|Language:||English, Spanish, Arabic|
|Genre:||Children & Youth|
|ePub File Size:||28.42 MB|
|PDF File Size:||17.39 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . The approach to drawing presented in this book is one I have used for a number of years in the teaching of life drawing and anatomy classes. It is aimed at. For many years the 11eed of a further book om in drawing liut that he wishes from his tocs up the subject of figure drawing has been apparent to become an.
The diaphragm arch appears as a great, vaulting tunnel of bone at the base of the front of the chest. In this last figure figure on the left gives a predominantly side right , the forms seen on end tend to divide and view; the form effect shows an easy transition, detach; the array of dissimilar elements especially in the extended members. A double curve develops see dotted lines , holding to the underarm exterior position of the member. Of crucial interest here is the insertion of the midline in both figures. The lower torso the pelvic wedge on the other hand, has been explicitly defined, with the legs set into each side of it.
Figure drawing in depth is accomplished with other and studied separately according to ease and authority only when the student their individual differences.
Comparisons becomes aware of the characteristic body forms. These three kinds of forms the har-monious arrangement and should be distinguished from one an interrelationship of its separate and individual defined parts. At some point in the art student's development, involves more than contour drawing only. With his work outline is two dimensional and has no volume, at this level, the student may be able to draw a it cannot express form in depth; but when the variety of natural forms those usually seen in forms of the figure are visualized as being landscape and still life in space.
He idea that the body is a defined mass, a three may be thoroughly familiar with figure work in dimensional volume existing in space and conventional attitudes, with depicting the posed depth, which is made up of a number of parts.
It follows predictably dull and static. It will be our first task to research form-over-form spatial recession. If the student the form properties of each of these shape- is called upon to show the unexpected and masses which go into the formation of the unfamiliar actions of the body— those seen over-all shape-mass of the figure.
In observing from high or low angles he feels taxed to the the parts—the shape-masses — of the human limit of his resources. At times, in direct figure, we shall try to look at them from new confrontation with the live figure, he may do angles, from a series of changing viewpoints, passably well by copying the model in the see- describing them especially with a "filmic" and-draw studio method; but this approach is concept of vision in motion.
HGJH frequently eludes the most intensive efforts of the art student. Different views of the head expose different dominant forms. This is especially apparent The significance of foreshortened form lies in in straight-on, front views.
But when the describing three dimensional volume rather than cranial ball is seen from an overhead angle, it in delineating flat shapes. Our approach, presents a far more impressive bulk than the therefore, in facial wedge. As we observe the head from a high position, from the top the crania vault dominates the narrow, con stricted mass of the face coming from under the projecting brow arch.
As our viewing angle becomes lower, the facial mass tends to enlarge as the cranial mass recedes. Then, as our vantage point is raised once more, this time in a right-to-left turn, the cranial mass is once again dominant.
From a bottom view, the wedge of the face takes on a more important appearance in relation to the cranial structure. The features of the face reveal a new aspect: From the rear, the skull case and the facial wedge show their most characteristic differences in shape: It is the largest sin form structure of the entire bo Frontally, its curved surface terminates top and bottom in two horseshoe-like passages.
The descending collarbone depression of the upper chest left. When the figure is tipped forward into a deep frontal view, the swelling curve of the rib cage, front to rear, is so great that it is able to girdle the head within its encircling contour below.
The cylindrical column of the neck emerges like a thick, short tree limb growing from within the triangulate hollow of the chest left. In any view looking upward, the barreling chest mass dominates all other forms; like a curving landscape, the pectoral arch overlaps the neck. This torso, shown upview front, reveals how much larger the mass of the chest is compared with its attached members, the head and shoulders.
In general change in appearance in the upper chest mass: The diaphragm arch appears as a great, vaulting tunnel of bone at the base of the front of the chest. From this opening, like the hollow bottom of a brandy bottle, the long abdominal mass emerges and descends in three undulant stages, or tiers.
It should be observed that the terminal belly form the third tier , starting at the lower level of the navel and compressing to the pubic arch, is not only the largest of the three stages, but is roughly equivalent in size to the frontal head mass of this figure left. Using a male figure for the left across the chest barrel we can the sake of clarity , we start at the pit of the correctly place the nipples of the chest base neck where the collarbones join A.
From this above. The nipple posed on the nipple positions, and the discs disc B is located on this line just above the are advanced to the surface of the breast deep corner margin of the chest muscle.
When both breasts are shown, especially in a three quarter view, they can QHYHU be seen simultaneously from a direct, frontal position. One breast will be seen with its centrally located nipple disc face on, while the other will be seen in a side view, with its nipple projecting in profile.
