing Chile has to do is to get its tiresome Yankee friend off its back, a Herculean task, at least for the time being, given the huge US investment and the ease with which it can bring economic pressure to bear whenever its interests are threatened page From Chuquicamata, Ernesto and Alberto hitchhiked to the Peruvian border.
In Peru, they adopted a pattern of hitching rides on the trucks carrying people and freight between the main towns and asking if they could stay overnight in the guard stations of the Peruvian Civil Guard the countrys paramilitary national police force or the hospitals in the towns where they stopped. As they traveled, they came in close contact with Perus exploited and suffering Indian masses, who represent a majority of the population.
They saw how the Indians of the Peruvian altiplano high plateau were and still are exploited and oppressed. In Tarata, Peru, Ernesto wrote in his diary about how the local Peruvian Indians the Aymars are not the same proud race that time after time rose up against Inca rule and forced them to maintain a permanent army on their borders; rather, they had become a defeated race since the Spanish Conquest and centuries of colonial domination.
He noted that they look at us meekly, almost fearfully, completely indifferent to the outside world, and some give the impression that they go on living simply because its a habit they cant give up page After they left Tarata, they traveled on the same truck with a schoolteacher who had been red by the government because he was a member of the leftist APRA party American Popular Revolutionary Alliance. Now it's stronger than ever. In short, they seem to prepare the revolution of the toilets.
Guevara, who was practically the architect of the Soviet—Cuban relationship ,  then played a key role in bringing to Cuba the Soviet nuclear-armed ballistic missiles that precipitated the Cuban Missile Crisis in October and brought the world to the brink of nuclear war.
Afterward, he denounced the Soviets almost as frequently as he denounced the Americans. In December , Che Guevara had emerged as a "revolutionary statesman of world stature" and thus traveled to New York City as head of the Cuban delegation to speak at the United Nations.
Those who kill their own children and discriminate daily against them because of the color of their skin; those who let the murderers of blacks remain free, protecting them, and furthermore punishing the black population because they demand their legitimate rights as free men—how can those who do this consider themselves guardians of freedom?
An indignant Guevara ended his speech by reciting the Second Declaration of Havana , decreeing Latin America a "family of million brothers who suffer the same miseries".
To Guevara the conflict was a struggle of masses and ideas, which would be carried forth by those "mistreated and scorned by imperialism " who were previously considered "a weak and submissive flock". With this "flock", Guevara now asserted, "Yankee monopoly capitalism" now terrifyingly saw their "gravediggers". Guevara closed his remarks to the General Assembly by hypothesizing that this "wave of anger" would "sweep the lands of Latin America" and that the labor masses who "turn the wheel of history" were now, for the first time, "awakening from the long, brutalizing sleep to which they had been subjected".
Guevara later learned there had been two failed attempts on his life by Cuban exiles during his stop at the UN complex. Afterwards Guevara commented on both incidents, stating that "it is better to be killed by a woman with a knife than by a man with a gun", while adding with a languid wave of his cigar that the explosion had "given the whole thing more flavor".
The latter expressed his admiration, declaring Guevara "one of the most revolutionary men in this country right now" while reading a statement from him to a crowd at the Audubon Ballroom. When they found out, the television [station] came to ask me about the Lynch genealogy, but in case they were horse thieves or something like that, I didn't say much. During this voyage, he wrote a letter to Carlos Quijano, editor of a Uruguayan weekly, which was later retitled Socialism and Man in Cuba.
He also laid out the reasoning behind his anti-capitalist sentiments, stating:. The laws of capitalism, blind and invisible to the majority, act upon the individual without his thinking about it. He sees only the vastness of a seemingly infinite horizon before him.
That is how it is painted by capitalist propagandists, who purport to draw a lesson from the example of Rockefeller —whether or not it is true—about the possibilities of success. The amount of poverty and suffering required for the emergence of a Rockefeller , and the amount of depravity that the accumulation of a fortune of such magnitude entails, are left out of the picture, and it is not always possible to make the people in general see this.
Guevara ended the essay by declaring that "the true revolutionary is guided by a great feeling of love" and beckoning on all revolutionaries to "strive every day so that this love of living humanity will be transformed into acts that serve as examples", thus becoming "a moving force". In Algiers , Algeria, on February 24, , Guevara made what turned out to be his last public appearance on the international stage when he delivered a speech at an economic seminar on Afro-Asian solidarity.
He proceeded to outline a number of measures which he said the communist-bloc countries must implement in order to accomplish the defeat of imperialism. As revealed in his last public speech in Algiers, Guevara had come to view the Northern Hemisphere , led by the U.
