How to draw manga Sketching Manga Style Vol 4 All about soundofheaven.info BibliotecaVirtual DiseñoGráfico. Uploaded by. B. DiseñoGráfico. Download with. How To Draw Manga: Sketching Manga-Style, Volume 1: Sketching As Composition Planning, How To Draw Manga: Sketching Manga-Style, Volume 2: Logical. how to draw manga Sketching Manga-Style Vol. PDF download * I DO NOT TAKE CREDIT FOR THESE SCANS* scanned by: ebwish at.
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There Is No Preview Available For This Item. This item does not appear to have any files that can be experienced on soundofheaven.info How To Draw Sketching Manga Style Vol. 1 Sketching To Plan. How to Draw Manga Sketching (Manga-Style) - Vol. 1 Sketching to Plan - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. How to Draw.
Clothing essentially serves to conceal the body. The spine itself bends little. Project management:. Drawing this line to match the axial line will facilitate achieving visual balance and allow you to capture the figure as a three-dimensional object. This is a rounder ellipse than that used for the front view.
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Normally, both the inside and outside corners of the eyes would be parallel. The eyelid is a piece of skin covering a curved surface. Consequently, rendering the eyelid as a curved line suggests the roundness of the eye. The eyeballs sit inside sockets, which are openings on a curved surface. Because this surface is curved, the eyes' exterior contours change according to whether they are drawn from a front, low, or high angle.
When creating a realistic rendition, give the nose a rounded tip. In the case of a manga-esque character, the nose's tip may be pointed. When composing from a front, low angle view, include the underside of the nose.
In this figure, the mouth is open, causing the jaw line to change shape. The chin narrows. Unlike the other facial features, the ears are not located on the front of the face. Conceive of the ears as protuberances jutting out from the sides of the head. The base of the ear, which attaches to the head lies at an oblique angle.
The shape of the ear drawn here is too similar to that composed from a front view of the head. This is a rounder ellipse than that used for the front view.
The angle is also not as vertical. The next few pages cover the natural depressions and protuberances in the human skull and the facial expressions created by the face 's muscles. Make an effort to master the basic recesses and protuberances of the three-dimensional skull.
The nose primarily comprises the nasal J bone and cartilage. Note that the hatched region denotes a portion of the skull that does not move.
This denotes the side centerline. The cervical vertebrae or neck bones attach to the rear half of the skull. The white regions J.? There are also muscles behind the ears that affect the face's appearance, but it is not particularly necessary for an artist to be concerned with these muscles.
Multiple muscles at the side of the cheek wrap around to attach underneath the jaw. The jaw's motion pulls at the facial muscles. The motion caused by muscular expansion and contraction creates our facial expressions. It also causes bulges or mounds in the flesh as well as wrinkles and creases. These should be rendered using hatching or contour lines, giving variation to a character's expression. Muscles pull the flesh, causing the eye to slope downward. Muscular contraction around the eyes causes the cheek to rise.
The corners of the mouth are pulled outward. The upper eyelid sags. I The center of the face brow tenses, while muscular contraction becomes directed from the nose to the face 's side. Muscular tension pulls the flesh toward the face's sides. When drawing even a character stylized in a manga manner, maintain awareness of the direction of muscular contractions and where the muscles bunch when the face smiles.
A dynamic character will result. The corners of the mouth rise equally. A lopsided grin would result in a sardonic look. Winking is occasionally abstracted or symbolized in manga using an upside-down V. The eyes do not form an upside-down V when closed. When winking, effort must be expended to keep the other eye open. The muscles underneath the eye contract toward the left and right, while the upper eyelid is pulled upward.
Shutting an eye involves not only the eyelids. The muscles in the cheeks and nose bunch into mounds accompanying this movement. When smiling, the direction of tension follows a radial projection with the corners of the mouth as the centers.
The nostrils also expand owing to the movements of the mouth's muscles. Artists use a variety of angles and movements to dramatize manga and anime characters. Often an artist is required to make a realistic character perform like a character in a movie as the plot or production demands. Artists need to learn basic human slkeletal structure, musculature, how the bones and muscles affect the figure as a solid, and how they move.
However, strict attention to anatomy or locomotion does not readily lend itself artwork production. This chapter contains an overview of key points in human skeletal structure, musculature, and movement that are pertinent to cultivating drawing skills in a context dedicated to artwork production.
The reader should make an effort to acquire the specific knowledge forming the foundation to artwork production and master drawing techniques. The Backbone Forms the Base of Composition The spine is like a column that originates at the head, extends through the torso, including the waist, and ends at the pelvis.
