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Smithson trans. For instance, most of the meals first proposed by the Florentine kitchen steward Domenico Romoli in consist of antipasti, allesso, fritto, and frutte. As with household accounts, these record expenses incurred in the purchasing of food items; they are not necessarily a complete and precise record of foods consumed at the Collegio Romano. Need an account? Indeed during the month of July they ate meat as a main dish on 18 occasions, on five of these occasions along with eggs. By there were Jesuit colleges in Europe, by there were and by ,

In what follows, Chapter 2 begins by summarizing where Hong Kong fits into the world market for imported and exported telephone sets. The total level of imports and exports on a worldwide basis, and those for Hong Kong in particular, is estimated using a model which aggregates across over key country markets and projects these to the current year.

From there, each country represents a percent of the world market. This market is served from a number of competitive countries of origin. Based on both demand- and supply-side dynamics, market shares by country of origin are then calculated across each country market destination. These shares lead to a volume of import and export values for each country and are aggregated to regional and world totals. In doing so, we are able to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of both the value of each market and the share that Hong Kong is likely to receive this year.

From these figures, rankings are calculated to allow managers to prioritize Hong Kong compared to other major country markets. In this way, all the figures provided in this report are forecasts that can be combined with internal information sources for strategic planning purposes. Romanelli transcr.

Faccioli ed. Zambrini ed. Martinelli ed. Frati ed. Smithson trans. Friedman trans. Scully trans.

Pdf libri cucina

Fradin ed. Cookery and Dining in Imperial Rome De re coquinaria. De re coquinaria edition. De re coquinaria. The Levitico, or How to Feed a Hundred Jesuits 93 probably similar to the scudi spent on each student at the Jesuit College in Sezze, south of Rome, during the period , as calculated by Revel. But, yes, it cost a lot compared to the 25 and 18 scudi spent on nourish- ing the master artisans and unskilled labourers, respectively, who worked on the estates of the Jesuit College at Sezze.

By comparison, other Roman religious institutions spent considerably less per resident. For example the Scolopians spent between 14 and 23 scudi a year at their Collegio Nazareno during the s. But then it was on a much smaller scale and was also able to rely on produce from its own lands. Their Collegio Nazareno opened its doors in Sugar was not often used, the common sweeteners being honey and mosto cotto reduced grape must.

Expenditure on bread in is almost double what it was in , and expenditure on wine, meat and fish also rose sharply. None of the years considered was a jubilee year, which came in and In any case expenditure is not any higher during What does remain much more constant over the thirty-year period is the breakdown of food expenses, as just outlined.

Salads or titbits were possible antipasti. However, when it came to lunch, which was served in the late morning, the meal plans of the Roman Jesuits list the meat and fish dishes under the heading antipasti.

Other antipasti include various fruits and vegetable dishes, so catering for both meat and lean days. The presence of meat so early in the meal might seem to fly in the face of the medical advice of the time, but in fact the meat dishes that the Jesuits served as antipasti, whilst not exactly light, were all moist, which made them easier to digest.

From a Galenic point of view the meat dishes cooled down a warm stomach at the start of a meal.

Cucina pdf libri

The antipasti were followed by a mine- stra, a broad category of cooked, seasoned vegetables. At supper, served in the evening, the Jesuit meal plan respected the more estab- lished order of salad or vegetable dish followed by meat or fish.

Lunch was at 17 hours, or This was put forward or back according to day length. The timetable changed every month, with the exception of May, June and July which were identical: The function of the pospasto was to close the stomach at the end of the meal: The actual content of meals was subject to a great deal of variation.

On Thursdays, in anticipation of a meatless Friday and Saturday, there was a dou- ble pospasto, and on special occasions their might be three antipasti at lunch. And they frequently were: The college physician must have been kept busy issuing dispensations.

As Ignatius had intended, the physicians serving the Collegio Romano were expected to care for residents in both health and illness, according to the tenets of Galenic medicine. This included determining the diet most suited to maintaining the bodily health of each individual, as well those suited to the treatment of particular diseases.

And, in any case, they certainly made up for it during the rest of the year. At the Collegio Romano, special breakfast an hour or so after getting up, as well as a snack merenda or colazione between lunch and dinner, as was the custom at other Italian Jesuit colleges.