He strongly supported Communist North Vietnam in the Vietnam War , and urged the peoples of other developing countries to take up arms and create "many Vietnams". The Economics of Revolution . In Guevara's private writings from this time since released , he displays his growing criticism of the Soviet political economy, believing that the Soviets had "forgotten Marx ".
Guevara wanted the complete elimination of money, interest , commodity production , the market economy , and " mercantile relationships ": Two weeks after his Algiers speech and his return to Cuba, Guevara dropped out of public life and then vanished altogether.
His disappearance was variously attributed to the failure of the Cuban industrialization scheme he had advocated while minister of industries, to pressure exerted on Castro by Soviet officials who disapproved of Guevara's pro- Chinese Communist stance on the Sino-Soviet split , and to serious differences between Guevara and the pragmatic Castro regarding Cuba's economic development and ideological line.
Still, rumors spread both inside and outside Cuba concerning the missing Guevara's whereabouts. On October 3, , Castro publicly revealed an undated letter purportedly written to him by Guevara around seven months earlier which was later titled Che Guevara's "farewell letter".
In the letter, Guevara reaffirmed his enduring solidarity with the Cuban Revolution but declared his intention to leave Cuba to fight for the revolutionary cause abroad. Additionally, he resigned from all his positions in the Cuban government and communist party, and renounced his honorary Cuban citizenship. In early , Guevara went to Africa to offer his knowledge and experience as a guerrilla to the ongoing conflict in the Congo.
According to Algerian President Ahmed Ben Bella , Guevara thought that Africa was imperialism's weak link and so had enormous revolutionary potential. As an admirer of the late Lumumba, Guevara declared that his "murder should be a lesson for all of us". Over the course of seven months, Ilanga grew to "admire the hard-working Guevara", who "showed the same respect to black people as he did to whites". As an additional obstacle, white mercenary troops of the Congo National Army , led by Mike Hoare and supported by anti-Castro Cuban pilots and the CIA, thwarted Guevara's movements from his base camp in the mountains near the village of Fizi on Lake Tanganyika in southeast Congo.
They were able to monitor his communications and so pre-empted his attacks and interdicted his supply lines. Although Guevara tried to conceal his presence in Congo, the United States government knew his location and activities.
Guevara's aim was to export the revolution by instructing local anti- Mobutu Simba fighters in Marxist ideology and foco theory strategies of guerrilla warfare.
In his Congo Diary book, he cites the incompetence, intransigence and infighting among the Congolese rebels as key reasons for the revolt's failure. Guevara stated that he had planned to send the wounded back to Cuba and fight in Congo alone until his death, as a revolutionary example. But after being urged by his comrades, and two emissaries sent by Castro, at the last moment he reluctantly agreed to leave Africa. During that day and night, Guevara's forces quietly took down their base camp, burned their huts, and destroyed or threw weapons into Lake Tanganyika that they could not take with them, before crossing the border into Tanzania at night and traveling by land to Dar es Salaam.
In speaking about his experience in Congo months later, Guevara concluded that he left rather than fight to the death because: There is no will to fight. The [rebel] leaders are corrupt.
In a word Guevara was reluctant to return to Cuba, because Castro had made public Guevara's "farewell letter"—a letter intended to only be revealed in the case of his death—wherein he severed all ties in order to devote himself to revolution throughout the world. During this time abroad, Guevara compiled his memoirs of the Congo experience and wrote drafts of two more books, one on philosophy and the other on economics.
As Guevara prepared for Bolivia, he secretly traveled back to Cuba on July 21, to visit Castro, as well as to see his wife and to write a last letter to his five children to be read upon his death, which ended with him instructing them:. Above all, always be capable of feeling deeply any injustice committed against anyone, anywhere in the world. This is the most beautiful quality in a revolutionary. In late , Guevara's location was still not public knowledge, although representatives of Mozambique's independence movement, the FRELIMO , reported that they met with Guevara in late in Dar es Salaam regarding his offer to aid in their revolutionary project, an offer which they ultimately rejected.
Before he departed for Bolivia, Guevara altered his appearance by shaving off his beard and much of his hair, also dying it grey so that he was unrecognizable as Che Guevara.
Three days after his arrival in Bolivia, Guevara left La Paz for the rural south east region of the country to form his guerrilla army. As a result of Guevara's units' winning several skirmishes against Bolivian troops in the spring and summer of , the Bolivian government began to overestimate the true size of the guerrilla force.