The spine, which runs along the figure's center, supports the body, and movement in the entire body expands from the spine. Taking care to compose the figure's motions around the spine will allow you to create characters with a sense of presence. The spine runs along the body's center. Try drawing figures from the rear to learn to conceive of the spine as the body's centerline. In a layout, the spine becomes the back's centerline. In these diagrammatic studies of poses, the torso is represented symbolically in stick form by the spine.
The spine appears as a straightforward representation in simplified, abstracted figures. Showing consideration of the spine when drawing even an unaffected pose allows you, the artist, to imbue your character with a sense of presence. Maintain consciousness of the spine as an "S" curve. The "S" curve becomes even more pronounced when the character looks back or makes another such twisting motion.
Straight-on, Rear View. From a straight-on, back view the spine traces a sinuous "S" curve through the torso's center. Humans rarely adopt a perfectly straight, upright posture. When showing the figure adopting a natural, leaning position, rendering the spine's layout as an "S" or sideways "V" will facilitate drawing the pose.
The spine plays a key role in portrayal of three motions: Render the spine as a gently curving arc when drawing a rounded back, as seen in this pose. In this pose, the back forms a twisted surface. Use an "S" curve for the backbone. Once you have drawn the head and the torso, simply adding the arms and legs allows you to create a wide range of poses. Adding arms and legs to the basic head and torso layout pictured above allows you easily to create a standing or seated figure. Kneeling with the Body Held Erect Take careful note of the angles of the shoulders and pelvis when drawing the arms and legs.
Moderately adjusting the torso according to the arms and legs will consistently allow you to produce appealing poses. Whenever drawing a figure, first determine the centerline's appearance. Since the back contains what is the body's natural centerline, these steps show how to draw the figure maintaining awareness of the spine. Use the horizontal line as a guide for the ears' positions.
This line marking the torso's bottommost point also indicates the groin's position. When drawing from a di1rectly frontal or rear view, the shoulders become situated at even distances from the centerline. Sketch the layout for the overall torso while balancing the right and left sides. The arms and legs are not yet added at this point. Once the torso, including the neck and shoulders, has finished taking shape, sketch layouts for the arms and legs.
Adjust the contours and add the scapulae and other details to complete the under drawing. Undulations in the torso's contours appear when drawing a figure from a moderately high angle, making curved lines essential to the drawing.
Below is an actual example of using a layout with an "S" curved spine. CD Roundness of the head which imparts a sense of volume is vital. In order to ensure that the overhead angle is easy to capture visually, first sketch a circle-and-X layout of the head, adhering to the head's rounded surface, and then draw a layout of the neck.
Use an extremely light line to sketch an "S" curve spine guide. Next, draw the shoulder guideline at an oblique angle. Note that the shoulders should not be equidistantly spaced from the spine. Adjust the torso's contours while emphasizing the line of the spine. Draw the torso's layout, including the exterior contours. This angle of composition accentuates the tapering at the waist and the swelling of the buttocks, requiring a sideways "V" shaped curve for the spine.
Drawing lines at the side makes it easier to determine the torso's thickness. Once the torso's form has been captured satisfactorily, then go ahead and add layout for the arms and legs. Emphasizing the spine, especially at the waist, gives the figure a clearer sense of three-dimensionality.
The exterior contour from the waist to the pelvis is a relatively straight line, contrasting with the roundness of the posterior. Apply shadows in an inverted "V" shape to portray the protruding scapulae. Completed Sketch. Add layouts for the chest and the pelvis over the "S" curved spine to capture the figure's overall form.
CD Use a circle for the head 's layout in profile as you would for a front view. Establish the positions of the shoulder, navel, and groin and draw an "S" shaped guideline denoting the spine. While capturing the torso's overall shape, add layouts for the shoulder and elbow. Adjust the shape of the head.
Omit the pelvis's layout, but add a layout capturing the leg's form. Adjust the shapes of the head and chest while cleaning up the exterior contours of the figure overall. For the figure above, the face, hair, breast, and other details were added next, thus completing the nude under drawing. When adding clothes, use a nude under drawing as the layout and draw the clothes on top of the figure.
In this view, the "S" curve of the spine forms a gentle sinuous line. Establish the position and length of the shoulder guideline. Decide temporarily where to position the shoulders and draw the shoulder guideline. The guidelines for the shoulders and groin are not visible in profile i.
