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Understanding the. LINUX. KERNEL. THIRD EDITION. Daniel P. Bovet and Marco Cesati .. came the first edition of Understanding the Linux Kernel at the end of , which .. identified by a fourth number in the version numbering scheme. Understanding the Linux Kernel. Daniel P. Bovet. Marco Cesati. Publisher: O' Reilly. First Edition October ISBN: , pages. Understanding. My Library about Technical Books. Contribute to eeeyes/My-Lib-Books development by creating an account on GitHub.
Scientific Astrophotography: Retrieved 4 February The Berkeley Software Distribution had not yet freed itself from legal encumbrances. Linus Torvalds". Exam Ref Configuring Windows Devices: Current stable version:
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The latest kernel version and older kernel versions are maintained separately. Most latest kernel releases were supervised by Linus Torvalds.
The Linux kernel developer community maintains a stable kernel by applying fixes for software bugs that have been discovered during the development of the subsequent stable kernel.
The next stable Linux kernel is now released only 8 to 12 weeks later. Therefore the Linux kernel maintainers have designated some stable kernel releases as longterm , these long-term support Linux kernels are updated with bug fixes for two or more years.
Versions 2. Most Linux users run a kernel supplied by their Linux distribution. Some distributions ship the "vanilla" or "stable" kernels. However, several Linux distribution vendors such as Red Hat and Debian maintain another set of Linux kernel branches which are integrated into their products.
These are usually updated at a slower pace compared to the "vanilla" branch, and they usually include all fixes from the relevant "stable" branch, but at the same time they can also add support for drivers or features which had not been released in the "vanilla" version the distribution vendor started basing their branch from. The Linux kernel development community uses Git to manage the kernel source code.
Linus Torvalds initially developed this version control system with speed in mind and as a distributed system. Git users can obtain the latest pushed version of Torvalds' tree and keep up to date with the official kernel tree using the git pull.
Source code contributions by developers are submitted as patches and incremental changes to the kernel source code means developers can seamlessly move from one Linux kernel version to the next. The Linux kernel is licensed explicitly only under version 2 of the GPL,  without offering the licensee the option to choose "any later version", which is a common GPL extension. There was considerable debate about how easily the license could be changed to use later GPL versions including version 3 , and whether this change is even desirable.
Torvalds commented, "I think a number of outsiders It is debated whether loadable kernel modules LKMs are to be considered derivative works under copyright law, and thereby fall under the terms of the GPL. Torvalds has stated his belief that LKMs using only a limited, "public" subset of the kernel interfaces can sometimes be non-derived works, thus allowing some binary-only drivers and other LKMs that are not licensed under the GPL.
But, Nvidia cannot use this infrastructure because it uses a technical means to enforce the rule that it can only be used by LKMs that are also GPL. On the other hand, Torvalds has also said that "one gray area in particular is something like a driver that was originally written for another operating system i. Ultimately, it is likely that such questions can only be resolved by a court.
One point of licensing controversy is the use of firmware " binary blobs " in Linux kernel to support several hardware devices. These files are under a variety of licenses, out of which many are restrictive and their exact underlying source code is usually unknown.
In , Richard Stallman stated why, in his point of view, such blobs make the Linux kernel partially non-free software , and that distributing Linux kernel "violates the GPL", which requires "complete corresponding source code" to be available. On 15 December , the Debian Project announced that the next Debian stable version "6. Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States and some other countries.
This is the result of an incident in which William Della Croce, Jr. The issue was settled in August when the trademark was assigned to Linus Torvalds.
In early , SCO filed the specific details of a purported copyright infringement. Despite previous claims that SCO was the rightful owner of 1 million lines of code, they specified only lines of code, most of which were uncopyrightable. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Tux the penguin, mascot of Linux . See also: History of Linux. This section needs to be updated.
Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. July Main article: Usage share of operating systems. Main articles: Linux kernel interfaces and Interfaces of the Linux kernel Category. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: Linux Standard Base. This section's factual accuracy is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on Talk: Linux kernel.
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Kernel preemption. List of Linux supported architectures and Linux-powered device.
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