Researchers hypothesize that Guevara's plan for fomenting a revolution in Bolivia failed for an array of reasons:. In addition, Guevara's known preference for confrontation rather than compromise, which had previously surfaced during his guerrilla warfare campaign in Cuba, contributed to his inability to develop successful working relationships with local rebel leaders in Bolivia, just as it had in the Congo. The end result was that Guevara was unable to attract inhabitants of the local area to join his militia during the eleven months he attempted recruitment.
Many of the inhabitants willingly informed the Bolivian authorities and military about the guerrillas and their movements in the area. Near the end of the Bolivian venture, Guevara wrote in his diary that "the peasants do not give us any help, and they are turning into informers.
On October 7, , an informant apprised the Bolivian Special Forces of the location of Guevara's guerrilla encampment in the Yuro ravine. I am Che Guevara and I am worth more to you alive than dead.
Guevara was tied up and taken to a dilapidated mud schoolhouse in the nearby village of La Higuera on the evening of October 8. For the next half day, Guevara refused to be interrogated by Bolivian officers and only spoke quietly to Bolivian soldiers. One of those Bolivian soldiers, a helicopter pilot named Jaime Nino de Guzman, describes Che as looking "dreadful". According to Guzman, Guevara was shot through the right calf, his hair was matted with dirt, his clothes were shredded, and his feet were covered in rough leather sheaths.
Despite his haggard appearance, he recounts that "Che held his head high, looked everyone straight in the eyes and asked only for something to smoke. The following morning on October 9, Guevara asked to see the school teacher of the village, a year-old woman named Julia Cortez. She later stated that she found Guevara to be an "agreeable looking man with a soft and ironic glance" and that during their conversation she found herself "unable to look him in the eye" because his "gaze was unbearable, piercing, and so tranquil".
A little later, Guevara was asked by one of the Bolivian soldiers guarding him if he was thinking about his own immortality. Shoot, coward! You are only going to kill a man! Guevara was pronounced dead at 1: This included five times in his legs, once in the right shoulder and arm, and once in the chest and throat.
Months earlier, during his last public declaration to the Tricontinental Conference ,  Guevara had written his own epitaph , stating: Put on display, as hundreds of local residents filed past the body, Guevara's corpse was considered by many to represent a "Christ-like" visage, with some even surreptitiously clipping locks of his hair as divine relics.
Rembrandt 's The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Johnson from his National Security Advisor Walt Whitman Rostow , called the decision to kill Guevara "stupid" but "understandable from a Bolivian standpoint". The hands were sent to Buenos Aires for fingerprint identification.
They were later sent to Cuba. On October 15 in Havana, Fidel Castro publicly acknowledged that Guevara was dead and proclaimed three days of public mourning throughout Cuba. If we wish to express what we want the men of future generations to be, we must say: Let them be like Che!
If we wish to say how we want our children to be educated, we must say without hesitation: We want them to be educated in Che's spirit! If we want the model of a man, who does not belong to our times but to the future, I say from the depths of my heart that such a model, without a single stain on his conduct, without a single stain on his action, is Che!
Also removed when Guevara was captured were his 30,word, hand-written diary, a collection of his personal poetry, and a short story he had authored about a young Communist guerrilla who learns to overcome his fears.
The diary tells how the guerrillas were forced to begin operations prematurely because of discovery by the Bolivian Army, explains Guevara's decision to divide the column into two units that were subsequently unable to re-establish contact, and describes their overall unsuccessful venture.
He suffered from ever-worsening bouts of asthma, and most of his last offensives were carried out in an attempt to obtain medicine. Debray, who had lived with Guevara's band of guerrillas for a short time, said that in his view they were "victims of the forest" and thus "eaten by the jungle".
Debray recounts that Guevara and the others had been suffering an "illness" which caused their hands and feet to swell into "mounds of flesh" to the point where you could not discern the fingers on their hands. Debray described Guevara as "optimistic about the future of Latin America" despite the futile situation, and remarked that Guevara was "resigned to die in the knowledge that his death would be a sort of renaissance", noting that Guevara perceived death "as a promise of rebirth" and "ritual of renewal".
To a certain extent, this belief by Guevara of a metaphorical resurrection came true. While pictures of the dead Guevara were being circulated and the circumstances of his death were being debated, Che's legend began to spread. Demonstrations in protest against his "assassination" occurred throughout the world, and articles, tributes, and poems were written about his life and death.
In the view of military historian Erik Durschmied: He was very much alive. A Revolutionary Life , that Guevara's corpse lay near a Vallegrande airstrip. The result was a multi-national search for the remains, which lasted more than a year.