After the rib cage, the pelvic wedge is the second largest mass of the body. Locked to the barrel by the tapering muscles of the waist, the wedge box is narrow at the top, broader at the base. Schematic rendering of the two torso masses: In the normal, erect attitude of the body, the two torso masses express an inverse, counterpoised relationship: Here, the lower pelvic wedge is tipped forward, the underbelly is recessive, and the rear buttock area arches upward into view.
The butterfly wedge easily indentifies the pelvic The butterfly configuration is evident in a rear wedge masses in this rear, almost side, view. Note The wing forms are overlapped and the relatively larger hip structure, both in width foreshortened from front to back. A narrow rib cage combined with a wide pelvis identifies the female torso and is a distinguishing characteristic of male-female differentiation.
The waist, because of its axis- like quality, is capable of great versatility of movement. Described simply, the arm and the leg are elongated, jointed two-part members, each of whose parts has a modified cone or cylinder shape. Note that both the arm and the leg swivel, or rotate, high in the shoulder A or hip Al ; both have a bending, or rocking, joint in the middle of the member at the elbow B or the knee Bl ; and both have a terminal gyrating member, the hand or the foot, attached to a tapered base at the wrist C or the ankle C1.
For all their similarity, the arm and the leg have The curving rhythm of the arm in a rear view. No matter how the arm moves, from simple positions, such as the two extended arms shown above right, to deep, active bends left , the consistent undercurve is always present. Invariably, this curve provides the basis for the arm's structural rhythm.
A frontal figure with arms flexed and foreshortened shows the correlation of double curves see arrows. An arm in deep space extension gives us the underarm double curve see arrows , proof of the arm's unvarying structural rhythm left. This side view of the right leg shows a long S-line curve taken from the active thrusts of the leg muscles see arrows.
This S-line starts high on the front thigh, reverses at the knee, and moves rearward down the calf bulge left. A three quarter view of the leg of a seated figure seen from the rear.
The S-line curve of the leg see arrows shows how clearly the structural rhythm of the leg can be seen. While the S-line rhythm establishes a guideline for drawing side views of the legs in many different positions and movements, there is a point where we find a IURQWDO appearance beginning to overrule the side YLHZ position.
The erect, far leg the supporting leg is in a three quarters position, turned slightly away from side view; but the S-line is still evident in it because the rhythm of the leg structure has a basically side view orientation. Compare this with the crossed left leg. The small line diagram to the left of the drawing shows how the B-shape is applied in the conception of the front view leg as a simple beginning of the final workup beside it. The B-shape rhythm of the front view leg accounts for all manner of leg bends and actions.
In this figure, we see a front view leg with a bent knee; the straight B-shape line is given a corresponding break.
Note the exposed anklebones. Once again, these protruding anklebones immediately signal a frontal leg approach, and call for a B-shape control of forms see arrows. Rear view legs, without exception follow the front view leg rule: In this example, the inward curve of the shinbones has been accentuated not an uncommon thing in many persons in order to illustrate a variant of the straight control line of the B-shape formula for the front view leg: In this example of two rear view legs, the left knee bend produces a corresponding break in the inside line of the B-shape.
In these front view legs in a hunched, crossed- over position, curved accents have been inserted on the line of the shinbones to emphasize their inward curve. The problem of arranging flexed, overlapped legs is easily solved by using B-shape controls. In looking at this figure projected into deep space, see how easily the B-shape works to orient the legs in this difficult view see arrows.
The position of the anklebones tells us that the approach must be frontal.
Only the accented shinbone curves have been drawn in; the B- shape controls have been left out, and the reader is urged to study the drawing and determine them himself. This figure is added here so that we may recapitulate and combine two of the earlier discussions of the different structural rhythms of the extremities: These two wedges, however, are very different in structure.
In the two examples which follow, the wedge forms of the hand and the foot have been supplemented by companion sketches to show the unique character of each. Thus, we note the basic difference between the hand and the foot: The shape-mass of the foot is a broad-based wedge, showing a remarkably high, triangulate elevation at the rear, from whence a steep diagonal descends to the front.
The front sole divides into two sections: The toes differ from the platform support in their function; they act as traction and projection devices—gripping and pushing. The foot wedge is a compound form that consists of three main parts: The toes reveal a high, upthrust rise of the large toe tip, contrasting sharply with the downthrust, closed pressure of the small toes see arrows.
Of major significance in describing the foot is tions: Note the relationship not unlike that in the great foot differences between the inner and the outer foot arch proper. This slope ends in the quick upcurve of the tip of the large toe.
