Lord of the rings first book pdf

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Lord of the Rings. The first part, The Fellowship The Two Towers. of the Red Book of Westmarch, and is now told in The Lord of the Rings. A final note may. I have the book you are looking for >>> The Lord of the Rings An by Frodo and the Fellowship of the Ring: Gandalf the Wizard; the hobbits Merry, Pippin, and. The Hobbit was first published in September. Its sequel, The Lord of the Rings, then in progress. Books in February , and to the British third.

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J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings is often erroneously called a trilogy, when it is in fact a single novel, consisting of six books plus appendices, sometimes. “THE LORD OF THE RINGS' V*art One THE FELLOWSHIP OF THE RING . of the Red Book, composed by Bilbo himself, the first Hobbit to become famous in. View and download on DocDroid.

Archived from the original on 13 February Here it is in my pocket! The riches he had brought back from his travels had now become a local legend, and it was popularly believed, whatever the old folk might say, that the Hill at Bag End was full of tunnels stuffed with treasure. Silly old fool. Pippin is seen by Sauron.

But he kept in a drawer at Bag End the old cloak and hood that he had worn on his travels; and the ring, secured by a fine chain, remained in his pocket. He returned to his home at Bag End on June the 22nd in his fifty-second year S.

Baggins began the preparations for the celebration of his hundred-and-eleventh birthday S. At this point this History begins. At the end of the Third Age the part played by the Hobbits in the great events that led to the inclusion of the Shire in the Reunited Kingdom awakened among them a more widespread interest in their own history; and many of their traditions, up to that time still mainly oral, were collected and Written down.

The greater families were also concerned with events in the Kingdom at large, and many of their members studied its ancient histories and legends. By the end of the first century of the Fourth Age there were already to be found in the Shire several libraries that contained many historical books and records.

That most important source for the history of the War of the Ring was so called because it was long preserved at Undertowers, the home of the Fairbairns, Wardens of the Westmarch. It was in origin Bilbo's private diary, which he took with him to Rivendell. Frodo brought it back to the Shire, together with many loose leaves of notes, and during S.

But annexed to it and preserved with it, probably m a single red case, were the three large volumes, bound in red leather, that Bilbo gave to him as a parting gift. To these four volumes there was added in Westmarch a fifth containing commentaries, genealogies, and various other matter concerning the hobbit members of the Fellowship.

The original Red Book has not been preserved, but many copies were made, especially of the first volume, for the use of the descendants of the children of Master Samwise. The most important copy, however, has a different history. It was kept at Great Smials, but it was written in Condor, probably at the request of the great-grandson of Peregrin, and completed in S.

Its southern scribe appended this note: Findegil, King's Writer, finished this work in IV It is an exact copy in all details of the Thain's Book m Minas Tirith.

The Thain's Book was thus the first copy made of the Red Book and contained much that was later omitted or lost. In Minas Tirith it received much annotation, and many corrections, especially of names, words, and quotations in the Elvish languages; and there was added to it an abbreviated version of those parts of The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen which lie outside the account of the War.

The full tale is stated to have been written by Barahir, grandson of the Steward Faramir, some time after the passing of the King. But the chief importance of Findegil's copy is that it alone contains the whole of Bilbo's 'Translations from the Elvish'. These three volumes were found to be a work of great skill and learning in which, between and , he had used all the sources available to him in Rivendell, both living and written.

But since they were little used by Frodo, being almost entirely concerned with the Elder Days, no more is said of them here. Since Meriadoc and Peregrin became the heads of their great families, and at the same time kept up their connexions with Rohan and Gondor, the libraries at Bucklebury and Tuckborough contained much that did not appear in the Red Book.

In Brandy Hall there were many works dealing with Eriador and the history of Rohan. Some of these were composed or begun by Meriadoc himself, though in the Shire he was chiefly remembered for his Herblore of the Shire, and for his Reckoning of Years m which he discussed the relation of the calendars of the Shire and Bree to those of Rivendell, Gondor, and Rohan.

He also wrote a short treatise on Old Words and Names in the Shire, having special interest in discovering the kinship with the language of the Rohirrim of such 'shire-words' as mathom and old elements in place names. At Great Smials the books were of less interest to Shire-folk, though more important for larger history. None of them was written by Peregrin, but he and his successors collected many manuscripts written by scribes of Gondor: It was probably at Great Smials that The Tale of Years was put together, with the assistance of material collected by Meriadoc.

Though the dates given are often conjectural, especially for the Second Age, they deserve attention. It is probable that Meriadoc obtained assistance and information from Rivendell, which he visited more than once.

There, though Elrond had departed, his sons long remained, together with some of the High-elven folk. It is said that Celeborn went to dwell there after the departure of Galadriel; but there is no record of the day when at last he sought the Grey Havens, and with him went the last living memory of the Elder Days in Middle-earth. When Mr. Bilbo Baggins of Bag End announced that he would shortly be celebrating his eleventy-first birthday with a party of special magnificence, there was much talk and excitement in Hobbiton.

Bilbo was very rich and very peculiar, and had been the wonder of the Shire for sixty years, ever since his remarkable disappearance and unexpected return. The riches he had brought back from his travels had now become a local legend, and it was popularly believed, whatever the old folk might say, that the Hill at Bag End was full of tunnels stuffed with treasure. And if that was not enough for fame, there was also his prolonged vigour to marvel at. Time wore on, but it seemed to have little effect on Mr.

