Ancient indian history in marathi pdf

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The Importance of Ancient Indian History. 2. The Construction of Ancient Indian History. Material Remains--Coins-Inscriptions-Literary Sources-- Foreign. यह book IAS,UPSC जैसी बढ़ी परीक्षाओं के लिए बहुत ही helpful book है आप इस book को download कर के अपने आगामी. General Knowledge (Marathi) Objective Q&A. मराठी सामान्यज्ञान - Marathi Gk Objective Q&A. इतिहास सामान्यज्ञान- Indian History GK.

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Download indian history pdf notes in hindi करे – प्रिय पाठकों, आज SarkarNaukriHelp {**एनसीईआरटी सार*} Ancient Indian History Notes in Hindi PDF. Page 1. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Modern Indian History V.D. MAHAJAN S. CHAND MODERN INDIAN HISTORY From J to the Download Ancient Indian History Tutorial (PDF Version).

Kushan Empire https: Related Questions Which is the best book on history of Indian architecture? Kushan Empire[ edit ] Main article: The means of achieving the proposed measure were later enshrined in the Government of India Act , which introduced the principle of a dual mode of administration, or diarchy, in which both elected Indian legislators and appointed British officials shared power. To the west, it reached beyond modern Pakistan, to the Hindu Kush mountains in what is now Afghanistan.

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Related Posts: The first recorded Rajput kingdoms emerged in Rajasthan in the 6th century, and small Rajput dynasties later ruled much of northern India. One Gurjar [] [] Rajput of the Chauhan clan, Prithvi Raj Chauhan , was known for bloody conflicts against the advancing Islamic sultanates. He is known primarily for his successful battles against the Muslim and Tibetan advances into Kashmiri-dominated regions. Kalhana in his Rajatarangini credits king Lalitaditya with leading an aggressive military campaign in Northern India and Central Asia.

His campaign then led him to subjugate the kingdoms of Pragjyotisha, Strirajya and the Uttarakurus. Chalukya Empire[ edit ] Main article: Chalukya dynasty The Chalukya Empire Kannada: During this period, they ruled as three related yet individual dynasties.

The earliest dynasty, known as the "Badami Chalukyas", ruled from Vatapi modern Badami from the middle of the 6th century. The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakeshin II. The rule of the Chalukyas marks an important milestone in the history of South India and a golden age in the history of Karnataka. The political atmosphere in South India shifted from smaller kingdoms to large empires with the ascendancy of Badami Chalukyas.

A Southern India-based kingdom took control and consolidated the entire region between the Kaveri and the Narmada rivers. The rise of this empire saw the birth of efficient administration, overseas trade and commerce and the development of new style of architecture called "Chalukyan architecture". The Chalukya dynasty ruled parts of southern and central India from Badami in Karnataka between and , and then again from Kalyani between and Rashtrakuta Empire 8th—10th century [ edit ] Main article: Rashtrakuta dynasty Founded by Dantidurga around , [] the Rashtrakuta Empire ruled from its capital at Manyakheta for almost two centuries.

Amoghavarsha, who ruled for 64 years, was also an author and wrote Kavirajamarga , the earliest known Kannada work on poetics. The Arab traveler Suleiman described the Rashtrakuta Empire as one of the four great Empires of the world. Founded by Gopala I , [] [] [] it was ruled by a Buddhist dynasty from Bengal in the eastern region of the Indian subcontinent. Though the Palas were followers of the Mahayana and Tantric schools of Buddhism, [] they also patronised Shaivism and Vaishnavism.

The empire reached its peak under Dharmapala and Devapala. Dharmapala is believed to have conquered Kanauj and extended his sway up to the farthest limits of India in the northwest.

Nalanda reached its height under the patronage of the Pala Empire. They maintained close cultural and commercial ties with countries of Southeast Asia and Tibet.

Sea trade added greatly to the prosperity of the Pala kingdom. The Arab merchant Suleiman notes the enormity of the Pala army in his memoirs.

Chola dynasty Medieval Cholas rose to prominence during the middle of the 9th century C. The power of the new empire was proclaimed to the eastern world by the expedition to the Ganges which Rajendra Chola I undertook and by the occupation of cities of the maritime empire of Srivijaya in Southeast Asia , as well as by the repeated embassies to China.