In July a team of Cuban geologists and Argentine forensic anthropologists discovered the remnants of seven bodies in two mass graves, including one man with amputated hands like Guevara. Bolivian government officials with the Ministry of Interior later identified the body as Guevara when the excavated teeth "perfectly matched" a plaster mold of Che's teeth made in Cuba prior to his Congolese expedition.
The "clincher" then arrived when Argentine forensic anthropologist Alejandro Inchaurregui inspected the inside hidden pocket of a blue jacket dug up next to the handless cadaver and found a small bag of pipe tobacco.
Nino de Guzman, the Bolivian helicopter pilot who had given Che a small bag of tobacco, later remarked that he "had serious doubts" at first and "thought the Cubans would just find any old bones and call it Che"; but "after hearing about the tobacco pouch, I have no doubts. In July , the Bolivian government of Evo Morales unveiled Guevara's formerly-sealed diaries composed in two frayed notebooks, along with a logbook and several black-and-white photographs.
At this event Bolivia's vice-minister of culture, Pablo Groux, expressed that there were plans to publish photographs of every handwritten page later in the year. The discovery of Che's remains metonymically activated a series of interlinked associations—rebel, martyr, rogue figure from a picaresque adventure, savior, renegade, extremist—in which there was no fixed divide among them.
The current court of opinion places Che on a continuum that teeters between viewing him as a misguided rebel, a coruscatingly brilliant guerrilla philosopher, a poet-warrior jousting at windmills, a brazen warrior who threw down the gauntlet to the bourgeoisie, the object of fervent paeans to his sainthood, or a mass murderer clothed in the guise of an avenging angel whose every action is imbricated in violence—the archetypal Fanatical Terrorist.
Guevara's life and legacy remain contentious. The perceived contradictions of his ethos at various points in his life have created a complex character of duality, one who was "able to wield the pen and submachine gun with equal skill", while prophesying that "the most important revolutionary ambition was to see man liberated from his alienation ".
A secular humanist and sympathetic practitioner of medicine who did not hesitate to shoot his enemies, a celebrated internationalist leader who advocated violence to enforce a utopian philosophy of the collective good , an idealistic intellectual who loved literature but refused to allow dissent, an anti-imperialist Marxist insurgent who was radically willing to forge a poverty-less new world on the apocalyptic ashes of the old one, and finally, an outspoken anti-capitalist whose image has been commoditized.
Che's history continues to be rewritten and re-imagined. As such, various notable individuals have lauded Guevara as a great person; for example, Nelson Mandela referred to him as "an inspiration for every human being who loves freedom",  while Jean-Paul Sartre described him as "not only an intellectual but also the most complete human being of our age".
Conversely, Jacobo Machover, an exiled opposition author, dismisses all praise of Guevara and portrays him as a callous executioner. In a mixed assessment, British historian Hugh Thomas opined that Guevara was a "brave, sincere and determined man who was also obstinate, narrow, and dogmatic". Yet, he still remains a transcendent figure both in specifically political contexts  and as a wide-ranging popular icon of youthful rebellion.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Che Guevara. Rosario , Santa Fe province , Argentina. La Higuera , Vallegrande , Bolivia. Hilda Gadea m. Aleida March m. Main articles: A motorcycle journey the length of South America awakened him to the injustice of US domination in the hemisphere, and to the suffering colonialism brought to its original inhabitants.
Main article: I have yet to find a single credible source pointing to a case where Che executed "an innocent". Those persons executed by Guevara or on his orders were condemned for the usual crimes punishable by death at times of war or in its aftermath: I should add that my research spanned five years, and included anti-Castro Cubans among the Cuban-American exile community in Miami and elsewhere. Guevara was like a father to me He taught me to think.
He taught me the most beautiful thing which is to be human. Theoretical works. Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon. A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy. Economic determinism Historical materialism Marx's method Philosophy of nature. Related topics.
Communism Criticisms of Marxism Revolutionary socialism Socialism. Marx characterized the psychological or philosophical manifestation of capitalist social relations as alienation and antagonism ; the result of the commodification of labor and the operation of the law of value.
For Guevara, the challenge was to replace the individuals' alienation from the productive process , and the antagonism generated by class relations, with integration and solidarity , developing a collective attitude to production and the concept of work as a social duty. There was no person more feared by the company CIA than Che Guevara because he had the capacity and charisma necessary to direct the struggle against the political repression of the traditional hierarchies in power in the countries of Latin America.