At ninety he was much the same as at fifty. At ninety-nine they began to call him well -preserved, but unchanged would have been nearer the mark. There were some that shook their heads and thought this was too much of a good thing; it seemed unfair that anyone should possess apparently perpetual youth as well as reputedly inexhaustible wealth. But so far trouble had not come; and as Mr. Baggins was generous with his money, most people were willing to forgive him his oddities and his good fortune.

He remained on visiting terms with his relatives except, of course, the Sackville-Bagginses , and he had many devoted admirers among the hobbits of poor and unimportant families. But he had no close friends, until some of his younger cousins began to grow up.

When Bilbo was ninety-nine, he adopted Frodo as his heir, and brought him to live at Bag End; and the hopes of the Sackville-Bagginses were finally dashed. Bilbo and Frodo happened to have the same birthday, September 22nd. Twelve more years passed. Each year the Bagginses had given very lively combined birthday-parties at Bag End; but now it was understood that something quite exceptional was being planned for that autumn.

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Bilbo was going to be eleventy-one, , a rather curious number and a very respectable age for a hobbit the Old Took himself had only reached ; and Frodo was going to be thirty-three, 33 an important number: Tongues began to wag in Hobbiton and Bywater; and rumour of the coming event travelled all over the Shire. The history and character of Mr. Bilbo Baggins became once again the chief topic of conversation; and the older folk suddenly found their reminiscences in welcome demand. No one had a more attentive audience than old Ham Gamgee, commonly known as the Gaffer.

He held forth at The Ivy Bush , a small inn on the Bywater road; and he spoke with some authority, for he had tended the garden at Bag End for forty years, and had helped old Holman in the same job before that. Now that he was himself growing old and stiff in the joints, the job was mainly carried on by his youngest son, Sam Gamgee. Both father and son were on very friendly terms with Bilbo and Frodo.

With perfect truth: It beats me why any Baggins of Hobbiton should go looking for a wife away there in Buckland, where folks are so queer. Small wonder that trouble came of it, I say. But be that as it may, Mr. Frodo is as nice a young hobbit as you could wish to meet. Very much like Mr. Bilbo, and in more than looks. After all his father was a Baggins. A decent respectable hobbit was Mr. Drogo Baggins; there was never much to tell of him, till he was drownded.

They had heard this and other darker rumours before, of course; but hobbits have a passion for family history, and they were ready to hear it again. Drogo, he married poor Miss Primula Brandybuck. She was our Mr. Drogo was his second cousin. So Mr. Frodo is his first and second cousin, once removed either way, as the saying is, if you follow me. And Mr. Drogo was staying at Brandy Hall with his father-in-law, old Master Gorbadoc, as he often did after his marriage him being partial to his vittles, and old Gorbadoc keeping a mighty generous table ; and he went out boating on the Brandywine River; and he and his wife were drownded, and poor Mr.

Frodo only a child and all. Boats are quite tricky enough for those that sit still without looking further for the cause of trouble. Frodo left an orphan and stranded, as you might say, among those queer Bucklanders, being brought up anyhow in Brandy Hall. A regular warren, by all accounts.

Old Master Gorbadoc never had fewer than a couple of hundred relations in the place. Bilbo never did a kinder deed than when he brought the lad back to live among decent folk. They thought they were going to get Bag End, that time when he went off and was thought to be dead. And then he comes back and orders them off; and he goes on living and living, and never looking a day older, bless him!

And suddenly he produces an heir, and has all the papers made out proper. I know nothing about jools. Bilbo is free with his money, and there seems no lack of it; but I know of no tunnel-making. I saw Mr. Bilbo when he came back, a matter of sixty years ago, when I was a lad. And in the middle of it all Mr. Bilbo comes up the Hill with a pony and some mighty big bags and a couple of chests. But my lad Sam will know more about that. Crazy about stories of the old days he is, and he listens to all Mr.

Bilbo has learned him his letters - meaning no harm, mark you, and I hope no harm will come of it. But the Gaffer did not convince his audience. And look at the outlandish folk that visit him: But they do things proper at Bag End. That very month was September, and as fine as you could ask.

A day or two later a rumour probably started by the knowledgeable Sam was spread about that there were going to be fireworks - fireworks, what is more, such as had not been seen in the Shire for nigh on a century, not indeed since the Old Took died.

Days passed and The Day drew nearer. An odd-looking waggon laden with odd-looking packages rolled into Hobbiton one evening and toiled up the Hill to Bag End. The startled hobbits peered out of lamplit doors to gape at it. It was driven by outlandish folk, singing strange songs: A few of them remained at Bag End. At the end of the second week in September a cart came in through Bywater from the direction of the Brandywine Bridge in broad daylight.

An old man was driving it all alone. He wore a tall pointed blue hat, a long grey cloak, and a silver scarf. He had a long white beard and bushy eyebrows that stuck out beyond the brim of his hat. Small hobbit-children ran after the cart all through Hobbiton and right up the hill. It had a cargo of fireworks, as they rightly guessed. His real business was far more difficult and dangerous, but the Shire-folk knew nothing about it.