They also had continuing trade contacts with the Arabs in the west and with the Chinese empire in the east. In all of these spheres, the Chola period marked the culmination of movements that had begun in an earlier age under the Pallavas. Monumental architecture in the form of majestic temples and sculpture in stone and bronze reached a finesse never before achieved in India.

Most of its monuments are in the districts bordering the Tungabhadra River in central Karnataka. Arab incursions into the Indian subcontinent See also: Battle of Rajasthan The early Islamic literature indicates that the conquest of India was one of the very early ambitions of the Muslims, though it was recognized as a particularly difficult one.

In , Arab Muslim general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered most of the Indus region in modern-day Pakistan for the Umayyad empire, incorporating it as the "As-Sindh" province with its capital at Al-Mansurah, 72 km 45 mi north of modern Hyderabad in Sindh , Pakistan. After several incursions, the Hindu kings east of Indus defeated the Arabs at the Battle of Rajasthan , halting their expansion and containing them at Sindh in Pakistan.

Additionally, Muslim trading communities flourished throughout coastal south India, particularly on the western coast where Muslim traders arrived in small numbers, mainly from the Arabian peninsula. This marked the introduction of a third Abrahamic Middle Eastern religion, following Judaism and Christianity, often in puritanical form. Mahmud of Ghazni of Afghanistan in the early 11th century raided mainly the north-western parts of the Indian sub-continent 17 times, but he did not seek to establish "permanent dominion" in those areas.

Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur , has the second largest pre-modern dome in the world after the Byzantine Hagia Sophia. Like other settled, agrarian societies in history, those in the Indian subcontinent have been attacked by nomadic tribes throughout its long history.

In evaluating the impact of Islam on the sub-continent, one must note that the northwestern sub-continent was a frequent target of tribes raiding from Central Asia. In that sense, the Muslim intrusions and later Muslim invasions were not dissimilar to those of the earlier invasions during the 1st millennium. This led to the rise of a new Indian culture which was mixed in nature, though different from both the ancient Indian culture and later westernized modern Indian culture.

At the same time it must be noted that overwhelming majority of Muslims in India are Indian natives converted to Islam. This factor also played an important role in the synthesis of cultures. Delhi Sultanate https: Qutub Minar is the world's tallest brick minaret , commenced by Qutb-ud-din Aybak of the Slave dynasty.

In the 12th and 13th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded parts of northern India and established the Delhi Sultanate in the former Hindu holdings. Tripathi noted, "The history of Muslim sovereignty in India begins properly speaking with Iltutmish.

The Sultanate ushered in a period of Indian cultural renaissance. The resulting "Indo-Muslim" fusion of cultures left lasting syncretic monuments in architecture, music, literature, religion, and clothing. It is surmised that the language of Urdu literally meaning "horde" or "camp" in various Turkic dialects was born during the Delhi Sultanate period as a result of the intermingling of the local speakers of Sanskritic Prakrits with immigrants speaking Persian , Turkic , and Arabic under the Muslim rulers.

Timur entered Delhi and the city was sacked, destroyed, and left in ruins, after Timur's army had killed and plundered for three days and nights. He ordered the whole city to be sacked except for the sayyids , scholars, and the "other Muslims" artists ; , war prisoners were put to death in one day.

Vijayanagara Empire 14th—16th century [ edit ] Main articles: The previous temple building traditions in South India came together in the Vijayanagara Architecture style. The mingling of all faiths and vernaculars inspired architectural innovation of Hindu temple construction, first in the Deccan and later in the Dravidian idioms using the local granite. South Indian mathematics flourished under the protection of the Vijayanagara Empire in Kerala.

The empire reached its peak during the rule of Sri Krishnadevaraya when Vijayanagara armies were consistently victorious. The empire annexed areas formerly under the Sultanates in the northern Deccan and the territories in the eastern Deccan, including Kalinga, while simultaneously maintaining control over all its subordinates in the south. Vijayanagara went into decline after the defeat in the Battle of Talikota Regional powers[ edit ] For two and a half centuries from the mid 13th, the politics in the Northern India was dominated by the Delhi Sultanate and in the Southern India by the Vijayanagar Empire which originated as a political heir of the erstwhile Hoysala Kingdom and Pandyan Dynasty.