Using the spine guideline to draw the shoulder and groin guidelines will clarity the positions of the near and far shoulders as well as the positions of the legs. In turn, this will make the twisting motion easier to , capture. The spine is straight as when drawing a back view; however, it is completely obscured in the front view. Pay attention to balancing in terms of the right and left shoulders and the torso's width when drawing the torso's layout. Adding the axial line will immediately clarify whether or not the two sides are balanced.
An artist rarely is called upon to draw a figure standing in a stiff, bolt-upright position. However, when the artist is designing characters and seeks to identify differences in body types, drawing the figures standing in a bolt upright, frontal pose will clarify differences in shoulder breadth or the torso's width or thickness.
When intending to draw two male characters with contrasting builds in this case lean versus muscular , the torso's width will vary. Guideline Defining the Backbone from the Front The Axial Line The centerline of the figure's front is known as the axial line or median and is used to correspond to the spine, which appears on the back.
Draw a single line traveling from where the clavicles meet the sternum to the center of the sternum and down to the navel. This constitutes the axial line. Drawing the axial line facilitates achieving symmetrical balance and makes the figure easier to compose.
Connecting the centerlines on the front and rear sides illustrates the torso's thickness. When the body bends into a sideways "V", the axial line takes on a sideways "V" shape as well.
The steps in drawing layouts for the head, torso, and overall fiigure are the same as when drawing a rear view. Since the fiigure's front is visible, the axial line is drawn at the step as tlhe spine.
This allows you to grasp the body's thickness and capture the figure as a solid object, resulting in a character with a sense of presence. Draw the spine's guideline and the axial line. Add layouts for the arms, legs, and joints. Adjust the contours. Rendering the spine with an "S" curve or arced line breathes life into a standing figure. Spines in a sinuous "S" curve appear on people standing in an unaffected, unconscious manner.
Often, the individual will shift his or her weight to either the left or right. Make an effort on a regular basis to observe people behaving unconsciously. This will allow you to draw characters comporting themselves in a natural manner. Each character in the group is assuming a different posture, generating a natural atmosphere.
We adjust the positions of our heads, torsos, spines, arms, and legs to maintain balance to prevent us from falling over. When drawing, paying attention to the center of gravity will generate an overall sense o1' balance.
Being aware of the space between the feet when drawing enhances the character's sense of presence. A standing figure's center of gravity is situated between the two feet.
Regardless of which leg bears the figure's weight, the center of gravity is always located between the two feet. In the figure above, the feet are spread widely, projecting a commanding atmosphere. Even in the case of a chibi i. When drawing a character running with the arms swinging and legs kicking forward and backward, the figure will still appear stable even if the head is not positioned between the feet.
If the head is not located between the feet, the figure will appear as if it is about to tip over. However, in a single panel or drawing a visually unstable figure might create an impressive effect. Most of the body is located between the two feet, preventing the figure from topping over. Center of Gravity The head, upper body, and lower body including the posterior are all located outside of the feet.
However, because the torso's center is located over the feet, the figure does not topple over. Compose the figure so that a straight line could be drawn connecting the head to the foot planted on the ground. When portraying a running figure, the center of gravity is constantly shifting. Consequently, drawing the torso at a dramatically oblique angle will make the figure appear balanced. When standing still on one foot, the center of gravity is located over that foot.
The above is the image to the left drawn from a front view. The center of gravity is located almost perfectly over the foot's center. In this incorrect example, the center of gravity is not located above the foot touching the ground. In reality, the figure would tip over. When portraying running, the center of gravity may be located outside of the feet, provided that the figure is depicted moving. In this corrected version, shifting the upper body allowed the center of gravity to be brought over the load-bearing foot.
Torsion in the upper body results in a more dynamic-looking composition. When composing a figure leaning back, the head should still be located somewhere between the two feet. When drawing a character leaning forward, positioning the posterior somewhere behind the feet will make the figure appear visually balanced. Make an effort to learn the basic makeup of the skeletal structure and musculature. Shin Skeletally, the shin comprises two bones, but the shin may be rendered as a single bone.
Metatarsophalang eal articulation Ankle This part of the foot is capable of motion. Indicate that in your artwork. The joints allow turning and twisting motions and possess a certain amount of flexibility, which makes minor stretching possible. When the arm is extended forward, the shoulder shifts forward as well. The neck and spine are series of small bones and joints, allowing arcing, curved movement. Knee The tip of the knee or patella is attached to the joint.
The ligaments and tendons connecting the tips of the tibia and femur stretch, allowing us to sit with our legs folded underneath. The contours on the front surface of the figures define undulations in the muscles. Make an effort to learn the names of the major muscles, especially those appearing in bold print.