Hence the excitement of the hobbit-children. They knew him by sight, though he only appeared in Hobbiton occasionally and never stopped long; but neither they nor any but the oldest of their elders had seen one of his firework displays - they now belonged to the legendary past. When the old man, helped by Bilbo and some dwarves, had finished unloading. Bilbo gave a few pennies away; but not a single squib or cracker was forthcoming, to the disappointment of the onlookers.

The young hobbits stared at the door in vain for a while, and then made off, feeling that the day of the party would never come. Inside Bag End, Bilbo and Gandalf were sitting at the open window of a small room looking out west on to the garden. The late afternoon was bright and peaceful. The flowers glowed red and golden: I am very fond indeed of it, and of all the dear old Shire; but I think I need a holiday.

It is no good saying any more. Stick to your plan - your whole plan, mind - and I hope it will turn out for the best, for you, and for all of us. The next day more carts rolled up the Hill, and still more carts.

People became enthusiastic; and they began to tick off the days on the calendar; and they watched eagerly for the postman, hoping for invitations. Before long the invitations began pouring out, and the Hobbiton post-office was blocked, and the Bywater post-office was snowed under, and voluntary assistant postmen were called for. There was a constant stream of them going up the Hill, carrying hundreds of polite variations on Thank you, I shall certainly come.

A notice appeared on the gate at Bag End: Even those who had, or pretended to have Party Business were seldom allowed inside. Bilbo was busy: A special entrance was cut into the bank leading to the road, and wide steps and a large white gate were built there. The three hobbit-families of Bagshot Row, adjoining the field, were intensely interested and generally envied. Old Gaffer Gamgee stopped even pretending to work in his garden.

The tents began to go up. There was a specially large pavilion, so big that the tree that grew in the field was right inside it, and stood proudly near one end, at the head of the chief table. Lanterns were hung on all its branches. A draught of cooks, from every inn and eating-house for miles around, arrived to supplement the dwarves and other odd folk that were quartered at Bag End. Excitement rose to its height.

Then the weather clouded over. That was on Wednesday the eve of the Party. Anxiety was intense. Then Thursday, September the 22nd, actually dawned. The sun got up, the clouds vanished, flags were unfurled and the fun began. Bilbo Baggins called it a party, but it was really a variety of entertainments rolled into one.

Practically everybody living near was invited. A very few were overlooked by accident, but as they turned up all the same, that did not matter. Many people from other parts of the Shire were also asked; and there were even a few from outside the borders. Bilbo met the guests and additions at the new white gate in person. He gave away presents to all and sundry - the latter were those who went out again by a back way and came in again by the gate.

Hobbits give presents to other people on their own birthdays. Not very expensive ones, as a rule, and not so lavishly as on this occasion; but it was not a bad system. But they never got tired of them. On this occasion the presents were unusually good.

The hobbit-children were so excited that for a while they almost forgot about eating. There were toys the like of which they had never seen before, all beautiful and some obviously magical.

Many of them had indeed been ordered a year before, and had come all the way from the Mountain and from Dale, and were of real dwarf-make. When every guest had been welcomed and was finally inside the gate, there were songs, dances, music, games, and, of course, food and drink.


There were three official meals: But lunch and tea were marked chiefly by the fact that at those times all the guests were sitting down and eating together. At other times there were merely lots of people eating and drinking - continuously from elevenses until six-thirty, when the fireworks started.

The fireworks were by Gandalf: But there was also a generous distribution of squibs, crackers, backarappers, sparklers, torches, dwarf-candles, elf-fountains, goblin-barkers and thunder-claps. They were all superb. The art of Gandalf improved with age. There were rockets like a flight of scintillating birds singing with sweet voices.

There were green trees with trunks of dark smoke: There were fountains of butterflies that flew glittering into the trees; there were pillars of coloured fires that rose and turned into eagles, or sailing ships, or a phalanx of flying swans; there was a red thunderstorm and a shower of yellow rain; there was a forest of silver spears that sprang suddenly into the air with a yell like an embattled army, and came down again into the Water with a hiss like a hundred hot snakes.

And there was also one last surprise, in honour of Bilbo, and it startled the hobbits exceedingly, as Gandalf intended. The lights went out. A great smoke went up.

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It shaped itself like a mountain seen in the distance, and began to glow at the summit. It spouted green and scarlet flames. Out flew a red-golden dragon - not life-size, but terribly life-like: They all ducked, and many fell flat on their faces. The dragon passed like an express train, turned a somersault, and burst over Bywater with a deafening explosion.

The pain and alarm vanished at once, and the prostrate hobbits leaped to their feet. There was a splendid supper for everyone; for everyone, that is, except those invited to the special family dinner-party. This was held in the great pavilion with the tree. The invitations were limited to twelve dozen a number also called by the hobbits one Gross, though the word was not considered proper to use of people ; and the guests were selected from all the families to which Bilbo and Frodo were related, with the addition of a few special unrelated friends such as Gandalf.

Many young hobbits were included, and present by parental permission; for hobbits were easy-going with their children in the matter of sitting up late, especially when there was a chance of getting them a free meal. Bringing up young hobbits took a lot of provender. Some of these were only very distantly connected with Bilbo, and some of them had hardly ever been in Hobbiton before, as they lived in remote corners of the Shire.