Their power reached to the zenith under Rana Sanga during whose time Rajput armies were constantly victorious against the Sultanate army.

Mughal Empire https: Akbar's son, Jahangir more or less followed father's policy. The Mughal dynasty ruled most of the Indian subcontinent by The reign of Shah Jahan was the golden age of Mughal architecture. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Shivaji.

Historian Sir. Sarkar wrote, "All seemed to have been gained by Aurangzeb now, but in reality all was lost. Expansion of the Mughal Empire from to The empire went into decline thereafter. The Mughals suffered several blows due to invasions from Marathas and Afghans.

During the decline of the Mughal Empire, several smaller states rose to fill the power vacuum and themselves were contributing factors to the decline. Baji Rao, however, easily routed the novice Mughal general and the rest of the imperial Mughal army fled. In , in the final defeat of Mughal Empire, the commander-in-chief of the Mughal Army, Nizam-ul-mulk, was routed at Bhopal by the Maratha army. This essentially brought an end to the Mughal Empire.

The remnants of the Mughal dynasty were finally defeated during the Indian Rebellion of , also called the War of Independence, and the remains of the empire were formally taken over by the British while the Government of India Act let the British Crown assume direct control of India in the form of the new British Raj.

The Mughals were perhaps the richest single dynasty to have ever existed. During the Mughal era, the dominant political forces consisted of the Mughal Empire and its tributaries and, later on, the rising successor states — including the Maratha Empire — which fought an increasingly weak Mughal dynasty.

The Mughals, while often employing brutal tactics to subjugate their empire, had a policy of integration with Indian culture, which is what made them successful where the short-lived Sultanates of Delhi had failed.

This period marked vast social change in the subcontinent as the Hindu majority were ruled over by the Mughal emperors, most of whom showed religious tolerance, liberally patronising Hindu culture. The famous emperor Akbar, who was the grandson of Babar, tried to establish a good relationship with the Hindus.

History of Ancient India Complete Study Material

However, later emperors such as Aurangazeb tried to establish complete Muslim dominance, and as a result several historical temples were destroyed during this period and taxes imposed on non-Muslims.

Akbar declared "Amari" or non-killing of animals in the holy days of Jainism. He rolled back the jizya tax for non-Muslims. The Mughal emperors married local royalty, allied themselves with local maharajas , and attempted to fuse their Turko-Persian culture with ancient Indian styles, creating a unique Indo-Saracenic architecture.

It was the erosion of this tradition coupled with increased brutality and centralization that played a large part in the dynasty's downfall after Aurangzeb , who unlike previous emperors, imposed relatively non-pluralistic policies on the general population, which often inflamed the majority Hindu population.

Maratha Empire — [ edit ] Main articles: Political map of Indian subcontinent in The Maratha Empire orange was the last Hindu empire of India. The post-Mughal era was dominated by the rise of the Maratha suzerainty as other small regional states mostly late Mughal tributary states emerged, and also by the increasing activities of European powers.

There is no doubt that the single most important power to emerge in the long twilight of the Mughal dynasty was the Maratha confederacy.

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Sir J. Sarkar described Shivaji as "the last great constructive genius and nation builder that the Hindu race has produced".

Historian K. Datta wrote about Bajirao I: He may very well be regarded as the Second founder of the Maratha Empire. The Marathas continued their military campaigns against Mughals , Nizam , Nawab of Bengal and Durrani Empire to further extend their boundaries.

Gordon explained how the Maratha systematically took control over new regions. They would start with annual raids, followed by collecting ransom from villages and towns while the declining Mughal Empire retained nominal control and finally taking over the region. He explained it with the example of Malwa region.

Marathas built an efficient system of public administration known for its attention to detail. It succeeded in raising revenue in districts that recovered from years of raids, up to levels previously enjoyed by the Mughals. For example, the cornerstone of the Maratha rule in Malwa rested on the 60 or so local tax collectors who advanced the Maratha ruler Peshwa a portion of their district revenues at interest.