Sartorius muscle Medial vastus muscle Medial rectus muscle Patella Anterior tibial muscle Gastrocnemial muscle. The figure above shows the major muscles appearing in a front view, arranged in large muscle groups. The line running down the center of the abdominal muscles suggests a moderately taut stomach.
The image to the left is an anatomically correct rough sketch of the muscles. Not only are the muscles difficult to identify accurately, but it is also difficult to apply and draw anatomically correct musculature. Sternocleidomastoid muscle Trapezius muscle Deltoid muscle Greater pectoral muscle. Sartorius muscle Iliotibial band Lateral vastus muscle Rectus femoris muscle Biceps femoris muscle lliofibular muscle Gastrocnemial muscle Anterior tibial muscle Soleus muscle. Draw the kneecap patella as if it were projecting outward from between the muscles.
The figure above shows a realistic rendition of the back's elaborate musculature. When drawing a female character, accentuate the inward curve of the back to create the appearance of a limber back.
Maintain awareness of the muscular structure forming rises and falls when drawing such undulations on the figure's surface. Accentuating regions of bulging and depression create the illusion of flesh and muscle.
Consequently, maintaining awareness of which objects are close to the picture plane and which objects are far and hidden will allow you to generate a sense of three-dimensionality.
The far mountain is hidden behind the near mountains, rendered in outline. Objects close to the picture plane blocking objects far from the picture plane create a sense of depth. The face and neck constitute a close mountain. The right shoulder is a far mountain. Layering solid objects allows you to establish the spatial relationships between objects, even when using simple outlines. Omission of the contours extending into the areas where the arm attaches to the shoulder and at the elbow completely loses any sense of volume, resulting in a flat image.
In the above, it is unclear which object is close and which is far, eliminating any sense of threedimensionality. No particular portrayal of musculature is necessary. Imagine this character's muscles as being I obscured under layers. This character displays contours denoting muscles all over his body.
Adding lines around the clavicles, the abdomen, and the knees in particular accentuates the illusion of volume. Simply drawing contours to define bulges in the muscles and accentuating the chest muscles sufficiently suggest a muscular build.
This figure illustrates the portrayal of back muscles. Accentuating the bulge over the scapula and back muscles generates the brawny appearance of a martial artist's developed musculature.
All characters, regardless of the artistic style in which they are drawn, have muscles underneath their flesh. Therefore, their muscles move in the same way with respect to their own actions. Maintaining awareness of the muscles' presence even to a minor extent when drawing a figure will imbue that character with a sense of presence and dynamism. Using a small bulge to accentuate the shoulder constitutes a key point in rendering muscles on a female character, while still maintaining a sense of girlishness.
When portraying a professional wrestler's muscles, rather than using contours to accentuate every single muscle as you might with a body builder, instead use rounded, bulging forms to suggest muscles in the chest and arms. Perceiving male characters as having "hard bodies" with generally well-defined musculature and female characters as having "supple bodies" covered with soft fat will allow portrayal of a wide range of characters.
Hard Bodies for Male Characters Sinews and muscles should be exaggerated on male figures to create a strapping, big-boned appearance. Soft Bodies for Female Characters Downplay portrayal of musculature in female characters. Suggestion of fatty padding underneath the skin evokes a silky, supple impression.
Exaggerating the bones of the elbows and knees creates the sense of a big-boned figure. Accentuate the muscles in the abdomen and arms. Give the figure a narrowed waist.
Use a generous amount of contour lines to portray a muscularly developed figure. The backs of both muscularly developed and undeveloped characters may be similarly portrayed. The addition of muscle detail in the back suggests an athlete with hyper-muscular definition. Women tend to carry more adipose tissue than men in the bodies overall, which gives women supple, pliant muscles. Draw female characters while envisioning a soft form.
Remember to give even characters with slim builds a sense of soft tat underneath the skin and give these figures ample breasts and buttocks. Adipose tissue collects readily around the posterior, so draw the buttocks with curved contours. Muscular Female Figures Drawing a female character with defined muscles will make her look masculine, enhancing the appearance of strength. When a woman exercises, she tends to lose adipose tissue rather than gain muscle mass. Consequently, the silhouette of a female character does not lend itself to showing off that she has developed muscles.
A man with only moderate exercise should be able to achieve the same size as a muscularly developed woman. Be certain to establish distinctions between male and female builds at the layout stage. These proportions apply to both the front and back views. Female figures should have narrower shoulders and waists.