The Sackville-Bagginses were not forgotten. Otho and his wife Lobelia were present. They disliked Bilbo and detested Frodo, but so magnificent was the invitation card, written in golden ink, that they had felt it was impossible to refuse. Besides, their cousin, Bilbo, had been specializing in food for many years and his table had a high reputation.

All the one hundred and forty-four guests expected a pleasant feast; though they rather dreaded the after-dinner speech of their host an inevitable item. He was liable to drag in bits of what he called poetry; and sometimes, after a glass or two, would allude to the absurd adventures of his mysterious journey. The guests were not disappointed: After the feast more or less came the Speech. They were sipping their favourite drinks, and nibbling at their favourite dainties, and their fears were forgotten.

They were prepared to listen to anything, and to cheer at every full stop. My dear People, began Bilbo, rising in his place. Bilbo left his place and went and stood on a chair under the illuminated tree.

The light of the lanterns fell on his beaming face; the golden buttons shone on his embroidered silk waistcoat. They could all see him standing, waving one hand in the air, the other was in his trouser-pocket. His name, of course, was Proudfoot, and well merited; his feet were large, exceptionally furry, and both were on the table. Proudfoots, repeated Bilbo. Today is my one hundred and eleventh birthday: I am eleventy-one today!

Many Happy Returns! Bilbo was doing splendidly. This was the sort of stuff they liked: Deafening cheers. Cries of Yes and No. Noises of trumpets and horns, pipes and flutes, and other musical instruments. There were, as has been said, many young hobbits present. Hundreds of musical crackers had been pulled. Most of them bore the mark dale on them; which did not convey much to most of the hobbits, but they all agreed they were marvellous crackers.

They contained instruments, small, but of perfect make and enchanting tones. Indeed, in one corner some of the young Tooks and Brandybucks, supposing Uncle Bilbo to have finished since he had plainly said all that was necessary , now got up an impromptu orchestra, and began a merry dance-tune. Master Everard Took and Miss Melilot Brandybuck got on a table and with bells in their hands began to dance the Springle-ring: But Bilbo had not finished.

Seizing a horn from a youngster near by, he blew three loud hoots. The noise subsided. Cheers from all the assembly. Something in the way that he said this made an impression. There was almost silence, and one or two of the Tooks pricked up their ears. Indeed, for Three Purposes! First of all, to tell you that I am immensely fond of you all, and that eleventy-one years is too short a time to live among such excellent and admirable hobbits.

Tremendous outburst of approval. This was unexpected and rather difficult. There was some scattered clapping, but most of them were trying to work it out and see if it came to a compliment. Secondly, to celebrate my birthday. Cheers again. OUR birthday. For it is, of course, also the birthday of my heir and nephew, Frodo. He comes of age and into his inheritance today. Together we score one hundred and forty-four. Your numbers were chosen to fit this remarkable total: One Gross, if I may use the expression.

No cheers. This was ridiculous. Many of his guests, and especially the Sackville-Bagginses, were insulted, feeling sure they had only been asked to fill up the required number, like goods in a package.

Vulgar expression. It is also, if I may be allowed to refer to ancient history, the anniversary of my arrival by barrel at Esgaroth on the Long Lake; though the fact that it was my birthday slipped my memory on that occasion. I was only fifty-one then, and birthdays did not seem so important. I now repeat it more correctly: Thank you very much for coming to my little party. Obstinate silence. They all feared that a song or some poetry was now imminent; and they were getting bored.

But Bilbo did not sing or recite. He paused for a moment. He spoke this last word so loudly and suddenly that everyone sat up who still could. I regret to announce that - though, as I said, eleventy-one years is far too short a time to spend among you - this is the END. I am going. I am leaving NOW. He stepped down and vanished. There was a blinding flash of light, and the guests all blinked. When they opened their eyes Bilbo was nowhere to be seen.

One hundred and forty-four flabbergasted hobbits sat back speechless. Old Odo Proudfoot removed his feet from the table and stamped. It was generally agreed that the joke was in very bad taste, and more food and drink were needed to cure the guests of shock and annoyance. For the moment most of them took it for granted that his disappearance was nothing more than a ridiculous prank.

But old Rory Brandybuck was not so sure. Neither age nor an enormous dinner had clouded his wits, and he said to his daughter-in-law, Esmeralda: I believe that mad Baggins is off again.

Silly old fool. But why worry? Frodo was the only one present who had said nothing. He had enjoyed the joke, of course, even though he had been in the know.

He had difficulty in keeping from laughter at the indignant surprise of the guests. But at the same time he felt deeply troubled: Frodo did not want to have any more to do with the party. He gave orders for more wine to be served; then he got up and drained his own glass silently to the health of Bilbo, and slipped out of the pavilion.

As for Bilbo Baggins, even while he was making his speech, he had been fingering the golden ring in his pocket: As he stepped down he slipped it on his finger, and he was never seen by any hobbit in Hobbiton again. He walked briskly back to his hole, and stood for a moment listening with a smile to the din in the pavilion and to the sounds of merrymaking in other parts of the field.