However, the Maratha authority in the north was re-established within a decade under Peshwa Madhavrao I. With the defeat of the Marathas , no native power represented any significant threat for the British afterwards. Sikh Empire See also: History of Sikhism https: Harmandir Sahib or The Golden Temple is culturally the most significant place of worship for the Sikhs. The Punjabi kingdom, ruled by members of the Sikh religion , was a political entity that governed the region of modern-day Punjab.

The empire, based around the Punjab region , existed from to It was forged, on the foundations of the Khalsa , under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh — from an array of autonomous Punjabi Misls.

He consolidated many parts of northern India into a kingdom. He primarily used his highly disciplined Sikh army that he trained and equipped to be the equal of a European force.

Ranjit Singh proved himself to be a master strategist and selected well qualified generals for his army. In stages, he added the central Punjab, the provinces of Multan and Kashmir, the Peshawar Valley, and the Derajat to his kingdom. This came in the face of the powerful British East India Company. This was among the last areas of the subcontinent to be conquered by the British. Other kingdoms[ edit ] There were several other kingdoms which ruled over parts of India in the later medieval period prior to the British occupation.

However, most of them were bound to pay regular tribute to the Marathas. Under their rule, Mysore fought a series of wars sometimes against the combined forces of the British and Marathas , but mostly against the British, with Mysore receiving some aid or promise of aid from the French.

The Nawabs of Bengal had become the de facto rulers of Bengal following the decline of Mughal Empire. However, their rule was interrupted by Marathas who carried six expeditions in Bengal from to as a result of which Bengal became a tributary state of Marathas.

Hyderabad was founded by the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda in It was ruled by a hereditary Nizam from until Beginning of European explorations and establishment of Colonialism[ edit ] Main articles: Colonial India and British Raj Western explorers and traders c.

The route followed in Vasco da Gama's first voyage — In , a Portuguese fleet under Vasco da Gama successfully discovered a new sea route from Europe to India, which paved the way for direct Indo-European commerce. Goa became the main Portuguese base until it was seized by India in The British —who set up a trading post in the west coast port of Surat [] in —and the French.

The internal conflicts among Indian kingdoms gave opportunities to the European traders to gradually establish political influence and appropriate lands.

Map of India in at the end of Company rule. This was the first real political foothold with territorial implications that the British acquired in India. Clive was appointed by the company as its first 'Governor of Bengal' in After the Battle of Buxar in , the company acquired the rights of administration in Bengal from de jure Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II ; this marked the beginning of its formal rule, which within the next century engulfed most of India.

They introduced a land taxation system called the Permanent Settlement which introduced a feudal -like structure in Bengal, often with zamindars set in place. The border dispute between Nepal and British India, which sharpened after , had caused the Anglo-Nepalese War of —16 and brought the defeated Gurkhas under British influence. In , Berar was annexed, and the state of Oudh was added two years later. After the turn of the 19th century, Governor-General Wellesley began what became two decades of accelerated expansion of Company territories.

The subsidiary alliances created the princely states or native states of the Hindu maharajas and the Muslim nawabs. By the s, the East India Company controlled most of the Indian sub-continent, which included present-day Pakistan and Bangladesh also.

Their policy was sometimes summed up as Divide and Rule , taking advantage of the enmity festering between various princely states and social and religious groups.

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Indian rebellion of https: The rebels were disorganized, had differing goals, and were poorly equipped, led, and trained, and had no outside support or funding. They were brutally suppressed and the British government took control of the Company and eliminated many of the grievances that caused it. The government also was determined to keep full control so that no rebellion of such size would ever happen again.

The Crown controlled the Company's lands directly and had considerable indirect influence over the rest of India, which consisted of the Princely states ruled by local royal families. There were officially princely states in , but only 21 had actual state governments, and only three were large Mysore, Hyderabad and Kashmir. They were absorbed into the independent nation in — British Raj Reforms[ edit ] https: The British Indian Empire at its greatest extent in a map of The princely states under British suzerainty are in yellow.