Hip width on male and female figures is virtually identical. The chest and waist should be shallow on a female figure. Draw female characters with slender chests and waists. There is no need to draw female characters with the back of the posterior at a greater distance from the front. Curvature in the spine tends to be similar for both male and female characters. However, note the significant difference in the roundness of the buttocks.
The spine is evident on The posterior protrudes a male figure. Take note of musculature around the spine and of the posterior when drawing the figures. The figure is angular overall and rendered using relatively straight contours. In addition to the torso, neck, arms, and legs. Drawing the height of female characters to come about level with the eyes of male characters makes the two distinguishable at a glance even in "long-shot" small compositions. Maintain an image of smoothness when drawing the surface of a female character's arm and omit skin folds and sinew contours.
Adding skin folds and muscle contours to a male character's arm creates the appearance of a masculine limb. Thick Masculine Fingers Making the joints bony and projecting generates a rugged look. Make an effort to master the basic motions of the joints in order to create a natural portrayal or illustrate movement effectively. Adding muscle contour lines to the neck gives the head and the neck the illusion of three-dimensionality.
The underside of the jaw comes into view, making this angle the best for representing the head as a solid object. The muscles to the neck's side extend from beneath the ear to the clavicle.
The jaws of male and female figures display no difference in width. Give male figures thicker necks and add more contour lines. In the case of a female character, using inward arcing curves for the exterior contours creates the appearance of a slender neck. Rendering the neck using these two contours allows you to give the neck and head a sense of volume. There are three primary muscles that are pertinent to the neck's movements and contour lines. Right and Left Motions: Right and Left Extension and Contraction The muscles extending to the shoulders extend and contract to match the motion.
Tilting the Head: Right and Left Motion When the shoulders are held in a relaxed position, the head can tilt to approximately a 30" angle. Raising a Shoulder While Facing Forward When the head twists in the opposite direction, the head becomes. Direction faced Shoulder guideline The face is incapable of positioning in perfect profile if the torso is facing toiWard.
Exaggerating the Adam's apple distinguishes the male character from a female character, even when the neck is slender. The rear muscle stretches dramatically, pulling the muscle extending from the shoulder to the neck, causing a large bulge.
The chin does not touch the chest even when the mouth is open. Show the head rising from the upper jaw, using the lower jaw's position as a reference point. Both involve the force d the k's contours an the nee becom e pronounced. Note that the torso may shift positions according to which direction the head faces.
When the face turns in perfect profile, the torso tends to turn slightly sideways as well the torso should not face perfectly forward. Correct When both the head and torso face forward, the neck attaches normally to the head and torso. When turning the head from a perfect profile position toward the picture plane, the torso should shift slightly toward the picture plane as well, Note that the head can causing the neck's silhouette to take on a never face perfectly sideways "V" shape.
The head never turns in perfect profile. When naturally turning toward the picture plane fmm a rearfacing position ancl the majority of the face comes into view, the torso turns until it is almost in perfect profile. The neck functions to connect the head to the torso.
The neck's shape and contour lines change according to the direction faced by the torso, even if the head is positioned at a consistent angle. Make an effort to master the torso's basic motions with the spine at their core. In a high-angle composition looking at the figure's back, the spine appears perfectly straight.
The manner in which the spine curves changes according to the fig ure's pose and angle of composition. How you draw the spine's curve also helps determine the pose. When sketching a full-figure layout, draw a centerline to equate the spine. Drawing this line to match the axial line will facilitate achieving visual balance and allow you to capture the figure as a three-dimensional object.
Draw the curves of the axial line to match almost perfectly with those of the spine. A sketchy, curved line is sufficient, since you will not actually be drawing the spine itself.
The entire spine bends a little between each vertebral segment. The waist constitutes a key point when drawing. The spine itself bends little. Rather, conceive of the body as bending dramatically at the waist. The human body does not bend perfectly to the side. A 45 angle seems to be the limit. The hip plays an important role in dramatic motions. Note that the spine does not form a "U". The skin covering the stomach and the abdominal muscles are pulled and stretch, causing the ribs to stick out.
The front of the body seems to be held erect, making the back appear significantly arced. The inverted "V" shape of the silhouette makes the backward arc appear even more pronounced.
When drawing, take careful note of the movements of the shoulder and scapula. In this under drawing, hatched shadows were added in strategic positions to create a sense of three-dimensionality. This imbues unaffected, unconscious actions as well as dramatic motions with a sense of movement. Dramatic backbends result from coordination of the neck, waist, and hip joints as well as the spine.
The above image shows a figure with the upper body twisting in the opposite direction as the one to the left. Someone with training might be capable of bending to the extent shown in the image above.