Then he went in. He took off his party clothes, folded up and wrapped in tissue-paper his embroidered silk waistcoat, and put it away. Then he put on quickly some old untidy garments, and fastened round his waist a worn leather belt. On it he hung a short sword in a battered black-leather scabbard. From a locked drawer, smelling of moth-balls, he took out an old cloak and hood. They had been locked up as if they were very precious, but they were so patched and weatherstained that their original colour could hardly be guessed: They were rather too large for him.

He then went into his study, and from a large strong-box took out a bundle wrapped in old cloths, and a leather-bound manuscript; and also a large bulky envelope. The book and bundle he stuffed into the top of a heavy bag that was standing there, already nearly full. Into the envelope he slipped his golden ring, and its fine chain, and then sealed it, and addressed it to Frodo.

At first he put it on the mantelpiece, but suddenly he removed it and stuck it in his pocket. At that moment the door opened and Gandalf came quickly in. I suppose you feel that everything has gone off splendidly and according to plan? A little addition of your own, I suppose? It was. You have wisely kept that ring secret all these years, and it seemed to me necessary to give your guests something else that would seem to explain your sudden vanishment. It has now come to the final point.

You have had your joke, and alarmed or offended most of your relations, and given the whole Shire something to talk about for nine days, or ninety-nine more likely. Are you going any further? I feel I need a holiday, a very long holiday, as I have told you before. Probably a permanent holiday: Well-preserved indeed! I need a change, or something. Gandalf looked curiously and closely at him. I want to see mountains again, Gandalf, mountains, and then find somewhere where I can rest.

In peace and quiet, without a lot of relatives prying around, and a string of confounded visitors hanging on the bell. I might find somewhere where I can finish my book. I have thought of a nice ending for it: Frodo has read some already, as far as it has gone. In fact he offered to once, just before the party.

But he does not really want to, yet. I want to see the wild country again before I die, and the Mountains; but he is still in love with the Shire, with woods and fields and little rivers. He ought to be comfortable here.

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I am leaving everything to him, of course, except a few oddments. I hope he will be happy, when he gets used to being on his own. Well, no! Here it is in my pocket! Gandalf looked again very hard at Bilbo, and there was a gleam in his eyes. Why do you want me to? It was sharp with suspicion and annoyance. It was important. Magic rings are - well, magical; and they are rare and curious.

I was professionally interested in your ring, you may say; and I still am. I should like to know where it is, if you go wandering again.

Also I think you have had it quite long enough. Bilbo, unless I am quite mistaken. Bilbo flushed, and there was an angry light in his eyes.

His kindly face grew hard. It is my own. I found it. It came to me. My own. My precious. Yes, my precious. And why not? Even if Gollum said the same once. And I shall keep it, I say. Gandalf stood up. He spoke sternly. It has got far too much hold on you. Let it go! And then you can go yourself, and be free.

Do as you promised: If you say that again, I shall. The Prologue is meant partly to help people who have not read The Hobbit to understand the events of that book. It also contains other background information to set the stage for the novel.

The first chapter in the book begins in a light vein, following the tone of The Hobbit. Bilbo Baggins celebrates his th or eleventy-first, as it is called in Hobbiton birthday on the same day, 22 September, that his younger cousin and adopted heir Frodo Baggins celebrates his coming of age at thirty-three. At the birthday party, Bilbo departs from the Shire , the land of the Hobbits , for what he calls a permanent holiday.

Bilbo does so by using the magic ring that he had found on his journey to disappear and is aided by Gandalf the Wizard with a flash and puff of smoke, leading many in the Shire to believe he has gone mad. He leaves Frodo his remaining belongings, including his home, Bag End , and the Ring.

It becomes apparent that Bilbo has been strained over the past several years, and he is at first unwilling to give up the Ring, which concerns Gandalf. Eventually, he gives up the Ring and appears to be relieved of a huge burden. Gandalf leaves on his own business, warning Frodo to keep the Ring secret. Over the next seventeen years, Gandalf periodically pays short visits to Bag End.

He proves this by flinging the Ring into the fireplace, the heat of which causes the Ring to display Elf-writing in the language of Mordor. Sauron had forged the Ring to subdue and rule Middle-earth , but in the War of the Last Alliance , he had been defeated by Gil-galad the Elven King and Elendil , High King of Arnor and Gondor , though they themselves perished in the deed. Isildur , Elendil's son, cut the Ring from Sauron's finger.

Sauron was overthrown, but the Ring itself was not destroyed as it should have been, for Isildur kept it for himself. Frodo wonders why Bilbo did not kill the creature when he had the chance, but Gandalf reminds him that Bilbo's pity saved him in the end and did not make him like Gollum.

Gandalf tells how Sauron has risen again and has returned to his stronghold in Mordor and is bending all his power toward the hunting of the Ring. Gandalf speaks of the evil powers of the Ring and its ability to influence the bearer and those near him if it is worn for too long.

Gandalf warns Frodo that the Ring is no longer safe in the Shire. He has learned through his investigations that Gollum had gone to Mordor, where he was captured and tortured until he revealed to Sauron that the Ring was in the keeping of a hobbit named Baggins from the Shire. Gandalf hopes Frodo can reach the elf -haven Rivendell , east of the Shire, where he believes Frodo and the Ring will be safe from Sauron, and where the Ring's fate can be decided. Samwise Gamgee , Frodo's gardener and friend, is discovered eavesdropping on the conversation.

