soundofheaven.info - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Vishram Singh, MS, PhD. Professor and Head, Department of Anatomy. Professor-in-Charge, Medical Education Unit. Santosh Medical College, Ghaziabad. Textbook of Anatomy, Volume 1: Upper Limb and Thorax. Other editions Vishram Singh Be the first to ask a question about Textbook of Anatomy, Volume 1.
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Anatomy Books PDF download. Here is the list of anatomy books. Click on the book title to download VISHRAM SINGH. Vishram Singh Vol 1 · Vishram Singh . Can I get Vishram Singh's general anatomy book in PDF format? Where can I download PDF files of anatomy books like Vishram Singh, Grey etc? Where can I find Selective Anatomy Volume 1 and 2 by Vishram Singh in PDF?. Anatomy Vol-I Vishram Singh - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. Anatomy for Medical.
Lateral group: Carpus of primitive tetrapods consists of three bones in the proximal row. Barry Mitchell. It is fracture of neck of metacarpal. Nutrient artery for radius is a branch from anterior interosseous artery.
Written in simple and easy-to-understand language, this profusely illustrated book provides knowledge of anatomy without extraneous details — ideal for undergraduate medical and dental students.
Chapters on osteology of the head and neck; side of the neck; infratemporal fossa, temporo-mandibular joint and pterygo-palatine fossa; thyroid and parathyroid glands, trachea and esophagus; oral cavity; pharynx and palate; nose and paranasal air sinuses; ear; orbit and eyeball have been revised thoroughly.
Clinical Correlations integrated in the text, highlighting practical application of anatomical facts, have been modified extensively. Addition of new line diagrams and improvement in earlier diagrams. Addition of halftone figures to enrich the understanding of clinical correlations. Inclusion of new tables and flowcharts and revision in earlier tables. Clinical Case Study at the end of each chapter to initiate interest of students in problem based learning PBL.
Additional information of higher academic value presented in a simple way in N. Multiple Choice Questions at the end of the book for self-assessment of the topics studied.
Julia R. The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations: Joseph P Iannotti. Genitourinary System Human Body. Reinhold Munker.
Digestive and Respiratory Systems. Atlas of Applied Internal Liver Anatomy. Anatomy flashcards: Vertebral column. How to write a great review. The review must be at least 50 characters long. The title should be at least 4 characters long. Your display name should be at least 2 characters long. At Kobo, we try to ensure that published reviews do not contain rude or profane language, spoilers, or any of our reviewer's personal information. You submitted the following rating and review. We'll publish them on our site once we've reviewed them.
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Chi ama i libri sceglie Kobo e inMondadori. General Anatomy - E-book by Vishram Singh. Buy the eBook Price: Choose Store.
Or, get it for Kobo Super Points! Detailed exposition on basic principles of anatomical structures, and relationships and functions of these structures within the human body Chapters on skin, superficial fascia and deep fascia, skeleton, muscular system, cardiovascular system, radiological imaging anatomy and genetics have been revised thoroughly Clinical Correlations integrated in the text, highlighting practical application of anatomical facts, have been modified extensively Addition of new line diagrams and improvement in earlier diagrams Addition of halftone figures to enrich the understanding of clinical correlations Inclusion of new tables and flowcharts and revision of earlier tables Additional information of higher academic value presented in a simple way in N.
Skip this list. Ratings and Book Reviews 0 0 star ratings 0 reviews. Overall rating No ratings yet 0. How to write a great review Do Say what you liked best and least Describe the author's style Explain the rating you gave Don't Use rude and profane language Include any personal information Mention spoilers or the book's price Recap the plot.
Close Report a review At Kobo, we try to ensure that published reviews do not contain rude or profane language, spoilers, or any of our reviewer's personal information. Would you like us to take another look at this review? Fracture of scaphoid is the most common fracture of carpus and usually occurs due to fall on the outstretched hand. Distal part of olecranon process is formed as an upward extension of the shaft. In this condition when waist of scaphoid is fractured.
Tendon of extensor carpi ulnaris lies in the groove between the back of the head of ulna and styloid process. Try To Catch Her. The distal row of carpal bones consists of the following bones from lateral to medial side: Each row consists of four bones. Lower end middle of head Appearance: Secondary centres Upper end Appearance: Fracture occurs at the narrow waist of the scaphoid.
Carpus of primitive tetrapods consists of three bones in the proximal row.
Clinical correlation Scaphoid fracture Fig. The apex of triangular articular disc is attached to the depression between head and base of styloid process. She Looks Too Pretty. The styloid process is subcutaneous.
