Waste Water Engineering: Dr. B.C. Punmia, Ashok Kr. Jain, Arun Kr. Stock Image. View Larger Image. Wastewater Engineering. Wastewater Engineering (Environmental Engineering-II) by Dr. B. C. Punmia, , available at Book Depository with free delivery. Wastewater Engineering (Including Air Pollution) by B.C. Punmia, Ashok Kumar Jain, Arun Kumar Jain Free PDF book Download. on January.
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ENVIRONMENTAL. ENGINEERING WASTEWATER. ENGINEERING. ( INCLUDING AIR POLLUTION). B.C. PUNMIA. ASHOK JAIN. P. Copyrighted male al. Waste Water Engineering including Air Pollution by B.C. Punmia and Ashok Jain. Including Air Pollution. The size of the above PDF is 26MB. Download Water Supply Engineering – Environmental Engineering (Volume-1) By Dr. soundofheaven.info – Environmental Engineering Volume 1 also known popularly .
Introduction Chapter 2. Hydrology 2. Lusses in the supply lines are mainly doe to defect ive pipe joints. New Softcover Quantity Available: Punmia- Ashok Kumar Jain- B. If the pumps arc run for all the 24 hours. Growth of vegetation also depends upon bacterial action, while bacteria need waler in 'o rder to thrive.
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This met hod is more advantageous because oflhe fact that the to tal water require me nt of the city depends not only for domestic purposes. TABLE 5. The population fo recast may be made by proper analysis of these three factors. This method takes into account the regional and nat ional factors affecting poPI. Industrial area 8. Population de nsity is generally expressed as number of persons per hectare.
These ratios may be used in predicting the future population. The increase in population of big cities bear a direct relationship to the population of the whole stale or country. For example. Each zone Is allowed 10 develop as per master plan only. Apanmenh Crowth eo.. The future population o f each zone. Depending upon conditions or other factors. Allowing 5 persons per plot. RaUo and Correlation Method The population growt h of a small town or area is rclatcd to big towns or big areas.
Tourist facilities.. Connection of the town with other big cities. Unforeseen faclors. Social facilities.
Economic factors. Uving habits.
The population growth of a city depends upon rollowing actors. Communication links. This can be done with the help or arithmetical increase metbod and the geometrical increase method. Communi'Y life. Such as development of new industries. Development of projects of na- tional importance. These factors affect considerably the estimated.
Devtlopment programmes. The oomputations about increment. IOg10 PL. The following is the population data of a city.. AriIJrmdiaU I"". Mdlwd Column 6 of Table 5. Ihis figure will be modified as under: In the initial ponion of the census reoords.
The total decrease in percent increment for four decades comes out to be The dotted portion o f the curve is the extended part fIOm 1 to 1. From the extended part. The above computatio ns are based on the va lue o f Ix computcd by arithmatic average mClhod..
The computallons about Increase In populat ion per decade and incremen tal increase are done in Table 5. OOO t 4. In a town.
Estimate "the domestic water requirements of this town in the year AD by projecting the population of the town by the increm. Jind the midyear population as Jdh July for a 3rd inter-censal year. Assuming the census dale as 10th April. The population of city in successive decennial census.. A city has following recorded population Estimate: Water system losses.. Public or civic use. Residential or domestic use The residential or domestic use includes Water requirements for drinking.
S WubID. Provision is sometimes made for domestic animals. Institutional use. Industrial use. Ph" Iibu". Total water requirements may be divided into the following five categories: Residential or domestic use.
Wuhinl the house I. For communilies with population 10 above For oomm unilic: Institutional Use The manual on water supply and Treatment recommends the values of water requirements for institutional needs as given in Table 5.
TABLE Public or Civic use Water required for public or civic uses may be for the following purposes: Water required for maintaining public parks etc. For road washing in the municipality area.. It is treated as a function of population and may be compuled from the fallowing formulae: HOIitels m 4. Ollegcs m 6. Restaurants 70 per sea t 7. Terminal slations " intermediate sl1llions o: Nurse"s homes and mediCIIl m quartc: ISO per bed 3. Air pons and sea pon!
Junction slalions and 70 intenned iatc: Thus for Indian conditiOns. Each fire hydrant provided for this purpose has three streams. For a city of o ne lac population. Fire hydrants of 15 to 20 em diameter are normally provided on all street corners. I res. Whe n fire occurs. These are gene rally connected to water supply mains. The minimum limit of fire dema nd is the amount and rate of supply that would extinguish the largest probable fire in the city..
The total quantity of water calculated o n yea rly basis is usually very small because. For a fire of moderate nature. Assuming an average to tal consumption o f litres per capita per day.
It depends upon bulk. Joodo -". TARtE 5.
Tcnile Tonne erode: Induslrial use The presence of industries in or near the cily has great impact on the water demand. The recommended minimum values for Ihe above formula arc: The quantity of water required depends upon the type ofindustry. II may be determined from the following expression: The fore cast for this demand will be based on nature and magnitude of each industry and the potent ial for its expansion.
Example 5. In a large city.
OOO using various formulae. Lusses in the supply lines are mainly doe to defect ive pipe joints. Compute the 'fire demand ' for a city hailing popula- lion of J. The Ouctuations in demand depends u"pon the size of the city. Water System Losses Losses from a water distribution system consists of i leakage and over-now fro m service reservo irs. In a system where Ihe supply is partly metered lfor domestic connections and partly un-metered for municipal taps. In the case of a well maintained..
Use of water increases when sewers a re installed in an area previously without the m. Extremes of heal and cold cause variations in demand. If the cOmmunity is loca led in h OI climate. Poor-quality waleT results in a reduction in use. Enforcement of lawn sprinkling regula- tions can reduce peak demands s ignificantly.
The higher the Sianda rd of living is. LaWII sprinkling. The fiuclualion in usc in an industrial community is normally much smaller than in a residential community. Some common values are as under:. Age of communily. These variations are "expressed as perceDtale of the annual average daily consumption.
Pressure in the supply. Water rales. System of supply. In most of the Indian cities. Maximum hourly consumption. A convenient formula for estimating consumption is given by R. The average consumption is shown by the dotted.
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