This rise, seen from the immediate front, shows the toe tip thrusting up from the base plane of the foot left. Note the rod forms relate to the narrow shank structure the inside arrow control line which holds inner of each digit; the ball forms represent the knuckle forms in check above.
Because they are quite small and close-set, the toes are frequently difficult to draw without distortion when done in this way. In the step arrangement, the toes emerge from the sweeping descent of the arch and close down in a three-stage formation which resembles a short flight of steps. It is the skeletal structure which is plainly responsible for the hard, bony surface throughout the upper palm and fingers above.
The visible rod and ball forms of the hand develop a rising and falling rhythm which gives a ZDYHOLNH motion to the entire finger system, all the way down to the fingertips. The finger units, too, are thickly protected with a fleshy mantle. After studying the general rod and ball I finger forms, we must call attention to the thumb.
The thumb is the key finger of the hand, and with its striking wedge shape, is built like a thick spade, or spatula. The initial form of the thumb is a narrow length of shank bone topped with a squarish head A. The thumb narrows, then spreads wide with a heavy pad B.
It tapers to the tip C , and swings from its base upward in a strong, curved rise D. The thumb, unlike the other fingers, does QRW lie on a horizontal plane equal to the palm wedge. It assumes a contrary, tipped-over position which is obliquely opposed to the mutual, flat arrangement of the other four fingers.
Also, the thumb tends to drop quite far below the level of the palm right. Let us start by restating the simplified description of the compound torso shape- masses in two views: In both sketches, the large chest barrel A and the pelvic wedge B are join together by the mid-axial muscles the waist C , a region of remarkable flexibility.
When we work with the torso mass as separate entities, we can draw great variety of movements. The a vantage of putting in the essential body planes is that it permits us to see clear the correct angle of placement and ho to attach the secondary forms.
In the sketches, the masses are structure firmly, then tipped in greater or less degree, and shown in three quart front views. The rudimentary head, arms, and legs are indicated here to 1 the viewer grasp the over-all working of the total figure. For instance, he must put aside encourages a simplistic description of the figure starting the figure by sketching in the head. Shape-mass, on the other form, is of primary importance. With this other hand, demands to be understood as premise, let us initiate the new order of form volume structure in three dimensions; and assert the opening rule.
Like a sculptor working with modeling immediately throw the secondary forms—the clay, the artist can structure and compose by legs, arms, and head—out of their previous building-up. He can alter the actions and positions and into a new relationship. He can revise and modify his Here are four structured torsos, showing the torso mass is instrumental. Includes valuable suggestions for using pencils, chalk, charcoal and other media. Dover - Landscape Drawing Step-by-Step. Watercolor Painting: Unlike oils or acrylic paints, watercolors are never fully controllable, and the artist must allow for unexpected movement and blending.
In the hands of a truly gifted watercolorist, this untamed power can create moving and memorable works of art. You'll master those skills, beginning with terminology and equipment, and then going into the basics of color classification, the use of shadows, the color triangle, and forming a palette. Next, create preliminary sketches, experiment with both Wet-on-Wet and Dry Surface techniques, and learn the secrets of achieving fluidity and controlling the halo effect.
Soon, you'll understand how and why Renoir and Monet chose and used their palettes, and be on your way to becoming a more accomplished watercolorist. Watercolour Painting - Jean-Louis Morelle. Menschen zeichnen und malen. Find out just what you need and where to get the better stuff for less. Learn how to get the good art supplies like watercolor brushes, watercolor paints and watercolor papers without going broke.
See how to safely store and attractively display them for family and friends. Excellent information for those just looking to learn about making art at home. Watercolor Sketching for Travelers.
Draw 50 Baby Animals: Lee J. Curso Practico de Dibujo y Pintura. If you want to develop games this book comes in handy to improve drawing skills, whether basic. You may not be the artist, to put your ideas into drawings. Includes pre-drawn themes that facilitate learning of the composition and application of various techniques. Curso Practico de Pintura Artistica. The textbook contains a wide variety of classroom-tested activities and problems, a series of essays by contemporary artists written especially for the book, and a plethora of pedagogical and learning opportunities for instructors and students.
Viewpoints focuses on two mathematical areas: Investigating facets of the three-dimensional world in order to understand mathematical concepts behind the art, the textbook explores art topics including comic, anamorphic, and classical art, as well as photography, while presenting such mathematical ideas as proportion, ratio, self-similarity, exponents, and logarithms.
Straightforward problems and rewarding solutions empower students to make accurate, sophisticated drawings. Personal essays and short biographies by contemporary artists are interspersed between chapters and are accompanied by images of their work. These fine artists--who include mathematicians and scientists--examine how mathematics influences their art.