However, the key points to note are the neck and the hips. In a more pronounced twisting motion, the spine displays even more dramatic torsion.
Upon raising the upper body, the back extends, causing the skin folds at the waist to disappear. The shoulder's joint comprises the scapula and the clavicle. Take the time to learn the structures of the arm and the shoulder. Front View Note the anatomy surrounding the base of the neck. The silhouette's angle changes according to the shoulder's movement. These contours indicate boundaries between bulging muscles appearing on the arm's surface. Upper arm muscles Scapula Muscles extending from underneath the elbow.
The scapula and clavicle form a pair. Draw them overlapping the thoracic region. The muscles of the back expand broadly from the rear of the neck to the shoulders and the back. Elbow The majority of the scapula lies toward the back. However, a portion of the scapula wraps around to the front, forming part of the shoulder.
The shoulder's right, left, up, and down motions enable us to raise our shoulders and make them shift forward. The shoulder is capable of right, left, up, and down motions. The clavicle and scapula work in combination to move along with the shoulder's motions. The clavicle shifts obliquely from where it attaches at the base of the neck.
The distance between the scapula's lower region and the spine changes dramatically in association with the arm's movements. How the back is drawn should also change accordingly.
When both arms are raised, the scapulae move away from the spine, forming an inverted "V" shape. Raising the arms pulls the chest upward, causing the breasts to elongate vertically. Failing to show movement in the scapula and clavicle will make the character appear like a stiff robot.
The image below shows a cross-section of the torso from above. Note the scapula's scope of movement. Forward Motion The scapulae move closer together on the back, and the back overall. Looking directly down at the torso reveals that the shoulders are actually located behind the spine.
The flesh covering the back and the muscles underneath shift toward the spine and contract, while the chest expands considerably. When the arms support the body's weight, the scapulae cause pronounced bulges.
When one arm is extended forward, the clavicle becomes partially hidden by the bulge of the shoulder's muscles. The arms contours change when it turns. In particular, take careful note of the dramatic changes that occur in the contour lines from the elbow to the wrist.
When the thumb is rotated inward, the muscles torque, and the arm 's resulting silhouette contours are relatively straight. When the thumb is rotated outward, the muscle contours are straight, and the arm 's contours form pronounced mounds on either side just below the elbow. When the palm faces up, the thumb is rotated completely to the outside. The top of the arm now rotated down has an arcing silhouette. The arm 's silhouette changes when the wrist moves, causing the arm 's muscles to stretch and contract The upper arm does not change when the lower arm from the elbow rotates.
The legs' contours change as the leg shifts i. Note that the leg does not shift directions from below the knee. When the toes are turned out, the legs' silhouettes follow flowing , curvilinear contours. The above shows the legs toes turned outward. This illustrates the extent to which a normal human can turn the toes outward without special training.
Split with the Toes Lying Forward The pelvis rotates forward, forcing the waist to bend back like a bow in order to prevent the body from falling forward. The legs are capable of spreading to almost Torsion occurs at the waist when a leg swings forward or back. As with a forward high kick, when doing a split on the ground, the waist turns, allowing the legs to spread both forward and back.
The above shows a forward split from directly beneath the figure or a high kick looking straight at the figure. The waist pelvis is forced to torque so that he raised and lowered legs can be held in a.
Torsion at the waist makes arabesque poses possible. However, unlike a forward high kick, the legs do not spread to a angle. Visualize the hand as solid segments when attempting to capture its shape.
Imagine the palm as divisible into four segments allowing movement. Creases appear where the palm connects to the wrist. Steps in Drawing Thumb segment. The layout sketch consists of the exterior contours of the form overall and offers a rough illustration of the borders between the four main segment-types.
This curved contour defines the swell at the thumb's base and creates a sense of threedimensionality. From the back, visualize the knuckle segment as a crosssection cut at,an oblique angle. When the hand is rotated back, , it tenses, caiUsing muscle contours, etc. The silhouette of the back of the hand changes according to whether the hand is relaxed or tense.
Show the fingers tapering toward the tips. Draw a layout of the back of the hand as two segments. The arm is cylindrical, so use a curve to define where the arm meets the wrist.
Creases in the skin form where one basic "hand segment" meets another, as these junctures also constitute where bending occurs. Visualize a box when drawing a loosely gripped fist.
Fingertip When the hand is gripped in a fist, the tips of the fingers touch this part of the palm. Base of the fingers i. Creases form in abundance when the hand bunches together. Tendons bulge on the back of the fingers that are tensed. When the fingers are relaxed, the tendons are no. Then hand becomes tense when bunched together, causing this finger to arc Lj backward. The hand is not a flat board but rather muscle and skin covering fingers, etc. Correct The palm should spread proportionally as the fingers spread.