Che Guevara Mausoleum. Legacy of Che Guevara and Che Guevara in popular culture. Che Guevara timeline. Bibliography of Che Guevara. A New Society: The Hands of Che Guevara. Retrieved 4 October Collins English Dictionary.
Constenla alleges that she was told by Che's mother, Celia de la Serna, that she was already pregnant when she and Ernesto Guevara Lynch were married and that the date on the birth certificate of their son was forged to make it appear that he was born a month later than the actual date to avoid scandal.
Anderson , pp. And I began to realize at that time that there were things that were almost as important to me as becoming a famous or making a significant contribution to medical science: I wanted to help those people. This inflow takes various forms: Both are stages on the same road leading toward the creation of a new society of justice and plenty.
Ever since monopoly capital took over the world, it has kept the greater part of humanity in poverty, dividing all the profits among the group of the most powerful countries. The standard of living in those countries is based on the extreme poverty of our countries. To raise the living standards of the underdeveloped nations, therefore, we must fight against imperialism. The practice of proletarian internationalism is not only a duty for the peoples struggling for a better future, it is also an inescapable necessity.
This could only be achieved by systematic education, acquired by passing through various stages in which collective action is increased. Che recognized that this to be difficult and time-consuming. In his desire to speed up this process, however, he developed methods of mobilizing people, bringing together their collective and individual interests. Among the most significant of these instruments were moral and material incentives, while deepening consciousness as a way of developing toward socialism.
See Che's speeches: Some people carry both, others only that of their father. In Guevara's case many people of Irish descent will add "Lynch" to emphasize his Irish relations. Others will add "de la Serna" to give respect to Guevara's mother. Ferrer was a longtime childhood friend of Che, and when Guevara passed the last of his 12 exams in , he gave him a copy to prove to Ferrer, who had been telling Guevara that he would never finish, that he had finally completed his studies.
Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. New York, New York: Retrieved 25 July Cuba Headlines. The Viking Press. Proceso in Spanish. Retrieved July 1, Archived from the original on January 4, August 16, ; retrieved February 23, Clandestine Radio and the Rise of Fidel Castro".
Patepluma Radio. Johnson School of Public Affairs, , p. The Untold Story. Directed by Estela Bravo.
First Run Features. Viewable clip. Retrieved 15 June Che Guevara, Popular but Ineffective. Retrieved Roberts, Martin, ed. Guevara, Also Known as Che. New York: Martin's Griffin.
Stone , New Statesman , October 20, Retrieved November 4, Retrieved 23 May A Graphic Biography. Hill and Wang , Tamayo, Miami Herald , September 19, Ramparts Magazine. Edward M. Retrieved October 29, October 9, ; retrieved November 7, The National Security Archive. Sometime later, Che handed him a piece of paper; a receipt from the National Bank declaring that Mell had "donated" his gold wristband to Cuba's gold reserve. Guevara was still wearing his watch, but it now had a leather wristband Anderson , p.
The Militant. Retrieved February 10, Ramparts Magazine: Consultado el 13 de octubre de Folha de S. Abrams, Dennis Ernesto Che Guevara. Infobase Publishing. Almudevar, Lola 9 October Retrieved 14 June Anderson, Jon Lee Grove Pr. Bamford, James Anchor Books. Laurent Kabila". Beaubien, Jason All Things Considered , Audio Report. Ben Bella, Ahmed 1 October Le Monde diplomatique. Pike, John 1 April Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, - ". Casey, Michael Che's Afterlife: The Legacy of an Image.
Vintage Books. Bonachea, Rolando E. Selected works of Fidel Castro. Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press. Crompton, Samuel The Making of a Revolutionary.
Gareth Stevens. Cullather, Nicholas Secret History: The CIA's classified account of its operations in Guatemala, — Palo Alto, California: Stanford University Press.
DePalma, Anthony The man who invented Fidel: Cuba, Castro, and Herbert L. Matthews of The New York Times 1st ed. Public Affairs. Dorfman, Ariel June 14, Time Time magazine. Dorschner, John and Roberto Fabricio The Winds of December: The Cuban Revolution of Dumur, Jean interviewer L'interview de Che Guevara Video clip; 9: Durschmied, Erik The Blood of Revolution: From the Reign of Terror to the Rise of Khomeini.
Arcade Publishing. Free Society Project Inc. Summit, New Jersey: Free Society Project. Che in Africa: Che Guevara's Congo Diary. Ocean Press, Gleijeses, Piero Shattered Hope: The Guatemalan Revolution and the United States, — Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Gott, Richard A New History. Yale University Press. Gott, Richard August 11, Accessed February 26, Grant, Will October 8, BBC News.