Download Doctor Faustus free in PDF & EPUB format. Download Christopher Marlowe's Doctor Faustus for your kindle, tablet, IPAD, PC or. Conversions: Doctor Faustus / I usually work from the edition of Dr. Faustus. The Norton Anthology of English Literature 6th edition uses. THE PARADOX OF TIME: DOCTOR FAUSTUS As we read in the introduction by Suroopa Mukherjee to Dr. Faustus, one of the many ambiguities of this play.
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The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlowe is a publication of the Pennsylvania State. University. This Portable Document file is furnished. Free kindle book and epub digitized and proofread by Project Gutenberg. The Tragical History of the Life and Death of Doctor Faustus. Marlowe's theatre. Stage-history of Doctor Faustus. Text of Doctor Faustus.
The story of Dr. Faustus 13 laughable in his chuzpah. To escape from Crete, Icarus's father made them both wings of feathers and wax; aspiring, smart-ass Icarus flew too close to the sun. Then again, maybe that's what nice people like the Chorus and Old Man want; maybe that's what God wants for us. Faustus and Lucifer on Adam and Creation. But to what extent does the play call into question Christian doctrine?
Vedabrata Rao. Faustus, one of the many ambiguities of this play written by Christopher Marlowe, is the attempt of establishing an accurate time frame as to when it was written. On grounds founded upon evidence gathered by several critics, it seems to them that the play was written by Marlowe shortly after Tamburlaine, in the year An anonymous play A Taming of the Shrew, apparently plagiarized from Dr.
Faustus, and was dated between Time seems to be a question raised not only of Doctor Faustus, but in it too. The story of Dr. Faustus is thus: His friends Valdes and Cornelius instruct him in the black arts, and he begins his new endeavour as a magician by summoning up Mephastophilis, a servant of the Devil.
Armed with his new powers and attended by Mephestophilis, Faustus begins to travel. Upon earning fame, he is invited to the court of the German emperor, Charles V, who asks Faustus to allow him to see Alexander the Great, the famed fourth-century B. Macedonian king and conqueror. Faustus conjures up an image of Alexander, and Charles is duly awed.
As the twenty-four years of his deal with Lucifer come to a close, Faustus begins be anxious of his looming death. Time flies. Faustus tells the scholars about his pact, and they are horror-stricken and resolve to pray for him.
The night before the expiration of his twenty-four years of power and fame, Faustus is overcome by fear and remorse. He finally begs for mercy from God, but it is too late. At midnight he meets his end, as death over comes his body and his soul forever is eternally damned.
What is depicted onstage in a matter of minutes in this final scene is in fact, as per the story, portraying an hour long dramatic end. The stage clock is but a callous instrument, striking away as time flows by.
Here, yet again there is the relative outlook of time as years compared to one hour is long, but still compared to eternity is short. Then again, maybe that's what nice people like the Chorus and Old Man want; maybe that's what God wants for us.
But is it what a real man should want? The Chorus, Old Man et al. If we see him objectively, that's how we should see him.
But aspiration is the sin of Eve and Adam, and we come by it naturally, if the Christians tell the story right. Ought not at least part of us identify with Faustus—and question the limits put upon human striving and attainment? Ought not some traditional American parts sympathize with a man who wants to better himself and be all he can be?
Faustus's opening speech: Faustus refers to Faustus in the third person, as "Faustus. Note learned Latin—and that Faustus translates for us. That may say something about Marlowe's idea of his audience. What does Faustus see as the end finis of his own practice of medicine? Does his goal speak well for his compassion? Under what conditions is "this profession. Faustus doesn't translate the Latin; it reads: Note Faustus's rejection of being a "mercenary drudge"; do you think better of him for rejecting "external trash"?