Incorrect Note that the fingers will never spread without the palm broadening in area as well. Like the hand, conceive of the foot as including a segment where the toes attach to the foot. As with the hand, actions such as bending and spreading the toes originate from the knuckle segment.
The ankle's bony projection on the big toe's side is situated higher than that on the little toe's side. Draw an oblique line connecting both sides of the ankle at the layout sketching stage to use as a guide for the ankle. Draw the sole of the foot following the ground's contour almost perfectly when showing the foot planted on the ground. The foot's bottom contour on the little toe's side forms an almost perfectly straight line.
Looking at the Heel Draw parallel guidelines for the toes and the heel before drawing a diagonal guideline for the ankle. This will make the ankle easier to capture accurately. The foot is shaped ' like a wedge that becomes deeper at the heel and shallower at the toes.
Use the little toe's knuckle as a guide for determining where the contour's curve should change directions. Determine the angle of composition and sketch a layout of the primary contours. Using a sideways "V" for the ankle's contour generates the illusion of a bony projection. Ii The ankle is capable of moving up and down over a wide range about 90 in extent. The ankle is capable of bending inward to a 45 angle but is only capable of minimal outward bending.
The exterior of the foot tenses when the ankle bends inward while thrusting with the heel. Make an effort to impart the lowermost regions of the torso with a sense of volume. While the legs do attach to the posterior, the width 1 of the buttocks differs from that of ' the legs. The top of the leg, where it attaches to the torso is actually narrower than that of the buttock. Depth of the top of the leg.
Keeping the top of the leg on the narrow side will make the thigh appear slender even if the buttock is plump. I A cross-section of the thigh reveals that it is not perfectly round but rather an ellipse that is longer in depth than width. Thigh Exaggerating the juncture where the posterior and leg meet i. The above shows a figure with the same-sized posterior, but even slimmer legs.
Countless characters designed with proportionally implausible yet still appealing faces and bodies appear in the world of manga and anime. Artists require a wide repertoire of portrayal techniques in order to give birth to appealing characters, richly varied in design and who seem to live and breathe on their own. But, how can an artist create a character with a sense of presence that is able to make an impact on the reader?
There are various elements at the artist's disposal, such as giving each character a different body type or hairstyle, dressing the characters in eccentric or individualistic wardrobes, or using compositions that impart a sense of three-dimensionality. Yet, there are aspects that make these elements difficult to master solely on one's own. However, the reader has nothing to fear.
Using manga sketching as the foundation of character design will allow you, as an artist, to acquire these skills. This chapter covers techniques of representation, including effective adjusting of the character's hairstyle, costume, etc. The reader should make an effort to learn these skills, which allow artists to create appealing characters teeming with originality.
This next section covers how to miniaturize a normalsized character. Learning to consider how to indicate the miniaturized version is the same character as the original will allow the reader to improve artistically. Half-sized Version 1: Despite the miniscule size, she is still recognizable as the same character. Stylization of a character consists of simplification. The general atmosphere projected by the character becomes distilled and intensified as the degree of abstraction is increased.
Minimize contour lines 2. Simplify complicated lines 3. Draw out and emphasize the character 1S identifying features. To create the above, 1. When drawing the face, simplify the shape's face i. Often, artists will omit contours for the bridge of the nose or the nostrils, etc. To create the above, 3. Exaggerate the tufts of hair and the ears through increasing their sizes. Another effective technique is enlarging the mouth, making it an identifying feature of this character. The Head-to-Body Ratio and Stylization: Idealized Proportions 1: Chibi "Superdeformed" or "Ultrastylized" Character 1: The face alone does not make a character unforgettable.
This section covers stylizing the hair, figure, clothing, and all other aspects of a character's design to make him or her memorable. Face and Hair Draw out features that generate a sense of form e.
Build Draw out features that generate a sense of form e. Add props that are particular to the character. For this exercise, you, the reader, should add anything that comes to mind, while taking into consideration the design's goals. Play around with the character's facial expression, clothing design, and other elements.
In the above, the hair was lengthened and drawn with the edges swept outward to create a distinctive silhouette. The outward swept hair creates the impression of a vivacious personality. To create the above, first the character was given short hair with slightly upward slanting eyes to create the impression of an energetic personality. But she still seemed to be lacking that certain je ne sais quai, so the goggles were added.