Out of loyalty to his master, Sam agrees to accompany Frodo on his journey. Over the summer, Frodo makes plans to leave his home at Bag End, under the pretence that he is moving to the eastern end of the Shire Buckland to retire. At midsummer, Gandalf leaves on pressing business, but promises to return before Frodo leaves. Frodo's birthday and the date of his departure approach, but Gandalf does not appear, so Frodo decides to leave without him.

Black Riders pursue Frodo's party. One of the Riders comes to the door of Sam's father, the Gaffer , the very evening before they depart. With the help of some elves led by Gildor and a hobbit named Farmer Maggot , the hobbits cross the Brandywine River and reach Crickhollow on the eastern border of the Shire. Merry and Pippin decide to join Frodo and Sam, while Fatty stays behind as a decoy. There the group fall asleep by a willow-tree and wake up to realize that its roots are trying to strangle them, but luckily Tom Bombadil comes to their aid.

They then go to the house of Bombadil and meet his wife Goldberry. There they discover that the Ring has no power over Bombadil—he does not disappear while wearing it and can see Frodo even after he has vanished from his friends' sight. In the evening, Frodo has a dream about Gandalf standing on the pinnacle of a tower and then a vision of a rain curtain in front of a ship on which he is sailing.

They then leave Bombadil's only to be captured by a barrow wight in the Barrow-downs , but they again escape with help from Tom and finally reach the gate of the village of Bree. Frodo goes by the name of "Underhill" rather than Baggins. While visiting with other hobbits and men from Bree, Frodo makes eye contact with a mysterious-looking man in the corner.

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The man then warns Frodo that Pippin is close to revealing who the hobbits really are, so Frodo begins to recite a poem that earns the applause of everyone in the inn.

When he recites it a second time, Frodo gets carried away and falls off the table and accidentally lets the Ring slip on his finger causing him to disappear. The incident causes a major commotion, and several rough-looking men leave the inn. Frodo reappears and said that he slipped away out of embarrassment, but few buy the explanation.

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The hobbits then retire from the common room only to find that they have been followed by the mysterious man, who goes by the name Strider, a Ranger. Frodo doubts Strider until Butterbur comes in with a note from Gandalf to Frodo left some time earlier.

Gandalf says to trust Strider and ask him his real name. Without even being asked, Strider reveals his name as Aragorn son of Arathorn and is the heir of Isildur in the North.

Strider has them spend the night in another room. Curious because of all the events, the whole town turns out to see them off. They then see evidence of a major fire fight and a stone that might indicate Gandalf got there ahead of them. A splinter of the blade remains within the wound, causing Frodo to fall very ill as they travel to Rivendell. As the travellers near their destination, they meet Glorfindel , an elf-lord from Rivendell, who helps them reach the River Bruinen near Rivendell.

Glorfindel's horse outruns the pursuers and carries Frodo across the Ford. Book II opens in Rivendell at the house of Elrond. Lewis, allegory was for Tolkien the highest form of literary crassness. He wrote: Indeed, Tolkien provides a clear link between the Christian calendar and the major events of the Ring Quest. The story begins with the burden of the Ring, which is conflated with the burden of the cross.

Though these cycles are reversed, they perform the same function of revitalisation, moving from struggle to new life.

That the sequence of events parallel the cycle of Christ is an obvious indication of the religious influence on the text, pointing towards the greater Catholic scheme. Christ Central to the worship of Christian denominations is the veneration of Christ, and in the central role that he plays in mimicking the journey of Jesus, Frodo is most often attributed with that symbolism. He adds that the aid provided by Sam in the final moments of the quest is alike the aid provided by Simeon to Christ.

However, on this I disagree with Caldecott, for it is not merely in these last moments that Frodo bears comparisons. At last with an effort he spoke, and wondered to hear his own words, as if some other will was using his small voice. This episode is reminiscent of the reluctant Christ in Luke His hood and his grey rags were flung away. This symbolism illustrates another way in which LOTR resists allegorical interpretation, for Gandalf is both a Christ symbol and part of the angelic race of the Maiar.

The final part of this tripartite Christological symbolism is Aragorn. At the end of the books, Frodo and Sam go to King Aragorn and hardly recognize him as the man that they knew as Strider: As they drew near he rose. Similarly, it is in the coming together of Gandalf, Aragorn, and Frodo that Middle Earth is saved, and in this the Christological symbolism of LOTR functions as a means of showing that only the Son of God could be priest, prophet, and king in One.

Thus, Tolkien has constructed literary figures which both receive and resist the symbolism of Christ, thereby supporting the Catholic myth without detracting from the substance of the story itself. Whereas the figure of Christ is of universal importance to Christians, the Catholic perception of Mary is particular. Indeed, the significance of the Blessed Mother is important for Tolkien both as a Catholic and as a medievalist.

During the years Tolkien was Merton Professor of English Language and Literature, a role which allowed him to explore his love of medieval languages. When we are first presented to Celeborn and Galadriel, they are like Gandalf after his resurrection, and the angels in the tomb of Christ: She read many hearts and desires. Like a mother who equips her children with the tools needed to survive and flourish, her gifts prove of pivotal importance to the success of the Ring Quest.