What remains difficult to ascertain is the extent to which personal preferences determined practices and to what extent Jesuit superiors allowed or even encouraged this.

It had to be balanced with the advice that all college residents should eat much the same food, so that food would not become an element in competition over status. Visiting dignitaries meant fancier meals for everyone. Moreover, visitors frequently brought substantial food gifts.

Typical was the visit of a young Benedetto Panfili — later cardinal, poet and patron of the arts — who came to visit on several occasions during November and December , one of them deemed so special that a lay chef from out- side the Collegio was specially brought in. His Lord the Abbot Benedetto Panfili came to lunch in the Collegio and endeared himself to the entire community. The day before he had sent great quantities of food to the Collegio, saying that the following day he would like to have lunch with us.

For this purpose every- thing was set in order and a lay cook was fetched. These were in addition to with regular cel- ebrations of certain saints and other holidays.

Especially when served to guests, these favours went by the name of carezze literally, caress or flattery. In his duties, the sottoministro was the Jesuit version of a scalco, in charge of provisions, meal planning and the serving of food. He answered to the padre ministro of the institution. The Levitico, or How to Feed a Hundred Jesuits 97 it was regarded as a basic element of diet and a major source of nourishment and maintenance of health.

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At their college in Parma, breakfast was served to the pupils in their rooms, one and a half hours after getting up, and consisted of a piece of bread and a glass of wine.

On Thursdays, which was a partial holiday, they had ciambella instead of bread. College staff were served a more substantial bread and cheese. Special wines were also offered to the sick and convalescent, for their believed restorative properties.

Cucina pdf libri

Upon the arrival of visiting guests wine would be sent to their room, along with a few olives and fennel to snack on, and hot water with which to wash themselves.

The Scolopians and their pupils also drank wine produced closer to home, from their own vineyard at Porta San Pancrazio, which pro- duced a vino romanesco of varying quality. Di nessun conto. For all these reasons wine was an important item of expenditure, not to be scrimped upon. Consumption per head at the Collegio Romano was probably along the lines of the litres available for every seminarian at the S. Pietro seminary 1. In the city as a whole, wheat availability averaged well over kilograms per head; and virtually all of this wheat was turned into bread.

As far as the Jesuits were concerned, we have seen that even during the Spiritual Exercises devotees were not asked to cut down on bread. This regular contract with a baker may under-respresent the amount of bread consumed at the Collegio Romano, especially in view of the estates it possessed in Apulia and Sicily, where wheat was probably grown. The Levitico, or How to Feed a Hundred Jesuits 99 This paradox is consistent with the function of bread in the early modern Italian diet: Pietro seminary was around kilograms a year; for the agri- cultural workers on their estate outside the city Boccea it was double that.

In Rome, pasta was still consumed rarely. As a percentage of expenditure at the Collegio Romano, it averaged only around one percent — and that included the rice and legumes listed in the same head- ing. The Roman libbra was equal to Gaudentio says to make them even better they can be baked so that a crust forms. But let us return to staples.

Pdf libri cucina

This high propor- tion of expenditure is consistent with other religious institutions; if anything it is slightly higher. Regulations for the Collegio Romano set an upper limit of one libbra grams of meat a day on days when meat was served. Pietro seminary, per capita meat consumption was 71 kilograms in However, and this is where accounts on their own can be misleading, this was before cooking. Cuts like the shin were not to be weighed; rather, a lamb shin counted as two portions, a veal shin six, and a beef shin fed ten.

This consumption was relative, however. Their diet was not as meat-centred as the diets of visiting Englishmen, Frenchmen and Germans, but balanced with other food types — grains, vegetables and legumes. Pietro the shell. Labourers at the Jesuit estates at Sezze were lucky to get cheese or onions by way of companatico.

Better-off Romans favoured beef and veal, whilst the poorer opted for pork.

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The Scolopians ate mostly beef vaccina , on top of which they also con- sumed cured meats like salami, prosciutto and sausage. Indeed during the month of July they ate meat as a main dish on 18 occasions, on five of these occasions along with eggs. Meat was eaten at lunch as an antipasto on Sundays and Wednesdays. It was eaten as a porzione as many as five times a week.