Does he reject it? The full Biblical texts of which Faustus quotes part read as follows: Faustus 5 Unforgiveable Sin: The "grace" part gets complicated, but in Faustus, Faustus has the free will to repent, if he chooses to. See below for a very brief intro. Faustus finds these books of evil magic "heavenly"; note the inversion and the irony—there will be more turn-abouts and irony later. Faustus on being "A sound magician": Note the immediate goals of profit, delight, power, honor—and then omnipotence.
What do you make of the idea of "dominion" that stetches "as far as doth the mind of man"? A hyperbolic but otherwise admirable humanistic statement?
Chuzpah—for any human trying the God game? Enter the Good and the Evil Angel: This is a touch from the Medieval drama and, for sophisticated playgoers, might be another hint that no good will come to Faustus.
Medieval plays are ideologically Christian and tend to take a Godlike view, where human arrogance and evil in general is comic. God holds the evil "in derision. Consider whether or not the Good Angel make any argument against necromancy aside from, You'll get into trouble!
In theory, we should turn away from evil toward the God who loves us, in Christian doctrine loved us enough to become human and sacrifice himself to redeem us from the Adversary [Satan]. What is the Evil Angel's temptation?
Does this nasty spirit properly understand human psychology? What's the Serpent's key line to Eve in the Garden in Genesis? Note introduction with "glutted. Start with what you actually respect or would just like for yourself, not what your official ideologies tell you are respectable. If we followed our official beliefs, few would respect rock stars or big-time athletes.
Recall this "conceit" when you see what Faustus gets.
Gluttony is a much more minor sin than Pride; still …. Just who does tempt Faustus? If definitely not a saint, does Faustus become something of a martyr? Loaded phrase for us I would hope and, we may presume, for many in Marlowe's Spanish-hating audience; at least according to some modern Spaniards, Renaissance Protestants wasted no time in telling tales of Spanish atrocities in the New World.
On the other hand, the Spanish had done what a truly imperial power must do— conquer an empire—and the English tried sporadically to get their cut of the New World and Russian trade and the East Indies throughout Marlowe's lifetime. Note this word's obvious meaning here—devils. Note also Valdes's fantasy of having the devils look like sexy women. This foreshadows an important point in Faustus's damnation. Leech's Marlowe anthology. A human male practitioner ironically in "the missionary position" would literally turn his back on God and direct his "love" or libido toward the Devil.
When challenged to cite the greatest of the Mosaic teachings, Jesus of Nazareth referred to the opening of the Sh'ma Deuteronomy 6. But Faustus may be the measure of the traditional standards. Faustus 6. In his "Comic Synthesis" article, Robert Ornstein stresses how low comedy scenes follow more dignified scenes in Dr. Faustus—and undercut them. Faustus chops logic in 1. Here we're to laugh a bit; how about with Faustus? Note Scholars' concern for Faustus.
Faustus may not now love his neighbors, but they care for him. That cuts at least two ways. Conjuration Scene Ribner adds "above" to the S. Enter [above] Lucifer and four Devils. What would it do to this scene to have Lucifer et al.
I for one would certainly stage the scene this way. Desire to get devils to obey his commands, and Faustus's having "prayed and sacrificed to them. You don't have to know much Latin to get the main point: Go away, God! Come on, devils! Faustus sends Mephistophilis off for costume change: Evil is ugly, and, with Faustus, makes no effort to disguise itself; Mephistophilis is an uncommonly honest devil.
Note the antiCatholic dig. Again, Marlowe may not have been a Christian, but he was a solid Protestant politically. Faustus on how Faustus has summoned Mephistophilis. See below for Mephistophilis's version. Faustus's first attempt to command Mephistophilis. If he made the "moon drop from her sphere," the Earth would be destroyed and every living thing on it killed.
Mephistophilis makes clear immediately just whom he serves—great Lucifer—and what he'll do, and won't do, for Faustus. Driving home the last lesson, Mephistophilis explains that Faustus didn't even force him to appear: Faustus is definitely a Free Thinker in making light of these ideas cf.