After , the colonial government strengthened and expanded its infrastructure via the court system, legal procedures, and statutes. The Indian Penal Code came into being. By some 60, Indians had matriculated. However, from s Indian private industry began to grow significantly. India built a modern railway system in the late 19th century which was the fourth largest in the world.

The British goal was said to be for efficient administration but the people of Bengal were outraged at the apparent "divide and rule" strategy. It also marked the beginning of the organized anti-colonial movement. When the Liberal party in Britain came to power in , he was removed.

Bengal was reunified in The Morley-Minto reforms of provided for Indian membership of the provincial executive councils as well as the Viceroy's executive council. The Imperial Legislative Council was enlarged from 25 to 60 members and separate communal representation for Muslims was established in a dramatic step towards representative and responsible government. Muslims set up the All India Muslim League in It was not a mass party but was designed to protect the interests of the aristocratic Muslims.

It was internally divided by conflicting loyalties to Islam, the British, and India, and by distrust of Hindus.

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Indian independence movement and Pakistan Movement See also: Mahatma Gandhi and Indian independence activists Rabindranath Tagore is Asia's first Nobel laureate and composer of India's national anthem Swami Vivekananda was a key figure in introducing Vedanta and Yoga in Europe and USA, [] raising interfaith awareness and making Hinduism a world religion.

The one of the most effective events of the 19th century was the rise of Indian nationalism. However, historians are divided over the causes of its rise. The probables reasons include "clash of interests of the Indian people with British interests", [] "racial discriminations", [] "the revelation of India's past", [] "inter-linking of the new social groups in different regions" [] and Indians coming in close contact with "European education". The first step toward Indian self-rule was the appointment of councillors to advise the British viceroy in and the first Indian was appointed in Provincial Councils with Indian members were also set up.

The councillors' participation was subsequently widened into legislative councils. The British built a large British Indian Army , with the senior officers all British, and many of the troops from small minority groups such as Gurkhas from Nepal and Sikhs.

Bal Gangadhar Tilak , an Indian nationalist leader, declared Swaraj as the destiny of the nation. His popular sentence "Swaraj is my birthright, and I shall have it" [] became the source of inspiration for Indians. Tilak was backed by rising public leaders like Bipin Chandra Pal and Lala Lajpat Rai , who held the same point of view. Under them, India's three big provinces — Maharashtra , Bengal and Punjab, India shaped the demand of the people and India's nationalism.

In , the Congress was split into two factions: The radicals, led by Tilak, advocated civil agitation and direct revolution to overthrow the British Empire and the abandonment of all things British. The moderates, led by leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji and Gopal Krishna Gokhale , on the other hand wanted reform within the framework of British rule. The means of achieving the proposed measure were later enshrined in the Government of India Act , which introduced the principle of a dual mode of administration, or diarchy, in which both elected Indian legislators and appointed British officials shared power.

Indian History Chronology: Ancient India to Modern India – Learn faster!

The Gandhi-led independence movement opposed the British rule using non-violent methods like non-cooperation , civil disobedience and economic resistance. However, revolutionary activities against the British rule took place also throughout the Indian sub-continent and some others adopted a militant approach like the Indian National Army that sought to overthrow British rule by armed struggle and.

Government of India Act was a major success in this regard. Independence and partition —present [ edit ] Main articles: Partition of India , History of the Republic of India , History of Pakistan and History of Bangladesh Along with the desire for independence, tensions between Hindus and Muslims had also been developing over the years.

The Muslims had always been a minority within the subcontinent, and the prospect of an exclusively Hindu government made them wary of independence; they were as inclined to mistrust Hindu rule as they were to resist the foreign Raj, although Gandhi called for unity between the two groups in an astonishing display of leadership.

The British, extremely weakened by the Second World War , promised that they would leave and participated in the formation of an interim government. The British Indian territories gained independence in , after being partitioned into the Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan. Following the controversial division of pre-partition Punjab and Bengal , rioting broke out between Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims in these provinces and spread to several other parts of India, leaving some , dead.

Historiography[ edit ] Historiography is the study of the history and methodology of the discipline of history. The term historiography also denotes a body of historical work on a specialized topic. In recent decades there have been four main schools of historiography regarding India: