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There is no sign of the human agents who caused the event, nor any sign that the event was intentional; it might even appear to be accidental. Metonymy Metonymy, broadly defined, is a device by which one entity is used to stand for another associated entity. Pearl Harbor still has an effect on our foreign policy. In other words, it is disguising whatever is ugly, repulsive, immoral, or otherwise unacceptable behind more attractive, less offensive, or neutral lables. When a source reports that something bad has happened — something against its own interests, you can believe it.
A Mercedes rear-ended me. The word me stands for the car that the speaker was driving. President Bush threatened Saddam with serious consequences if …. The land belongs to The Crown. Only empty heads and empty hearts can do that.
President and his advisors threatened Saddam Hussein with military action over the UN inspectors affairs. Similarly, when an announcement is made by a member of the British royal family, it is often described, for example, as follows: In the first example the journalist writing the report has used metonymy in a way which Newspapers may use metaphors gives a very favorable view of the American position. Attacking a foreign country is represents a particular attitude dangerous, not something an individual would want to towards that event.
When the news is more creasingly stronger beliefs or cheerful, however, involving success of some sort, then ideological orientations towards the President will be more than happy to be named an event.
So when the U. Indeed the speaking is done for them by a building which is, in many minds, a large and impressive structure. It can be argued that the metonymic use of Buckingham Palace gives a more impressive and sympathetic picture of the Royal Family. Immigrants are like an invading army. Depersonalization Depersonalization is another rhetorical device by which newspapers try to influ- ence the readers and manipulate their perception and impression of events in a specific direction.
Newspapers sometimes report events in a depersonalized man- ner; that is, they report events as if no human agent had a role in their occurrence. Take the following headline: There is no sign of the human agents who caused the event, nor any sign that the event was intentional; it might even appear to be accidental.
Here the headline could have been written as: White House Under Seige This headline would have been more approperiate for an event such as September 11 rather than a sex scandal. In other words, it is disguising whatever is ugly, repulsive, immoral, or otherwise unacceptable behind more attractive, less offensive, or neutral lables. Euphemistic terms can be used as a way of being vague and unclear, or to cover up the truth or reality of a situation.
The opposite of euphemism is derogation. Again in line with the overall strategy of positive Self-presentation and negative Other-presentation, newspapers use euphemistic terms to represent ingroup actions and people and derogatory terms to represent outgroup actions and people. Look at the following examples: A group of Arab mercenaries are fighting along with the Taliban forces. A group of Arab combatants are fighting along with the Taliban forces. Muslims in Britain have the problem of public resentment.
Christians residing in Muslim countries are suffering from Islamic fanaticism and racism. In these two pairs of sentences, you see how the very same people or realities are pictured quite differently. The coverage of the incidents was quite different in spite of all the similarities of the two incidents. While the U. Now it sounds as though they are not in the business of waging war, but instead they are in the business of defending. The military uses of euphemism can seriously affect the way we view the devastation of war.
It is used for effect, emphasis, or provocation, or for drawing a conclusionary statement from the facts at hand. With all viloence on TV today, is it any wonder kids bring gun to school? Is justice then to be considered merley a word? The first few examples are taken from the context of the conflict in Iraq.
First, here are the headlines and lead paragraphs of two articles which were published on the morning of March 11, by The New York Times and USA Today respectively. They are covering the same incident: Iraq Forces Suspension of U. Both of these stories are presenting the same piece of information, i.
However, as you can see, the decisions concerning lexicon, syntax, and what further information is added can lead to sentences being so altered from the basic idea that the same exact event can be depicted in two profoundly different ways. In the second story, there is no mention that these planes are, in fact, American. The news story seems to try to keep the appearance of all interaction happening between Iraq and the UN.
In the first story, however, note the decision to specify the planes as American, even though they are flying in the name of the UN. Iraq is depicted to threaten American planes, and therefore, thretening America. In this pair of example headlines, the difference of a single word changes the meanings to reflect opposing viewpoints. In fact, by changing only one letter, the entire issue of the military campaign changes from one of fighting dissidents with- in the political borders of Iraq to one of aggression against the entire nation.
The second headline signifies a pro-coalition bias. The third headline signifies an anti-coalition bias. The connotations many words carry with them have the power to put a tremendous slant on any news report. The folowing example is an excerpt from an article printed in an American newspaper.
Democrats who are planning to seek Mr. Joe Lieberman of Connecticut, Sen. John Kerry of Massachusetts, Sen. John Edwards of North Carolina, Rep. Dick Gephardt of Missouri, and Gov. This example demonstrates another form of possible bias. How do you think the identification of these men as potential presi- dential candidates affect their credibility as critics of President Bush?
Seven Dead as Fresh Mideast Violence Flares In this headline of a news story covering the violence between Israelis and Palestinians , there is very little distinction made between the nationalities of the people killed in the violence, giving the readers the impression that the casualties have been relatively equal on both sides.
From the headline, it is not immediately apparent who the seven victims are, or why or how they died. Britain Invaded By an Army of Illegals The most obvious property of this headline is its rhetoric , namely, the hyperbolic use of metaphors. The use of military metaphors implies that immigrants are both violent and a threat.
However, the violence and threat is not merely that of some individuals coming in, but is suggested to be massive and organized , as is the case for an army.
Moreover, invasion does not merely imply a violent act, but also a massive threat, namely a massive threat from abroad. The target of this threat is Britain, which is topicalized in the headline it occurs in first position of the headline and the article , so that it is highlighted as the victim of the foreign army. Beside the massive violence of their entry, immigrants are thus also associated with breaking the law, and hence implicitly with crime.
Police Attack Demonestrators, Kill 10 10 Dead in Clash between Police and Demonstrators The first headline is in active voice, which backgrounds the agency of police as those who started the attack on the demonstrators and consequently killed ten of them.
The second headline makes no mention of the attackers. Iraq used chemical weapons against Iran killing many soldiers and civilians and severly injuring many others. The use of chemical weapons in Iran-Iraq war has left many soldiers and civilians dead and severly injured. The first sentence is in active voice, foregrounding the agency of Iraq as the perpetrator of the crime. The second sentence has used nominalization tactic and, thus, has concealed the agent of the crime. It only emphasizes the use of chemical weapons, but makes no mention of the country that used the forbidden weapons.
Riot police shot and killed 11 African demonstrators and wounded 15 others here today in the Highfield African township on the outskirts of Salisbury.
In the first lead, the role of the police as the killers is backgrounded by the use of passive and the placing of the primary focus on the victims rather than the per- petrators of the crime. The ACTU is seeking a rise of 1. In the second and third stories, however, events have been selectively chosen and linked together to lead the reader to particular evaluative responses.
The use of Chamber of Commerce as an external source with its explicitly negative judgment is influential here. To see how these non-linguistic and linguistic forms of bias appear in stories, let us finally examine in some detail published by two different local newspapers on the same event.
He claims that his su- Authority said yesterday that Mr Robert periors did not inform him of the exact reg- Mitchell 24 had been relieved of his du- ulations covering the examination. His lessons were fun. The headline of story b uses some negatively-loaded words, which prejudice the reader against the teacher. There are two quotes in story b which are meant to be given the same interpretation.
The first quote is apparently positive and praises the teacher and approves of his performance. However, when interpreted in the context of the second quote, it loses its first-impression interpretation.
There are questions for you to answer after the reports. The headmaster and two staff were pay-protest teachers refused to supervise trying to look after nearly children.
BORED The youngsters threw eggs at remain- ing According to the police and education staff, smashed windows and milk bottles authorities, between 60 and 80 boys and and then marched out into the surrounding girls took part in the disturbance.
But some pupils and people living nearby Worried residents alerted the police, who put the figure at up to One youngster said: Education chiefs order- ed an dealt with "very severely. Dare said there were about authorities refused to supervise children at a dozen ringleaders. Those who could be lunchtime. Others looked Doors and windows were smashed at on. It happened when teachers at the staff Hammers comprehensive refused to do dinner duties As the afternoon lessons ended the and walked out in a union dispute.
About pupils roamed the streets Angry smashing windows and terrifying families. Mr Dare - who said he was Police were called to quell the lunch- time "saddened" by the incident - will be making rumpus - the second day running there had a full report to the Devon Education benn trouble at the pupil Bideford Authority.
Comprehensive School in Devon. A spokesman for the authority said: Headmaster John Dare said later his "We have yet to establish the extent of the staff were working to rule in support of the damage caused.
Officers went to the pupil mixed Report called for school in Bideford after nearby residents Mr Dare estimated last night that only 50 reported a "developing riot.
He thought The trouble, described by Devon County that no more than a dozen children were Council as "a disturbance rather than a responsible for causing damage. Several windows were Bideford School is divided into two com- smashed by children throwing bottles and plexes.
Yesterday's disturbance seems to stones. Questions 1. Which two newspapers tell us how long the trouble lasted? Do they agree? Which three newspapers tell us what weapons the pupils used?
Make a list of those weapons. Four newspapers say that only windows were broken. What else was broken according to the other two? What reasons might there be for these differences between the reports? Two newspapers refer to the pupils as a "mob" and a "gang". What idea does mob give?
What idea does gang give? Why didn't the newspaper use the word group instead? One newspaper says the pupils "stormed" through the school. Why did- n't it say that they ran? Do you believe this is fact or opinion? Go through each article, and using two different colours highlight all instances of opinion, and all instances of emotive language. Reading Newspapers Critically 9. Focus now on the report from the Star.
What impression of the pupils and the staff is given to the reader?
What about the police? Why might that information be here? Evaluating the Source As it was said in Unit 3, newspapers gather their news through either their own reporters or wire services. Reporters working for newspapers or wire services may see the events for themselves or get the news second-hand, i. Depending on their ideology, interests, political and professional affiliation and the like, these different sources of information are potentially liable to conceal the truth or distort it to their advantage.
Clearly, therefore, you should learn to judge whether the source can be believed and is reliable. To judge the reliability of the source, there are some questions you should ask yourself when reading news stories: Whether the source is the reporter himself or an eye-witness or official, he may have a reason for not telling the complete truth. Consider the following example note that some of the example leads in this section are not real ones but con- structed to clarify and exemplify the point: They are fighting the U.
Therefore, you must be careful about believing their statements. The information might be true, but it is likely to be overstated and probably unreliable. Here is a similar story, but from a different source: Is the following story more reliable? Defense Secretary which has a clear interest in min- imizing any losses. If he reports the losses of their own troops and tanks, therefore, you can certainly believe it happened. In general, the following two rules apply to sources: When a source reports that something bad has happened — something against its own interests, you can believe it.
In fact, you can suspect that something worse has happened.
When a source reports something that is favorable to its interests, you must be suspicious. The facts may be exaggerated, or, in some cases, untrue altogether. Consider the following two stories: The sources for both of these stories are eyewitnesses, but the story from New York is much more reliable, because it is easier for the journalist or others to check on the New York story.
There are always thousands of people on Fifth Avenue and such a creature would be noticed by others.
But it is much more difficult to check on a story from a faraway village in Nepal. In general, stories that can be checked are more reliable than those that are difficult or impossible to check. The reliability of a story is also increased if the source is named since few peo- ple want to be known as liars of course, not true of some people or governments, of course. Consider the following story: An interesting story, but you should become suspicious as soon as you note that the source is not quoted by name.
But if the story reads: Still, it is not completely reliable because it is the job of agents to gain publicity for their clients.
However, if the story reads: It is almost completely reliable since Treaeger has made the announcement him- self. Another way to check reliability is to ask yourself: How much would the source really know?
In a story like this it is not surprising to see the source unnamed since few intel- ligence agents like to be publicly known. But it is still probably reliable. Now, con- sider this story: Brazil, June 1 — The United States has resumed secret spy flights over Cuba looking for underground missile sites, Brazilian intelligence sources said yesterday. This story may be true, but it seems doubtful Brazilian intelligence sources would know very much about the U.
Reading Newspapers Critically 5 Where was the reporter? KABUL, November 13 — Victorious Northern Alliance troops drove into Kabul unopposed yesterday as cheering Afghan people lined the streets to welcome the overthrow of the Taliban after five years of suppression. ANKARA, November 13 — Victorious Northern Alliance troops drove into Kabul unopposed yesterday as cheering Afghan people lined the streets to welcome the overthrow of the Taliban after five years of suppression, field reports said.
There is no difference between the two leads, but you should note that they have different datelines. The first one is datelined Kabul so we know that the re- porter was in Kabul and close to the events he is reporting.
The second lead has the same information, but the dateline shows that the journalist was in Turkey hundreds of miles away. In their news stories, newspapers are supposed to present a. The picture of the world newspapers present in their news stories is a.
In their news stories, newspapers often a. In news stories, the positive information about US is often a. When newspapers systematically exclude some news stories, they have committed bias by a. When a news story presents the views of only one side, the news- paper has committed bias by a. When ingroup members are involved in negative events, newspa- pers are more likely to use a.