Its tip provides attachment to medial collateral ligament of wrist joint. The pisiform bone is usually regarded as a sesamoid bone developed in the tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris. The proximal row of carpal bones consists of the following bones from lateral to medial side: Blood vessels mostly enter the scaphoid through its both ends. In dislocation of elbow this relationship is disturbed. Gray's Anatomy for Students. The capitate is the first bone to ossify and pisiform is the last bone to ossify.
Trapezium 6. Pisiform 5. Clinical correlation The knowledge of ossification of carpal bones is important in determining the bone age of the child. Capitate 8. The spiral sequence of ossification of the carpal bones and approximate ages in years is given in Figure 2.
Copyright Elsevier Inc. Adam WM Mitchell. Richard L Drake. Scaphoid 2. Lunate 3. Wayne Vogl. Triquetral 4. Trapezoid 7. It is concave on palmar aspect and on sides.
CT scan of the wrist. The dorsal surface of shaft presents a triangular area in its distal part. It has epiphysis at its proximal end unlike other metacarpals. Barry E Kelly. Its base dose not articulate with any other metacarpal.
Copyright Elsevier Limited Its base possesses concavo-convex saddle-shaped articular surface for articulation with trapezium. The time of appearance of centres and their fusion is given in the box below: Center Primary centre for shaft Secondary centre for head of second. Capitate Head The head is at distal end and rounded. The head is less convex and broader than other metacarpals. The secondary centre of first metacarpal appears in its base.
Roy AJ Spence. Lunate Shaft The shaft extends between head and base. The first metacarpal is the shortest and stoutest bone. David JA Heylings. Integrated Anatomy. The sesamoid bones glide on radial and ulnar corners of head and produces impressions of gliding. They are conventionally numbered one to five from lateral radial to medial ulnar side. Ulna Radius Fig. The heads of distal phalanges is non-articular and has rough horseshoe-shaped tuberosity.
The bases of proximal phalanges have concave oval facet for articulation with the heads of metacarpals. Base 1. Clinical correlation An undisplaced fracture of phalanx can be treated satisfactorily by strapping the fractured finger with the neighboring finger.
The heads of proximal and middle phalanges are pulley shaped. The sesamoid bones related to head of the first metacarpal bones are generally noticed in X-ray of hand Fig. For middle phalanx: It is fracture of neck of metacarpal.
For distal phalanx: The sesamoid bones in region of hand are found on the following sites: Each phalanx ossifies by the two centres: The dorsal surface is convex from side to side. Secondary centres Appearance: It is intra-articular and may be associated with subluxation or dislocation of metacarpal. The shaft tapers towards the head. It is an oblique fracture of the base of 1st metacarpal.
The bases of middle and distal phalanges possess pulleyshaped articular surfaces. Upper Limb and Thorax Shaft 1. Their time of appearance is as follows: Primary centres For proximal phalanx: The palmar surface is flat from side to side but gently concave in the long axis. Suprasternal notch jugular notch: It is a palpable notch at the upper border of manubrium sterni between the medial ends of two clavicles. Muscles that connect the upper limb with the anterolateral chest wall. Posterior axillary line: It runs vertically downwards from the posterior axillary fold.
The skin of the pectoral region is supplied by the following cutaneous nerves Fig. Midclavicular line: It runs vertically downwards from the midpoint of the clavicle to the midinguinal point. It is the most important surface feature of the pectoral region. On either side. The important structures are present in this region are: It marks the junction of manubrium and the body of the sternum. Coracoid process: The tip of coracoid process is felt in the infraclavicular fossa.
Being subcutaneous in location. Anterior axillary line: It runs vertically downwards from the anterior axillary fold. Sternal angle angle of Louis: It is felt as a transverse ridge about 5 cm below the suprasternal notch. Its position varies considerably in the female but in the male. Midsternal line: It runs vertically downwards in the median plane on the front of the sternum. The sternal angle thus serves as a useful landmark to identify the 2nd rib and subsequently helps in counting down the other ribs.
Breasts mammary glands which secrete milk in female. Infraclavicular fossa: It is a triangular depression below the junction of middle and lateral third of the clavicle. Midaxillary line: It runs vertically downwards from a point located midway between the anterior and posterior axillary folds.
Serratus anterior. The area supplied by C4 spinal segment directly meets the area supplied by T2 spinal segment. Pectoralis major. Lateral cutaneous nerves T3—T6 Origin Pectoralis major muscle is thin fan shaped and arises by two heads.