The famous passage, "Why this is hell, nor am I out of it. Again, Mephistophilis is amazingly truthful in his initial dealings with Faustus: Ornstein stresses that this is one hell of a line to use to a devil who fought against God. Faustus dreams of power—big dreams. As Ornstein stresses, we again have a scene of high aspiration 1.
Wagner says Robin would "give his soul to the devil for a shoulder of mutton, though it were blood-raw" and Robin says, no, he'd "need to have it well roasted. Jesus asked where the profit might lie in selling one's soul for the world—literally. If the soul is of infinite value, or all we really have, Jesus was correct, and the only difference between Robin and Faustus is that Faustus has bigger fantasies but Robin is smart enough not to sell his soul for trifles.
Wagner summons devils: Like, any fool can do it. Pact Scene. Faustus 7 Faustus still talks of Faustus and to Faustus. Faustus despairs before the Pact. Note "The God thou serv'st is thine own appetite. Enter again the two angels, to debate wisdom—and temptation of wealth. The Bible has it that Pride is the root of all evils and that Greed is the root of all evils, but the usual order favors Pride as the deadliest sin.
Anyway, consider the possibility that Faustus works his way down the ladder of Deadly Sins. Pact, with Faustus writing with his blood, desiring to be "as great as Lucifer," which is ironic at the bottom of the Inferno, Satan is as low as one can get.
Flow started again with fire: Hell "Subtlety is not a virtue" in drama. Faustus asserts his soul is his own. That's a good liberal ideal, but not one accepted much before the invention of liberalism in its classic formulation, Consummatum est: Homo fuege: Faustus's body Naturally rebels against the Pact. I'll fetch him somewhat to delight his mind: This will become a kind of motif for Mephistophilis's handling of Faustus—and for filling in the middle of the play. Marlowe inherited the Beginning of Dr.
If the point is the futility, the emptiness, the Vanity! Mephistophilis swears by Hell and Lucifer. Note the ironies. Hell is where Faustus is headed; Lucifer is the Father of Lies. After this, Mephistophilis may be less fastidious with the Truth. Faustus's first questions of Mephistophilis.
Mephistophilis is right on Hell hath no limits—and Faustus doesn't believe him. Even Mephistophilis can't take this: How much would you want to just sell your soul?!? If there was a devil that wanted my soul, I just might have a soul, and there might be a God who'd be very pissed off if I sold it. That's common sense.
Faustus is academically clever, but also very, very stupid. Faustus wants a wife. Be sure you know why he will never get one. Where do most Christians go to get married? What are the Sacraments of most churches? Where did Jesus work his first miracle? Consider "bright Lucifer before his fall"—and after. The tradition is that Lucifer—now just Satan—isn't beautiful anymore. Faustus's curse on Mephistophilis for depriving him of the joys of Heaven and the heavens is followed by a line not in the text; Mephistophilis says: This is an admirable humanist idea—but how does it sound in context.
Is Marlowe a humanist? Does he much like humans? Heaven made for man: Therefore made for Faustus. Angels again. Is the question moot, since devils can't repent? Is Faustus now a devil—or does he despair? One form of that sin is presumption, presuming one will be saved at least among Catholics, Anglicans, et al.
The flip side of presumption is despair, thinking that nothing can save you. Note the arrogance of both beliefs. Faustus at length on despair.
Faustus's third attempt to get something from Mephistophilis: Note the Ptolemaic, Earth-centered, universe. Nicolaus Copernicus had presented his theory of a sun-centered system, but Galileo was a year younger than Marlowe, and his major work to prove Copernicus, wasn't until Sidereus Nuncius in and a bit thereafter.
Up through the s, even a very "with it" intellectual like Marlowe could still accept Ptolemy, without even a nod toward Copernicus; in the 17th c.
Also, note Ornstein's point that Marlowe really wasn't interested in science and, Ornstein argues, Marlowe wasn't a humanist or even very modern. Faustus's 4th attempt to get information from Mephistophilis; and this question Mephistophilis will not answer. There should be a moral here about trying to get truth from agents of the Father of Lies or even just data about the Creation from the Adversary. Again with the Angels. Does Faustus really want to repent, and, if so, should God give him the grace to repent—and to have the strength to resist Lucifer?
If not, why not? Possibility, God doesn't like wishy-washy sorts, at least Marlowe's god doesn't. Faustus and Lucifer on Adam and Creation. Pageant of the Seven Deadly Sins These are Faustus's questions , and all he gets are the sort of basic theology even some American kids in the late 20th c. This scene is supposed to be comic and is at least mildly amusing. Be sure you note that Dr. Faustus at least gets into obvious comedy quite early. Be sure also you learn the 7 Deadly Sins and their order: In countries with a strong Puritan heritage, like ours, there's a tendency to invert the list and be most upset by lust and least upset by—or even encourage—Pride, Greed, Envy, and the borderline sin between body and spirit, Wrath.
Note the closing lines between Faustus and Lucifer. Again, any clown can conjure; you just have to get literate.
Papal succession was and is a serious matter, as was the Papacy vs. Wars of Religion, it was politically significant work to get Protestant English audiences laughing at the Pope. Laughter is a tool of propaganda, and the farce here is politically important—and Faustus does do a good deed in rescuing Bruno text: But really! It's still all farce: Faustus plays tricks on the Pope et al.
The farce comes through less strongly in the version because the sequence is shorter, more strongly because the version lacks some of the serious political issues. Faustus 9 3.
Robin and Dick play a trick on the Vinter similar to that Faustus played on the Pope, and conjure up Mephistophilis. By now you should get the point. Robin and Dick didn't sell their souls, and they're doing about as well as Faustus. Ornstein point out, in "Marlowe and God," that Christian theory holds that Faustus should be getting worse in through here: But that's not what we hear; we hear, and later see, an increase of kindness from the arrogant Faustus who began the play.
Note Faustus's introduction as "the German conjurer. He's a big-time Magic Star, but now it's all just Show Biz: Again, Faustus did well to free Bruno, but not much comes of that. Benvolio insults Faustus, setting up some schtick. Horning of Benvolio, setting up yet another bit of schtick. Magic show for Emperor. In text, expanded to include a fight between Alexander and Darius.
In both, show of Alexander and his paramour. And literal horning of the Knight named Benvolio in text —and dehorning, the Knight having done penance. Broad Comedy— Faustus punishes Benvolio et al. In getting his revenge, is Faustus more merciful than God? Should people be more merciful than God? Should we be more merciful than the God Faustus reads out of Christian Scripture? More merciful than Marlowe's god? Marlowe may believe in God but not in grace or mercy. Horse-Courser Business: Farce, with one big exception.
Faustus shows despair and then, "Tush! Christ did call the thief upon the cross"—which is despair's flip side, presumption developed by Douglas Cole in Suffering and Evil in the Plays of Christopher Marlowe.
Robin and Dick and Horse-Courser Reminisce. Faustus as Court Jester: A Lofty One, of course, but still. The Damnation of Faustus Preparation Again, Ornstein notes in "Marlowe and God" that Faustus morally improves during the course of the play, insofar as he becomes more human, less separated from people by his arrogance.
That's an important point: We hear here that Faustus is pretty well integrated into a human community: Does he maintain that integration? What do we see next?
Most of the scene is in verse, and even the prose is dignified. Enter "Helen of Greece" sic—that's more correct than "Helen of Troy" , which First Scholar calls a "blessed sight," and for which he blesses Faustus. In humanistic terms—or at least masculinist human terms—this is OK.
What about Christian doctrine? Note that I use above the construction "Helen. Faustus Old Man enters: A normative figure for Christian belief.
Psychomachia between Old Man and Mephistophilis: The Old Man sees an angel prepared to drop grace upon Faustus. Why doesn't the angel just do so? Well, because Faustus hasn't yet fully repented and asked for grace.