Verbs and adjectives may be reduced to nouns through nominali- zation when the writer intends to a. Reporting events as if no human agent had a role in their occur- rence is referred to as a. A cleft sentence is used to a. Rhetorical devices are tools for a. Specify the tech- nique s used in each. Mortars Fired on Kabul Civilian Areas. Korean Peace Talks Resume. What America needs is a stronger president.
Baghdad daily bombing ruins major districts. Reading Newspapers Critically 6.
Vulgar movie broadcast stirs nationwide controversy. Palestinians Kill 2 Jewish Settlers. Party Leader Detention Angers Supporters. The persecution of Arabs and Muslims is on the rise. It is the U. The protestors chanted slogans and clashed with police. Iraq invaded Kuwait and distrupted life in this Arab country. The invasion of Kuwait distrupted life in this Arab country. Two palestinians were killed in a shootout.
The use of chemical weapons in Iraq-Iran war has left many people dead. Police often harrasses black youths at night. Black youths are often harrassed at night. The Asians staged a riot after a series of hammer attacks on their houses. The President may need to reconsider its foreign policy.
President Bush will lose the election. President Bush may lose the election. The decision to destroy homes was innevitable. Killing Triggers Riot. Marine Dies in Clashes Illegal Afghans to Leave the Country B Read the following sentences taken from news stories, and specify the rhetorical devices used in them. Our economy is in a slump. New weapons in the fight against Alzheimer.
Artillay fire destroyed two villages in South Lebenon. Minister threatens air support.
The Conservative government has turned Britain from the path of prosperity to the road of ruins. IBM announces job rationalization. American insurance companies are mustering at the border to enter the Canadian market. This land belong to the crown. Beast of Baghdad is threatening peace. The company handed him a negative enhancement.
Pentagon vowed strong reaction should Israel be thretened by neighbors. Saddam sounds like a ninth-century holy warrior preparing to battle the infidels. One reason George Bush was so determined to punch this bully[Saddam] in the nose was to deter the other bullies in the schoolyard. Saddam has committed outrageous acts of barbarism in Kuwait.
They are the thugs of Australian politics. They are the constitutional vandals of Australia. This band of mean-spirited, greedy, determined power-seekers are enemies of democracy. The White House issued an ultimatum, giving the Taliban three days to hand over bin Laden. White Hall last night confirmed the minimum-wage provisions have been deleted from the draft.
Two planes destroyed the twin towers in New York. Reading Newspapers Critically Immigrants are taking roots like weeds. Israeli gunfire roars in South Lebanon. The demonestrators raped the town. Britain invaded by an army of illegals. Britain is being swamped by a tide of illegal immigrants Helicopter gunships fired on crowds in Gaza Strip. Global e-commerce players invade Asia. Europe has been innandated by foriegn workers. The immediate fallout of economy after September 11 seems bound to be negative.
China slams U. Congress to pass stricter immigration laws. Bomb kills motorist in south Lebanon. Shell attacks leave the city in dark. Weekend violence in South Africa leaves 34 dead. While we wait doing nothing about drug addiction, we must remember that the fuse has been lit.
Parliament is going to impeach the president tomorrow. The editorial page has always believed that America is missing Bill Clinton. France confronts a painful chapter in its history.
West Bank flares up in protest. Bulldozers demolished Palestinian homes. Israel claimed reponsibility for the killing of Hamas leader. NATO threatened to intervene should the killings continue. Hong Kong will become a springboard into china. C The following sentences are metaphoric ones which express a concept in terms of another concept. These concepts are listed first. Match the phrases and sentences with the concepts in terms of which other concepts are being expressed.
America is our ally. Eager to divert attention from his rape of Kuwait, the Iraqi leader has tried repeatedly to drag Israel into war. The government does not realize how much is at stake. The trade figures are healthy this month. One reason George Bush was so determined to punch this bully [Saddam] in the nose was to deter the other bullies in the schoolyard.
Such a humiliation will teach him [Saddam] a lesson. Cuba is the victim of the American blockade. We will smoke terrorists out of their holes. America will dry up the swamp the terrorists live in. The truth is, employers hungering for really cheap labor hunt out the foreign workers. We see it as our responsibility to weed out illegal aliens.
The longest period of uninterrupted economic expansion in the U. The economy was also stuttering on the brink of recession.
The flood of legal and illegal immigrants streaming into the country is alarming. Wilson turned his fire on President Clinton for failing to stem the flow of illegal immigrants into California as he has into Florida and Texas. Increasingly many see an immigration apocalypse born of neglect. The American economy has the strength to triumph, but has for the moment its back against the wall.
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