Sternocostal head—arises from the a lateral half of the anterior surface of the sternum. Large sternocostal head. Clavicular head—arises from the medial half of the anterior aspect of the clavicle.
The skin above the horizontal line drawn at the level of sternal angle is supplied by supraclavicular nerves C3 and C4. Pectoralis minor.
Small clavicular head. Insertion of pectoralis minor Insertion of pectoralis major Origin of clavicular head of pectoralis major Origin of sternocostal head of pectoralis major C3 C4 T2 T3 T4 T1 Horizontal line passing through sternal angle Origin of pectoralis minor T5 T6 Fig. This is because the nerves derived from C5—T1 spinal segments form brachial plexus to supply the upper limb Fig.
The skin below this horizontal line is supplied by anterior and lateral cutaneous branches of the 2nd—6th intercostal nerves T2—T6. Insertion It is inserted by a short thick tendon into the medial border and upper surface of the coracoid process of the scapula. The anterior lamina of the tendon is formed by the clavicular fibres. The two laminae are continuous with each other inferiorly. Anterior surface of the medial half of clavicle 2. Anterior surface of the sternum Clinical testing: On lifting a heavy rod.
This causes weakness in adduction and medial rotation of the arm. Actions The clavicular head flexes the arm. Aponeurosis of external oblique It is the small triangular muscle that lies deep to the pectoralis major muscle.
The lower sternocostal and abdominal fibres in their course to insertion are twisted in such a way that fibres. Origin It arises from 3rd. Insertion Pectoralis major is inserted by a U-shaped bilaminar tendon on to the lateral lip of the bicipital groove. Nerve Supply Nerve supply is by medial and lateral pectoral nerves. This twisting of fibres forms the rounded axillary fold. The first 2 digitations are inserted into the superior angle.
Its upper part splits into two laminae to enclose the subclavius muscle.
It is thin and anchored firmly to the muscle by numerous fasciculi. Upper Limb and Thorax Origin It arises by a series of 8 digitations from upper eight ribs. Extent 1. The vertebral border and inferior angle of scapula protrude posteriorly. The first digitation arises from the 1st and 2nd ribs. The anterior lamina gets attached to the clavicle. The suspensory ligament keeps the dome of axillary fascia pulled up.. Actions 1. Its lower part splits to enclose the pectoralis minor muscle.
Clinical correlation Paralysis of serratus anterior: The paralysis of serratus anterior muscle following an injury to long thoracic nerve by stab injury or during removal of the breast tumor leads to the following effects: It is a powerful protractor of the scapula. The posterior lamina becomes continuous with the investing layer of deep cervical fascia and gets fused with the axillary sheath.
The axillary fascia is a dense fibrous sheet that extends across the base of the axilla. Below this muscle it extends downwards as the suspensory ligament of axilla. Insertion It is inserted into the costal surface of the scapula along its medial border. Its lower 4 or 5 digitations along with lower part of the trapezius rotate the scapula laterally and upwards during overhead abduction of the arm.
The mammary gland is found in both sexes. Shape Hemispherical bulge. The breast is located in the superficial fascia of the pectoral region. On rare occasions the breasts of male become enlarged. Lateral pectoral nerve 4. The thick upper part of the fascia extending from first rib near costochondral junction to the coracoid process is called costocoracoid ligament.
Pectoral Region Structures piercing clavipectoral fascia Investing layer of deep cervical fascia 1. Thoraco-acromial artery 2. The first two structures pass outwards. Selective Anatomy Prep Manual for Undergraduates. In female.
The anatomy of breast is of great surgical importance. Lymphatics from the breast to the apical group of axillary group of lymph nodes. A small extension from its superolateral part axillary tail of Spence however pierces the deep fascia and extends into the axilla. The aperture in the deep fascia through which axillary tail passes into the axilla is called foramen of Langer.
The axillary tail is the site of high percentage of breast tumor. Thoraco-acromial artery. The clavipectoral fascia encloses two muscles— subclavius and pectoralis minor. Lymphatics Clavipectoral fascia Axillary vein Axillary artery Lateral cord of brachial plexus Subclavius muscle Pectoral fascia Clavipectoral fascia Pectoralis minor Pectoralis major A Anterior axillary fold Coracoclavicular ligament Fig.
Cephalic vein 3. Lateral pectoral nerve. Cephalic vein. It contains large number of modified sebaceous glands. The suspensory ligaments of Cooper are arranged in a radial fashion. Being richly innervated by sensory nerve endings. Their atrophy due to ageing makes the breast pendulous in old age. It is a conical projection below the center of the breast. They connect the dermis of the overlying skin to the ducts of the breast and pectoral fascia. It is the circular area of pigmented skin surrounding the base of the nipple.