These same qualities, of divine beauty and practical aid, Galadriel shares with Goldberry in her brief entrances into the books. Though Goldberry is an elf, her partnership with Tom Bombadil in one sense paganises her. So where Galadriel professes the divine qualities of the Virgin, Goldberry promotes her natural ones.

In addition to the figures of Galadriel and Goldberry, Barbara Kowalik draws out the Marian identity of Elbereth, a divine figure whose name is regularly invoked during the ring quest in LOTR As a Catholic might invoke the Virgin through the Hail Mary, characters including Frodo and Aragorn regularly appeal to the name of Elbereth in times of need.

O Elbereth! In this, Galadriel and Elbereth are conflated within the symbol of an intercessory Virginal character. Middle Earth is a landscape blighted by the tug between good and evil, and though characters such as Frodo, Gandalf, Aragorn and Galadriel, Goldberry, and Elbereth foreshadow the Christian revelation in Christ, they are ultimately susceptible to temptation in their humanity.

Neither Tolkien nor the Church expect us to be impervious to temptation. So the author gives us examples of other heroes who profess the qualities of a good Christian without the insinuated divinity of the aforementioned figures. These framing narratives serve to give the reader a detailed understanding of the landscape of Middle Earth, acting as a kind of decryption tool for some of the moral messages in the text, and in this instance a focus is put upon the moral fibre of hobbits.

Friendship and loyalty are of vital importance to the success of the Free Peoples, for Frodo would not have made it to Mount Doom without his Simeon, Sam Gamgee.

He stays with Frodo at the formation of the Fellowship at Rivendell: Mr Frodo, my dear! His actions reveal Sam to be a true hero of the books, committed to bearing the burden of his master and friend, and loyal until the end. Indeed, the books finish: He drew a deep breath. That being said, it would be remiss to gender the heroism of these novels.

Central to a Catholic concern is that each person, both men and women, are responsible for their own actions, thus we are presented with female characters in the text who also conform to the ideals of the Christian hero.

In fact, Tolkien shows female love to be closer in kind to the love Christ teaches us. I have paid. In juxtaposition with Boromir, Eowyn also desires to pursue power. The Ring would otherwise never have allowed itself to be willingly thrown into the fires of Mount Doom.

Nature and Environmentalism. The Catholic perception of nature is concentrated in the attitudes of the Free Peoples of Middle Earth, who seek to conserve and protect both the landscape and the people in it. In the creation of the Ents, Tolkien is literally giving a voice to creation, and Treebeard is critical of those that do not love nature. Sacred Music Tolkien uses the motifs of music and light to emphasise the supernatural; Frodo experiences the conflation of the divine and earthly in the music of the elves of Lothlorien.

His perception is defined not only by the natural beauty of his surroundings, but the feeling it imposes on him: Though it is Frodo speaking, the reader gets a sense that Tolkien is speaking through him, attempting to explain the total otherworldliness of the elves to the reader.

In this scene, we get a sense that there is something infinite and intuitive about music, then, beyond the formulaic, and manmade, constrains of language. Frodo speaks in the past tense, as if the moment has passed by him, and this serves to show that music is transporting. Earlier in the book, whilst he is still at Rivendell, he experiences this kind of intercessory moment: As with his later experience at Lothlorien, the power of music is shown to be primordial in that it does not require language to produce an experience which is both altering and comprehensible on a fundamental level.

Indeed, there is no greater evidence for music being symbolic of a divine language in Middle Earth than the very fact that it was created out of the Music of the Ainur. The Ainur then sang the earth into existence, which was the primary will of Eru Illuvatar The use of lays throughout the three books give the reader a sense of the same experience felt by the hobbit, by transporting us to another time and creating metanarratives within the text. In short, both are symbols of an omnipresent God.

Throughout the books, light exists as a symbol of hope, the struggle of good over evil, and the endurance of good in the face of darkness. Just as light represents goodness and hope, darkness becomes darker around evil. Tolkien continues his lengthy description of the darkness: With each step that the hobbits take, Tolkien plunges us, the readers, deeper and deeper into the darkness with them through his long and lulling description.

This experience is in direct contrast to the joy we feel at music and light, it is deadening, monotonous and repetitive: But light saves Frodo and Sam; not only does it allow them to see, it also brings them hope: The marked impression of the renewing and eternal qualities of light in the elves and in the characters who display marks of the divine is therefore a religious experience in itself.

Therefore, both music and light are intimately linked not only with divine creation, but the continued existence of the world.

In the final throws of the Ring Quest, Frodo fails. I will not do this deed. The Ring is mine! His weakness, combined with the pull of the diabolic, is nowhere more apparent than here. The wind motif is important not only to understanding the heavenly dimension of grace in LOTR, but also the traditional Catholic symbolism attached to the Holy Spirit, which is regularly figured in elemental terms in Scripture Hartley, The Sacraments The sacraments are a fundamental element of what distinguishes Catholicism as a Christian denomination, indeed 'the whole liturgical life of the Church revolves around the Eucharistic sacrifice and the sacraments' Church, Catechism, I: They are defined by the Church as ' "powers that comes forth" from the Body of Christ [ Included in the sacraments are Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Penance, Anointing of the Sick, Matrimony, and the Holy Orders, and each are addressed to larger and lesser degrees within the confines of Middle Earth.