How quickly can this character be drawn? This might not necessarily apply in the case of a book or magazine illustration, where the character only needs to be drawn once. However, in the case of manga or anime where the character will be drawn over and over again, ease of drawing should be taken into consideration.
How pleasing is the final character design to you? Do you like the way the character looks? In order to gain an objective perspective and select those aspects of the design you like, it is vital critical that after having finished drawing a character, you set it aside of a short time and then go back for a second look.
Characters' faces must be designed so that they can be identified just through their silhouette. There are two approaches to designing a distinctive head: Determining the Design Beforehand: This approach involves using a variety of layout shapes, such a rectangle, instead of beginning solely with a standard circle-and-X layout. A basic oval is suited to this approach. Establish the silhouette or target look beforehand and then start by drawing a rectangular layout.
When drawing a character with a narrow jaw, shave away at the round jaw line while maintaining symmetrical balance. Be certain to identify accurately the ideal angle of the jaw from the cheek to the chin. Starting with an oval layout makes drawing characters with oval faces easier. To draw the hair's layout, add volume i.
The layout marks the final size of the character's head without further modification. Consequently, this approach offers the advantage of making the figure's overall proportioning easy to capture in that it facilitates establishing the head-tobody ratio.
Adding to the Design While Drawing: Designing the face using a simplified form for the jaw makes it easy to create a character with a unique face shape. Because this approach involves adding a simplified jaw to the head, it affords the advantage of making it easier to capture the face from moderately difficult angles, such as an overhead view, etc.
Imagine a paper cup cut in half and then attached to the character's head. Play around with a variety of jaw shapes when sketching the layout. You might find yourself creating a character you never even imagined.
Drawing the neck before adding the jaw resulted in an enormous head.
Draw the brow approximately level with the top of the bridge of the nose. The drawn jaw is equivalent to the skeletal jaw. While the artist may take liberty with the jaw's length and shape, it still must originate from just underneath the ear. Any size or shape may be used for the ears and nose. However, normal human proportioning still dictates their positions. This constitutes the design for the face shape of this character. Be certain to draw the character's face in profile with the added jaw.
When designing a character, always ensure that you have a firm grasp of the face design you selected. This approach has the advantage of making it easier to capture the head's shape at the layout stage from a variety of views, according to the desired angle of composition.
This jaw design is well suited to strong, masculine male characters, such as a reliable middle-aged man. This jaw shape may be used with both male and female characters. In the case of female characters, a triangular jaw works well with tidy, virginal female character types, such as a gentle older girl. Trapezoidal jaws work well with eccentric characters, such as a villain or scientist. Once you have grown accustomed to drawing the exterior contours, you should be able to turn out a usable sketch in one go.
The above is a rough sketch of a face in profile. Be certain to draw guidelines to establish the positions of the eyes, nose, and mouth until you become accustomed to proportioning properly the faces you design. Make an effort to play with the head-to-body ratio and design characters with a variety of body types, unique to each and that will inspire descriptions like "good-looking," "cute," or "individualistic," etc. The above shows a figure drawn at a realistic 1: The head appears large with respect to the overall figure.
Manga characters often display proportioning that differs from realistic human proportions. This is because adult characters with smallish heads generate the appearance of attractive, agile actors in an action or dramatic context. The head-to-body visually pleasing 1: Giving the figure long legs and these proportions, such a character is referred to stylizing the body overall produce a visually as "realistic. The above shows a character with hands and feet stylized so that they are proportionally large.
This is the proportioning frequently used to redesign a 1: Characters with Kewpie r doll proportioning lend themselves toward illustrating humorous and sweetly endearing motions or behavior. These characters form the foundation of character drawing practice.
The above shows a figure with tiny hands and feet, following Kewpie r doll proportioning. Draw the character to have an overall roundish silhouette. Using a 1: Showing back muscles underneath the underarm creates the look of a physically strong physique with good posture.
Male bodies store less fat, and showing the pelvic bones jut out a little produces a bonier, more rugged look. Show tapering at ttle arm's joints to su est undulations in the muscles.
Draw the figure to appear taut at the waist. The torso should be relatively straight from the waist down with only minor widening. The muscles of the above figure are rendered so as to avoiding giving the character a brawny look. The neck and legs are short. The arms are cylindrical with little undulations in the musculature. The hands and feet are small, projecting a physically feeble impression. Suggesting a delicate layer of fat covering the abdominal muscles and pelvis produces the look of soft curves at the waist.
The legs are relatively straight from the knees down. Using a subtle "X" shape for the exterior contours creates the appearance of graceful legs.