The fat forms the most of the bulk of the breast. During pregnancy the areola becomes darker and enlarged. It is distributed all over the breast except beneath the areola and the nipple. It consists of about 15—20 lobes arranged in a radial fashion like the spokes of a wheel and converge towards the nipple.
It is the covering for the breast and presents the following features: It forms the supporting framework of the breast.
They produce oily secretion. The stroma of breast consists of connective tissue and fat. It contains smooth muscle fibres. The color of the areola and nipple varies with the complexion of the woman. The ligaments of the Cooper maintain the protuberance of the breast. Nipple Fig. Stand in front of a long mirror and inspect both breasts for any discharge from the nipples. The six steps of breast self-examination are as follows Fig. In classical operation of radical mastectomy.
The lymph vessels from the deep surface of the breast pierce pectoralis major and clavipectoral fascia to drain into the apical group of axillary lymph nodes Fig.
Deep lymphatics drain the parenchyma of the breast..
The lymphatic drainage from the breast occurs as follows Fig. Among the axillary lymph nodes. The mammography Fig. These lymph nodes are situated deep to the lower border of pectoralis minor. Some lymphatics may go to the internal mammary lymph nodes of the opposite side. The lymph from medial quadrants is drained into internal mammary lymph nodes situated along the internal mammary artery. The superficial lymphatics of the breast of one side communicate with those of the opposite side.
A plexus of lymph vessels deep to the areola is called subareolar plexus of Sappey Fig. Clinical correlation Breast cancer carcinoma of the breast: It is one of the most common cancers in the females. Now look for any change in shape or contour of the breasts. A few lymph vessels from the lower lateral quadrant of the breast follow the posterior intercostal arteries and drain into posterior intercostal nodes located along the course of these arteries.
Superficial lymphatics drain the skin of the breast except that of nipple and areola. The lymph from anterior and posterior groups first goes to the central and lateral groups.
Clinically it presents as: The lymph from lateral quadrants of the breast is drained into anterior axillary or pectoral group of lymph nodes. It arises from the epithelial cells of the lactiferous ducts.
Consequently the unilateral malignancy may become bilateral. The subareolar plexus and most of the lymph from the breast drain into the anterior group of axillary lymph nodes. The few lymph vessels from the lower medial quadrant of the breast pierce the anterior abdominal wall and Axillary artery Axillary vein Apical group of axillary nodes Clavipectoral fascia Fig. At birth. Note the extent of milk line and possible positions of accessory nipples.
The stroma of breast develops from surrounding mesoderm. Upper Limb and Thorax depressed. In this condition suckling of infant cannot take place and nipple is prone to infection.
Usually it is bilateral and thought to occur due to hormonal imbalance. Developmental anomalies of the breast: The following developmental anomalies of the breasts are encountered during clinical practice: Abscess in this region is also common. The axillary artery and brachial plexus enter the axilla from neck through this gap. It also acts as a funnel shaped tunnel for neurovascular structures to pass from the root of the neck to the upper limb and vice versa.
It is a passageway between the neck and axilla. It is directed upwards and medially into the root of the neck and corresponds to the triangular space bounded in front by the clavicle. Groups of lymph nodes within it drain the upper limb and the breast. The study of axilla is clinically important because axillary lymph nodes are often enlarged and hence routinely palpated during physical examination of the patient. It contains the brachial plexus. Cervico-axillary canal Axilla armpit Upper border of scapula Outer border of first rib Posterior axillary fold Anterior axillary fold Clavicle Fig.
Upper Limb and Thorax Table 4. Subscapular artery. The pectoral branch supplies pectoral muscles. Lateral thoracic artery. From second part 1. From third part 1. It gives a. Thoraco-acromial artery acromiothoracic artery. These branches radiate at right angle to each other. In the females. It supplies the deltoid muscle and shoulder joint. Clinical correlation Collateral circulation through scapular anastomosis: If the subclavian and axillary arteries are blocked anywhere between 1st part of subclavian artery and 3rd part of axillary artery.