According to the Catechism, '"the sacraments make the Church," since they manifest and communicate to men, above all in the Eucharist' Church, Catechism, I: Though each sacrament is of equal and vital importance to Catholic life, the Eucharist provides an especial function in that it is not taken once in a lifetime but weekly: This has led some critics to view lembas bread, the bread given to the Fellowship by the elves, as representative of the Eucharist Boffetti.

On one point we can be clear, it is not an allegorical representation of the Eucharist, as it predates the coming of Christ and his crucifixion.

The Catholic belief in transubstantiation fully recognises the Eucharist as the Body and Blood of Christ, therefore this is what lembas bread is not. In this sense, lembas foreshadows the Eucharist and is an iteration of its vital nature.

Though Frodo does not sacrifice himself in one final gesture, by undertaking a quest of mammoth proportions the world that he salvages is no longer for him. I tried to save the Shire, and it has been saved, but not for me. It must often be so, Sam, when things are in danger: Tolkien compounds the Christological sentiments expressed in the character of Frodo, by enacting a symbolic sacrifice.

But importantly, the message of going to the Grey Havens is one of endurance and immortality as opposed to finality. The passing of Frodo, Bilbo and the Elves is from one state literally, geographically speaking to another.

The Motif of the Journey. The symbolism and motifs of Catholicism that I have here discussed lead me to make my final assertion, which is an entirely new reading of Catholic presence in LOTR. In the previous chapter, a statement was made as to the proliferation of characters which display the virtues of a good Christian. Likewise, at the heart of the Catholic understanding of what it means to be a follower of God is the pathway to salvation, as seen in the journey of the sacraments.

His earthly life, the mystery of His crucifixion, and His coming in glory as the King of Heaven. In The Fellowship of the Ring, Frodo plays a central role in the formation of the Fellowship and the Ring Quest; in his innocence and goodness of character, he impresses wiser characters such as Gandalf and Elrond through what he offers as a teacher of the Christian virtues of selflessness and generosity of spirit that Jesus taught as a young man.

Moreover, he is the physical size of a young boy which is a manifestation of the innocence and naivety of the hobbits but also symbolic of adolescence. The Two Towers is then concerned with the resurrection of Gandalf, and in this book he takes on the lead in determining the course of events. In this sense, TT presents the strange events surrounding the crucifixion of Christ and the reassembling of scattered Christian forces following the chaos of his sacrifice.

Finally, in The Return of the King we are introduced to the prospect of Christ coming in glory, recognised in the figure of Aragorn. Through this reading, the motif of the journey can be reasserted as central to an understanding of the overall meaning of the books. The journey allows us to struggle against the diabolical and move towards grace, which is depicted literally in the novels, for as Frodo journeys, he moves closer to both Mordor and to his ultimate salvation, depicted in his being stripped of the Ring and the coming of the eagles.

Catholic Theologies and The Lord of the Rings. Hitherto, the discussion of this dissertation has focused primarily on an understanding of the manifest Catholic symbolism of LOTR. In this chapter, I will set out the principles of two Catholic philosophers whose work impacted upon Tolkien and his novels. Augustinianism During the first half of the twentieth century, nature and grace became the focal point of both the Vatican and lay Catholic philosophers Mitchell, The principles of the Neo-Thomist and Augustinian schools of thought came to the fore and subsequently, Catholic intellectuals such as Tolkien were confronted with these philosophies.

Many critics have considered the association between Tolkien and Augustine, notably Charles Moorman in his work The Precincts of Felicity. The Fellowship is composed of four hobbits, a wizard, an elf, a dwarf, and two men, and in its multiracial assemblage, the Fellowship recognises the Augustinian notion of people of all backgrounds coming together for universal success.

Neo-Thomism was so branded under his rule in direct response to, what Catholics perceived to be, the woes of the Enlightenment.

On September 1st, , Pius X issued Sacrorum antistitum: Tolkien would have been 18 at the time, but just a few years previous, whilst he was still under the guardianship of Father Francis, Pius X had issued the encyclicals Lamentabili and Pascendi dominici gregis against the 'faith corrupting force' of Modernism Bossert, 53 ; the Pope's stance was aggressive and uncompromising. These formative doctrines were monumental in the effort of shaping Catholic attitudes towards modernity, not only for clerics but for lay people also.

He argued thus that it is the duty of Catholics to conserve traditional modes of existence, against which he places other Christian denominations. Given Tolkien's devotion and closeness to his faith and his clerical guardian, we can be sure that these were ideas that he was not only susceptible to but also responsive towards.

The veneration of the natural world is something that I have touched upon in earlier parts of this dissertation, specifically in the contexts of Marian devotion and environmentalism. In direct contrast to the Free People of Middle Earth, whose faith remains in the supernatural facets of Middle Earth, stands the Armies of Sauron and in particular, his lieutenant Saruman.

Beware of his voice! He has a mind of metal and wheels; and he does not care for growing things, except as far as they serve him for the moment. Saruman therefore represents not only modernity and science, but the rejection of God. Verily, the members of the Fellowship are characterised by the strength of their will and the courage of their convictions and at the end, even the elves and the dwarves enter the Fourth Age as reconciled peoples Moorman, Nevertheless, such an interpretation would be redundant without an understanding of the Catholic origins of these novels.

In this respect, I believe that the central message of hope against all odds is a wholly Catholic one.