Posterior circumflex humeral artery. The scapular anastomosis takes place at two sites: Anterior circumflex humeral artery. Over the acromion process: It occurs between the a acromial branch of the thoraco-acromial artery. It gives an ascending branch. Axilla Armpit Pectoralis major Loop of communication between medial and lateral pectoral nerves Pectoralis major Pectoralis minor Lateral pectoral nerve Lateral cord Axillary vein Posterior cord Medial cord Long thoracic nerve First part of axillary artery A Axillary vein Medial pectoral nerve Serratus anterior first digitation Lateral cord Medial cord Second part of axillary artery Posterior cord Subscapularis B Medial root of median nerve Musculocutaneous nerve Third part of axillary artery Axillary nerve Radial nerve C Medial cutaneous nerve of forearm Medial cutaneous nerve of arm Axillary vein Ulnar nerve Subscapularis Teres major Fig.
Around the body of scapula: It occurs between the a suprascapular artery. Although these lymph nodes are located very deeply but can be palpated by pushing the fingers of one hand into the apex of axilla from below and fingers of the other hand behind the clavicle from above.
They lie lateral to the lower border of pectoralis minor muscle. If the contribution from C4 is large and that from T2 is absent. The sentinel nodes are confirmed by injecting a radioactive substance into the affected area of the breast.
Musculocutaneous nerve 3. Anterior or pectoral group: They lie along the lateral thoracic vein at the lower border of the pectoralis minor. Posterior or subscapular group: They lie on the posterior axillary fold along the subscapular vein. The axillary abscess is drained by giving an incision in the floor of axilla. Median nerve 5. Axillary nerve T1 2. A few efferents from this group drain into the supraclavicular lymph nodes.
They receive the lymph from the other groups and drain into the apical group vide infra. The intercostobrachial nerve passes amongst these nodes. An abscess in the axilla arises from infection and suppuration of the axillary lymph nodes.
The axillary tail of Spence is in actual contact with these lymph nodes. They are of great clinical importance.. They receive the lymph from the upper half of the trunk posteriorly. On the other hand. The pus of axillary abscess may track into the neck or into the arm if it enters the axillary sheath. These are usually the level I lymph nodes. C8 Key branches They lie deep to the pectoralis minor muscle.
The abscess may grow to a considerable size before the patient feels pain. They lie medial to the upper border of pectoralis minor muscle. Apical or infraclavicular group: They are situated deep to the clavipectoral fascia at the apex of the axilla along the axillary vein.
The roots and trunks are located in the neck. Ulnar nerve Fig. They receive the lymph from the upper half of the trunk anteriorly and from the major part of the breast. Components Fig. Radial nerve 4. They are divided into the following five groups: The palpation of axillary lymph nodes is part of clinical examination of the breast due to their involvement in cancer breast. Their number varies between 20 and They drain the lymph from the upper limb. The axillary lymph nodes are also described in terms of levels at which they are situated.
The lymph nodes first receive the lymph from the area of breast involved in cancer are termed sentinel lymph nodes. Lateral group: They lie along the upper part of the humerus in relation to the axillary vein. Central group: They are situated in the upper part of the axilla. They drain into subclavian lymph trunk on the right side and into the thoracic duct on the left side. Nerve to subclavius C5 and C6 Divisions Each trunk divides into anterior and posterior divisions.
They lie behind the clavicle. The posterior divisions of the three trunks unite to form the posterior cord. C8 and T1 roots join to form the lower trunk. Trunks The trunks three are formed as follows: The C5 and C6 roots join to form the upper trunk.
From lateral cord a Lateral pectoral nerve C5.
In addition to the long thoracic nerve and dorsal scapular nerve. They lie in the neck occupying the cleft between scalenus medius behind and the scalenus anterior in front. From trunks 1. Suprascapular nerve C5 and C6 2. From cords The cords three are formed as follows: From roots 1. Upper Limb and Thorax Branches Fig.
Roots The roots five are constituted of anterior primary rami of C5 to T1 spinal nerves. They are located in neck. The branches arising from roots and trunks are supraclavicular branches of brachial plexus. Cords C. It is the region of upper trunk of brachial plexus where six nerves meet as follows: Axilla Armpit 2. B Fig. From posterior cord a Radial nerve C5. Traction of the arm and hyperextension of the neck. For understanding the effects of the lesions of the brachial plexus.
From medial cord a Medial pectoral nerve C8 and T1. A B Fig. It is caused by the excessive increase in the angle between the head and shoulder. The structures at risk during this procedure are a intercostobrachial nerve.
In this deformity. The nerve roots involved in this injury are C8 and T1 and sometimes C7. It is caused by the hyperabduction of the arm. Effort should be made to safeguard the above structures. The axilla is approached surgically through the skin of the floor of axilla for the excision of axillary lymph nodes to treat the cancer of the breast.